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J: A. BOWNOCKER, State Geologist 

Geological Survey of Ohio 

Volume XL 

Comprising Bulletins 12, 13, 14 and 15 of the 
Fourth Series 


Printed by The Springfield Publishing Co., Springfield, Ohio, 

To Governor James M. Cox: 

Dear Sir : I transmit herewith Volume XI of the Geological Survey 
of Ohio, consisting of Bulletins 12, 13, 14 and 15 of the Fourth Series. 

These bulletins have already been distributed, and are assembled in 
this form as provided by statute. By action of the last session of the 
General Assembly the publication of the bulletins in this form has been 
discontinued, and therefore this will close the series of volumes. 
Eespectfully submitted, 

J. A. Bownocker, State Geologist. 

Columbus, Ohio, May 15, 1913. 



The usefulness of the Survey is not limited to the preparation of 
formal reports on important topics. There is a constant and insistent 
desire on the part of the people to use it as a technical bureau for free 
advice in all matters affecting the geology or mineral industries of the 
State. A very considerable correspondence comes in, increasing rather 
than decreasing in amount, and asking specific and particular questions 
on points in local geology. 

The volume of this correspondence has made it necessary to adopt 
a uniform method of dealing with these requests. Not all of them can 
be granted, but some can and should be answered. There is a certain 
element of justice in the people demanding such information, from the 
fact that the geological reports issued in former years were not so dis- 
tributed as to make them accessible to the average man or community 
today. The cases commonly covered by correspondence may be classified 
as follows: 

1st. Bequests for information covered by previous publications. — 
This is furnished where the time required for copying the answer is not 
too large. "Where the portion desired cannot be copied, the enquirer is 
told in what volume and page it occurs and advised how to proceed to 
get access to a copy of the report. 

2nd. Bequests for identification of minerals and fossils. — This is 
done, where possible. As a rule the minerals and fossils are simple and 
familiar forms, which can be answered at once. In occasional cases, a 
critical knowledge is required and time for investigation is necessary. 
Each assistant is expected to co-operate with the State Geologist in 
answering inquiries concerning his field. 

3rd. Bequests from private individuals for analysis of minerals and 
ores, and tests to establish their commercial value. — Such requests are 
frequent. They cannot be granted, however, except in rare instances. 
Such work should be sent to a commercial chemical laboratory. The 
position has been taken that the Geological Survey is in no sense a 
chemical laboratory and testing station to which the people may turn 
for free analytical work. "Whatever work of this sort is done, is done 
on the initiative of the Survey and not at the solicitation of an inter- 
ested party. 

The greatest misapprehension in the public mind regarding the 
Survey is on this point. Requests for State aid in determining the 
value of private mineral resources, ranging from an assay worth a 
dollar up to drilling a test well costing several thousand dollars, rep- 
resent extreme cases. At present there is no warrant for the Survey 
making private tests, even where the applicant is entirely willing to 
pay for the service. In many cases individuals would prefer the re- 


port of a State chemist or State geologist to that of any private expert, 
at equal eost^ because of the prestige which such a report would carry. 
But it is a matter of doubt whether it will ever be the function of the 
Survey to enter into commercial work of this character ; it certainly will 
not be unless explicit legal provisions for it are made. 

4th. Bequests from a number of persons representing a diversity of 
interests, who jointly ash the Survey to examine into and publicly report 
upon some matter of local public concern. — Such cases are not common. 
It is not always easy to determine whether such propositions are really 
actuated by public interest or not. Each case must be judged on its 
merits. The Survey will often be prevented from taking up such inves- 
tigations by the lack of available funds, while otherwise the work would 
be attempted. 

The reputed discovery of gold is one of the most prolific sources of 
such calls for State examination. It usually seems wise and proper to 
spend a small sum in preventing an unfounded rumor from gaining 
acceptance in the public mind, before it leads to large losses and un- 
necessary excitement, The duty of dispelling illusions of this sort cannot 
be considered an agreeable part of the work of the Survey, but it is 
nevertheless of very direct benefit to the people of the State. 



Volume XI 




Bulletin 12, The Bremen Oil Field r 1 

By J. A. Bownocker. 

Bulletin 13, The Maxvtlle Limestone... - 67 

By William Clifford Morse. 

Bulletin 14, Geology of the Columbus Quadrangle.. 191 

By Clinton R. StaufTer, George D. Hubbard and J. A. Bownocker. 

Bulletin 15, The Devonian and Mississippian of Northeastern Ohio 323 

By Charles S. Prosser. \ 





October, J9J0 




The Bremen Oil Field: Its history, location, production and geology 7 


The Search for the Clinton Sand East and South of the Bremen Field. A 
record of the tests as far east as Muskingum County and as far south 
as the Ohio River 31 


The Search for the Clinton Sand North of the Bremen Field. The results 

of tests from Knox County to Lake Erie 51 




Plate I —Map of the Bremen Oil Field 10 

Plate II. — Partial View of the Bremen Pool, with the Village in the Background. 12 

Plate III. — The Crowding of Derricks Along the Southern Edge of Bremen. ... 14 

Plate IV. — Section from the Pleasantville Pool Southeast to McCuneville 20 

Plate V. — Section from Lancaster East to New Lexington 22 

Plate VI. — Section from Lake Erie South to the Ohio River 26 




The discovery of the Bremen oil field is a result of the close asso- 
ciation of oil and gas. As is well known, every oil well is to a greater 
or less extent a gas well, and large gas fields are seldom remote from oil. 
Gas was discovered in the Clinton at Lancaster February 1, 1887, and at 
Newark in May of the same year. 1 In the spring of 1888 the fuel was 
found at Thurston. These discoveries, while not large, were at widely 
separated localities and insured extensive drilling. The result was the 
discovery and development of one of the finest gas fields ever known. 

Oil, however, is usually more profitable than gas, and almost from 
the time of the discovery of the latter in the Clinton the search for oil 
has gone on. For years the result was discouraging, but the driller for 
oil is as persevering as the miner who seeks the precious metals. The 
first pool of commercial proportions secured in the Clinton formation 
was in Jackson Township along the northern border of Vinton County. 
In August, 1899, a well was completed, which, while not large, was 
profitable, and of course other holes were started at once, the result 
being the location and development of a small pool of oil. The second 
discovery of the fuel in a commercial way was in the southeastern corner 
of Knox County in August, 1904. In December of the following year 
a paying well was completed near Butler in the southeastern part of 
Richland County, and started flowing at an estimated rate of 200 barrels 
the first day. The oil was "water white/' and the field is one of the most 
remarkable yet found in Ohio, though it was not a large producer. 

In the early spring of 1907 a well was completed on the Weingartner 
farm between Pleasantville and Rushville in Fairfield County, and began 
flowing oil at approximately 75 barrels per day. In July of the same 
year a well was completed on land of Frank Kittle in the adjacent town- 
ship of Brush Creek and proved to be a success. These two wells mark 
the opening of the Bremen field and the real beginning of the Clinton 
as a source of oil. 

Location. — At present it includes parts of Rush Creek and Richland 
Townships of Fairfield County; Jackson, Reading and Pike Townships, 
and to a smaller extent several others of Perry County. As the map 
shows, it is not one large field, but rather a number of small more or 
less disconnected areas. Thus we have the Pleasantville, Rushville, 
Bremen, Junction City and Straitsville pools. Whether or not further 
drilling will unite these is an open question. At present the indications 

^rton, Edward. Geol.Surv. of Ohio, Vol. VI, pp. 370-372; also Bownocker, J. 
A., Bull. I, Fourth Ser., pp. 102, 106, 107. 



are that the field is somewhat spotted, but that the Bremen and Junction 
City pools, at least, will unite, forming a continuous area from Bremen to 
New Lexington. 

Early Drilling*— The discovery of this pool is due in no small meas- 
ure to the confidence and perseverance of one man, Mr. J. E. Purvis. 
Its subsequent development is likewise due quite largely to the same 
individual. Nearly twenty years ago he secured options on about 5,000 
acres of land around Bremen and attempted to organize a company to 
drill for oil. He believed that fuel was present because of the great reser- 
voirs of natural gas a few miles to the west. Failing to enlist the neces- 
sary capital, the options were lost, and two more attempts had to be 
made before drilling began. About 1895 the Rush Creek Oil & Gas Com- 
pany was organized, the capital stock at first being $10,000, but was 
increased later to $50,000. Stock to the value of $18,000 was sold. 

The first well was drilled early in 1896 on the Stewart farm a short 
distance north of Bremen. When a depth of 1,790 feet had been reached, 
a heavy flow of gas,estimated at 5,000,000 cubic feet per day, was encount- 
ered, and drilling ceased. Lines were laid to Bremen, Rushville and West 
Rushville, giving those villages their first supply of natural gas, but 
about eighteen months later a flood of salt water ruined the well. So 
favorable an impression did this well make on capitalists that $100,000 
was offered for the leases held by the company, which would have left 
$82,000 to be distributed among stockholders, but the offer was rejected. 

The next venture was on the Steamen farm, a mile and a quarter 
southeast of Bremen. The Clinton sand was found in 1896, at a depth 
of about 2,510 feet, and contained some oil, but the shales above the sand 
caved badly, and in about six months the well was abandoned without 
having shown what it was worth. Mr. Purvis thinks it would have pro- 
duced 15 barrels per day. 

The third effort of the company was on the Rowles farm, about the 
same distance southwest of Bremen. Fourteen months were consumed 
in drilling this well, which was less encouraging than either of the pre- 
ceding ones. At about this stage the company went into a receiver's 
hands, and the double liability law was enforced that debts might be 
paid. In this way the Rush Creek Oil & Gas Co. went out of existence. 

Late in 1896, Purvis, with two practical oil men, formed a partner- 
ship and drilled a well a mile and a quarter northeast of Bremen on the 
Nixon farm. The Clinton sand showed oil, but not enough, it was thought, 
to warrant shooting, so the well was abandoned and the partnership 

Within the next ten years Purvis took up leases two or three times, 
but could not raise the money necessary for drilling: In the spring of 
1907 oil was gotten in a well drilled for gas about seven miles northwest 
of Bremen. The coveted fuel had now been disclosed on three sides of 


the village, and naturally this strengthened the conviction of Purvis 
that oil in commercial quantities existed in the vicinity of Bremen and 
made possible the organization of the Bremen Gas & Oil Co. in 1907. 


Bremen PooL — On May 17, 1907, the company just named, and 
which was to play so important a part, was organized. The' capital 
stock was fixed at $50,000, in shares of $25.00; about four hundred and 
twenty-eight shares were sold and eighty additional ones were given 
in exchange for about 10,000 acres of land that had been leased by 
Purvis & Ruff, in Rush Creek Township, Fairfield County, and Jackson 
Township, Perry County, The board of directors chosen consisted of 
J. E. Purvis, A. F. Turner, L. Olive, L. H. Kennedy, Lewis E. Ruff, 
Charles Bloom and W. S. Turner, all of Bremen, Ohio. The board 
organized by electing A. F. Turner, President, and L. E. Huddle, Sec- 

The first place selected for testing was the farm of F. M. Kittle, on 
the northeast quarter of Section 11 of Rush Creek Township. No 
special reason existed for this location; it was simply one of the leases 
held by the company and was neither more nor less promising than 
other tracts. Drilling began June 12, 1907, and the tools penetrated the 
Clinton sand late in July. Some oil wsls found and the sand was shot with 
60 quarts of nitroglycerine that was hauled in a wagon from near Ma- 
rietta. In drilling, the casing extended simply to the base of the Berea, 
but when oil was found a string of 2,574 feet was set on the top of the 
Clinton, thus insuring a dry hole so far as water was concerned. After 
shooting, the well flowed several times, but the water proved too strong. 
When the casing had been inserted and the well cleaned, a pump was 
attached and the production started at 10 barrels per day. It is now 
(June, 1910), pumping about half that quantity. While this well was 
not much of a success it was encouraging, and in August a second one 
was begun. Stockholders urged that leases nearer Bremen be tested, 
and to satisfy them a location was made on the farm of G. W. Baldwin, 
just north of the village. The Clinton sand was found, but it was hard 
and without oil or gas. A shot of 80 quarts of nitroglycerine did not 
improve matters. 

These two wells, one a complete failure and the other a small pro- 
ducer, emptied the treasury of the company, but the stockholders with 
few exceptions doubled their shares and the drill was started again. 
The location was near their first well and on the farm of J. W. Huston, 
southeast quarter of Section 2'. The Clinton sand was penetrated about 
October 1, 1907, and began flowing oil at the approximate rate of 140 
barrels per day. Thus after nearly twenty years of effort Purvis began 
reaping his reward. The well was very profitable and in July, 1910, 
was pumping about 20 barrels each day. Naturally the company did 


not go far for its next location which was on the Householder farm, 
adjoining the Huston on the east. The Clinton sand was reached in 
February, 1908, and the well began flowing at the rate of 250 barrels 
per day; in July following, it was producing at the rate of 100 barrels, 
and two years later 10 barrels daily. Of course this well attracted 
wide attention and the rush to the new field began. Leases were sought 
after far. and near, and rentals as high as $12.50 an acre per year were 
paid. The Purvis farm joins the Householder on the east and a well 
completed on it July 10, 1908, began producing 300 barrels per day; 
by September 1, 1910, this rate had decreased to 8 barrels. 

Other wells were sunk by this company as fast as the drill could 
be forced down and with marked success, obtaining a daily production 
of 1,000 barrels in 1909 and maintaining this for the following 12 months 
or thereabouts. Stock rose rapidly in value and in May, 1909, sold 
as high as $625 a share. By January 1, 1910, twelve 50 per cent, div- 
idends had been paid. The oil commands the Pennsylvania price and 
sold for $1.78 per barrel during approximately the first two years of 
the company's history. It then began dropping and reached $1.30, 
at which it is now selling. ' By the close of 1909 the company had 
drilled 90 wells and 70 of these were producers. The decline in the price 
of oil naturally interfered with dividends, and by July 1, 1910, the stock 
had dropped to about $300 a share. By January 1, 1910, the Carter 
Oil Company had secured a controlling interest in the company, and 
its future is in the hands of that great corporation. Among its first 
acts was the sale at par and pro rata among the stockholders of the 
balance of the $50,000 treasury stock of the Bremen Gas and Oil Com- 
pany. It holds leases of about 8,000 acres in the Bremen field, and 
will doubtless develop that as rapidly as the condition of the market 
warrants. No dividends have been paid since January 1, 1910, and 
none were expected in the near future (July, 1910). 

Thus far, our review has been limited to the fortunes of the Bremen 
Company. Attention will next be given* briefly to a few of the scores 
of organizations that were formed early in the history of the develop- 
ment. The Avelon Oil & Gas Company was formed in January, 1908, 
by J. E.Purvis. The capital stock was $75,000, of which $41,000 
was sold at $25 a share. Purvis turned over to the company 
leases on about 2,500 acres, receiving as compensation $2,500 
in cash, $10,000 in stock and a promise of one-sixteenth of what- 
ever oil might be secured. Drilling began in the early spring 
of 1908, on the Elder farm, about a quarter of a mile northeast of the 
Householder, which proved so great a source of wealth to the Bremen 
Company. Only a show of oil was secured; the well was shot and then 
abandoned. The second attempt was on the Holliday farm, about 
three miles northeast of Bremen, and a 20-barrel producer secured. 
The third well was located about 200 feet to the west and proved a bo- 
nanza. Purvis states that it started at approximately 300 barrels 


a day, and averaged 200 barrels for 90 days. September 1, 1910, its 
production was 20 barrels. The company drilled in all aboutr 15 wells, 
11 of which were producers. Two dividends, each of 25 per cent., have 
been paid, and the stock has sold as high as $300 a share; July 1, 1910, 
the price was $25. 

The Planet Oil & Gas Company was organized late in 1907. It se- 
cured two leases about three miles east of Bremen, and drilled sixteen 
wells, all of which produced. The wells varied in output from 5 to 300 
barrels per day, and the profits were large, though the actual figures 
are not in possession of the Survey. 

The David Rodafer Oil & Gas Company, organized April 1, 1909, 
has been very successful. Its capital stock was $50,000, in shares of 
$25. The company secured control of the old Rodafer farm of about 
145 acres, giving the owners $22,500 in stock for the lease. The land joins 
Bremen — in fact, part is within the village — and is situated largely in 
the valley of Rush Creek. - Drilling began in June, 1909, and 17 wells, 
all producers, had been completed by July 1, 1910. In size these ranged 
from 5 to 375 barrels per day. The maximum production of the lease 
was 1,100 barrels a day, and on the date just mentioned was 800 barrels. 
The company has room for six or eight more wells, but reported that 
these would not be drilled at once. No dividends had been paid, the 
income having been used for development, but with the cessation of 
drilling, handsome returns should be received by the stockholders. 

The Great Expectation Oil & Gas Company was organized in the 
autumn of 1909. At first it had only one acre of ground optioned, and 
this was located about a half mile south of Bremen. A well drilled on 
this the same season began producing about 30 barrels of oil per day. 
The company then secured a half-acre lot in the village of Bremen, but 
outside of the corporation line, and on this a well was drilled. The ini- 
tial production, according to Purvis, was at a rate of 500 barrels per day, 
making it the largest producer from the Clinton sand yet secured. 
Strange to state, the company has not secured additional leases or drilled 
more wells, but is content with the results secured. By July 1, 1910, it 
had paid dividends of 650 per cent. 

From the first producing territory, about three miles northeast of 
Bremen, the drill moved in all directions, but with little success to the 
north and west. Southward the results were more favorable, and by 
1908 wells were being secured in the valley of Rush Creek. In the spring 
of 1909 the drill was at work near Bremen, and late in the year on town 
lots. Much money has been wasted in this enterprise — not only have 
wells been drilled on adjacent lots, but in at least one case two have been 
put down on the same lot. Sometimes the derricks were so close to- 
gether that there was scarcely room for the tools. Such crowding is a 
shameful waste of time and money, for what would be profitable with 
the usual spacing of wells must be unprofitable when a half dozen are 
drilled where one should be. By July 1, 1910, thirty wells, six of which 


were failures, had been drilled in Bremen, and three strings of tools were 
at work. * The productive territory appears to lie in the main along the 
eastern side of the town, but further drilling may extend it westward. 

During the first year the oil was pumped into tanks along the rail- 
road, and then run by gravity into tank cars. In 1908 the Buckeye 
Pipe Line Company erected a pumping station in the valley at Bremen, 
and laid a three-inch line. A little later this was replaced with a four- 
inch line, and this in turn with a six-inch. 

Having reviewed the history of the development around Bremen, 
attention will be given to other pools in the same part of the State. 

Pleasantville Pool*— In March. 1907, a well was completed on the 
Weingartner farm, Section 18 of Richland Township, Fairfield County, 
about midway between the villages Pleasantville and West Rushville. 
It will be noted that this was prior to the first well in the Bremen field- 
proper, which dates from July following. The well began flowing at 
the rate of about 75 barrels per day. Other wells were drilled as fast 
as the tools could be forced down, but by the- close of 1908 the limits 
of the field had been determined, and little drilling has been done since 
that time. The best well reported is on the Stevenson farm, and started 
flowing at about 200 barrels per day. 1 The producing territory includes 
parts of Sections 18 and 19, on which about a score of oil wells has been 
obtained. To the south a few gas wells have been secured, and immedi- 
ately to the west lies an arm of the great Central Ohio gas field. East- 
ward from the oil wells seven dry holes have been sunk, and no direct 
extension in that direction needs be expected. 

Rushville Pool* — The Rushville Oil & Gas Company drilled a well 
on the Wikoff farm, on the southeast quarter of Section 33, about one 
mile south of the village, in the summer of 1909, and secured a gas well 
that started producing 1,887,000 cubic feet per day. Two further at- 
tempts on the same farm brought similar results. The gas is disposed 
of to the Logan Gas & Fuel Company at five cents per thousand cubic 
feet. The next effort was on the Morehead farm, which joins the Wikoff 
on the north, the result being an oil well which started flowing at the 
rate of about 75 barrels the first day. Another test on this farm showed 
oil, but before the well had been cleaned and put to pumping the company 
sold ite holdings. The production is reported to have started at 30 barrels 
a day. A third well was completed on the same farm in the summer of 
1910 with favorable results, and two sets of tools were busy in the field. 
No dry holes were reported to the east, and an important extension may 
be made in that direction. Several gas wells are found farther west, 
though the production from these is not large, and two additional ones 
were secured near West Rushville, one in the valley near the T. & O. C. 
R. R. station and the other near the southeastern edge of the village. 
Four dry holes near these two wells dampen the enthusiasm of the 
prospector. * 

1 An analysis of the oil from this field may be found on page 17. 





Junction City P00L — Naturally the success achieved by drilling a 
few miles to the west aroused the enterprising citizens of Junction City, 
and on March 14, 1909, the Alberta Oil & Gas Company began drilling 
within the corporation. The Clinton sand was found at a depth of 
2,854 feet, and after shooting with 40 quarts it began flowing oil at 
the approximate rate of 150 barrels a day. By the middle of July, 1910, 
it still flowed occasionally, but the production had dropped to 15 barrels 
per day. The well was sufficient to start the boom, and others we;e 
sunk as rapidly as possible. By the date just given, 65 wells, only one 
of which was dry, had been completed within the corporation of 640 
acres, and three strings of tools were at work. Since March, 1910, work 
has been quieter and the excitement has subsided. Probably the de- 
crease in the price of oil and the fear of further reductions have been 
the most potent agency in checking the drill. Wells have varied greatly 
in size, from those scarcely large enough to warrant tubing to Crown 
No. 2, which was shot about December 1, 1909, and started flowing at 
the rate of 300 barrels a day. By the middle of the following July its 
daily output had dropped to 30 barrels. The Perry-Noble No. 3 was 
another large producer. It was shot April 16, 1910, and started flowing 
at the rate of 225 barrels a day. Three months later this had dropped 
to 45 barrels. Of the 65 wells in the corporation, not more than a half- 
dozen started at 10 barrels or less. Wells of this size are pumped from 
the start; others flow at first. 

Of the man} 7- companies formed in the Junction City field only five 
have paid dividends to date (July 15, 1910). These are as follows: The 
Holiday Oil & Gas Company, 20 per cent.; The Electric Oil & Gas Com- 
pany, 10 per cent.; The Alberta Oil & Gas Company, 10 per cent.; The 
Capitol Oil & Gas Company, 10 per cent.; and The Shamrock Oil & Gas 
Company, 10 per cent. The receipts, in large part, have generally been 
used for further drilling; otherwise dividends would have been larger. 
Much drilling has been done and is still in progress south and west of 
Junction City, the results being similar to those given for other parts of 
the Bremen field. The limits of the territory have not been determined. 

Some farms in the vicinity of Junction City have been leased since the 
drilling of the Kochensparger well in 1902. The price has varied from 50 
cents to $3.00 per acre, the common figure being $1.00. 

New Straitsville Pool— This lies in Sections 19 and 30 in the extreme 
northwestern corner of Coal Township. The first test of the Clinton 
sand was made on the Jones farm, southeast quarter of Section 19. The 
well was drilled by the Purvis-Martin Oil & Gas Company and was com- 
pleted July 4, 1909, the Clinton sand being struck at 3,202 and 
found 25 feet thick. For ten months the well averaged 22 y 2 barrels of oil 
per day. It was then cleaned and shot for the second time and con- 
tinued producing at the rate just mentioned. In August, 1909, the com- 
pany began its second well, located on the Martin land due south of the 
center of Section 30. The ' ' Big lime" was reached at 2,115 feet; at 2,725 


it yielded a heavy flow of brine and at one time the well contained more 
than 3,000 feet. The top of the Clinton sand was reached at 3,140 feet 
and the bottom at 3,168. It was shot with 60 quarts of nitroglycerine, 
but the only reward was a small flow of gas estimated at 250,000 cubic 
feet per day, and 2J^ barrels of oil. The gas was used for additional drill- 
ing, and the well is now pumped for oil. 

Well No. 2 on the Jones farm was located about 700 feet south of No. 
1, and was completed in November, 1909. The Clinton sand was found 
at a depth of 3,236 feet and the bottom at 3,261 giving it a thickness of 25 
feet. The top 4 feet of the sand were very soft and gave a heavy flow of 
gas, estimated at 2,000,000 cubic feet per day, but the closed or rock 
pressure was only 460 pounds. After a short time 1,200 feet of salt 
water appeared in the well and it was ruined. The source of this heavy 
flow of brine appears to be a mystery to the company, but it doubtless 
had its origin in the ' ' Big lime." The well was shot, but made no oil at 
all, and was abandoned. 

The fourth well of the company was Martin No. 2 and was located 
about 50 feet south of the center of Section 30. The desired sand was 
reached at 3,104 feet and measured 38 feet in thickness. The sand was 
not uniform; at the top it was quite soft while below a couple of small 
breaks seemed to be present. The sand was shot with a heavy charge — ■ 
about 100 quarts — and a 5-barrel well secured. The company next 
drilled Martin No. 3, about 1,400 feet due west of No. 2 and on the same 
farm. It was completed early in July, 1910, and was shot with 60 quarts, 
but the only reward was a showing of oil and some gas, and it will, in all 
probability, be abandoned. A location has been made north of the oil 
well on the Jones farm, but the result cannot be forcasted. 

The Columbus Hocking Coal & Iron Company has made two tests to 
the Clinton on its property in this township. The first was on the north- 
east quarter of Section 30. and was completed late in 1909. After hav- 
ing been shot with 60 quarts the well began producing at the rate of 35 
barrels a day, and this was maintained until the middle of the following 
May when an accident occurred stopping the well. The second test of 
this company was located 1,700 feet southeast of the first one. It was 
completed in December, 1909, and after having been shot with 60 quarts 
of nitroglycerine began flowing about 75 barrels of oil a day. By July 20 
of the ensuing year it was producing 50 barrels, thus demonstrating ex- 
cellent staying qualities. The well has never been pumped, but flows 
quite regularly at intervals of four hours. 

One additional well remains to be mentioned. This is on the farm of 
the Clancey heirs near the western edge of New Straitsville. It was 
drilled by the Ebenezer Oil & Gas Company and the Clinton sand was pen- 
etrated June 25, 1910. When visited the well had not been cleaned and 
connected with the tank,, so its capacity was not determined. The den- 
sity of the oil was 46° B. and the temperature 78° F. 1 The well head is 
760 feet above sea level, .and the Clinton sand, which was reached at a 

x For analysis of this oil see p. 17. 





depth of 3,106 feet, lies 2,346 below. Since this field was visited a well 
has been completed near the corporation line, the' sand, about 25 feet 
thick, having been struck at a depth of 3,129 feet. It began producing 
oil at from 30 to 40 barrels a day. 

The Clinton sand in this pool is persistent and quite thick. Its color 
is usually gray and its texture varies from well to well. Little or no 
water occurs in the sand, but it is abundant in the "Big lime." 

Acknowledgment is made to Hon. E. S. Martin, of New Straits- 
ville, for the facts pertaining to this pool. 

Production of the Field, — This is shown by the following which has 
been provided by the Buckeye Pipe Line Co., Macksburg Division. As 
wiirbe seen the production has risen irregularly to May, 1910, when the 
maximum was reached. Less drilling and hence fewer new wells since 
that time are responsible for the decrease. The indications are that the 
output will continue to shrink for months hence, and it may be that the 
productionof May last will not again be equaled. 


August 1907 1,245.08 

September, 1907 1,186.98 

October 1907 1,515.48 

November 1907 4,810.72 

December 1907 7,940.13 

16,698.39 Barrels. 

January 1908 . 14,263.35 

February 1908 14,292.30 

March 1908 18,082.39 

April 1908 18,377.23 

May 1908 24,002.01 

June 1908 29,542.68 

July 1908 33,749.72 

August . 1908 38,849.75 

September 1908 . 33,815.16 

October 1908 31,335.44 

November 1908 29,561.17 

December 1908 36,280.90 

322,152.10 Barrels. 

January 1909 33,086.44 

February 1909 30,970.54 

March 1909 38,420.87 

April 1909 39,324.70 

May 1909 42,163.97 

June 1909 58,182.32 

July 1909 • 65,289.10 

August 1909 77^892.90 

September 1909 96,287.54 

October 1909 109,473.33 

November 1909 104,583.97 

December 1909 103,608.09 

799,283.77 Barrels. 


January 19i0 120,524.22 

February 1910 119,172.23 

March 1910 152,223.95 

April 1910 171,413.42 

May 1910 184,544.11 

June 1910 164,814.51 

July 1910 147,473.80 

August 1910 148,822.76 

September 1910 134,172.88 

1,343,161.88 Barrels. 

Grand total 2,481,296.14 Barrels. 

Composition of Oil* — This has been determined by the United 
States Geological Survey, in co-operation with the Geological Survey 
of Ohio. A representative of the latter organization collected the samples 
and had them delivered at Washington, where the analytical work was 
done. All samples were taken directly from the well and then soldered. 
The results may be found on page 17. 

Commenting on these analyses, Dr. David T. Day, of the United 
States Geological Survey, says: "The analyses of the Clinton oils sub- 
mitted herewith show them to. differ in no respect from the character- 
istic southwestern Pennsylvania oils and the light oils of West Virginia. 
They are characteristic Appalachian oils, yielding, as usual, considerable 
amounts of gasoline and a large percentage of illuminating oil. It is a 
curious circumstance that the dark green oil No. 3 should yield more 
gasoline than the light amber oil, which has evidently been filtered 
more thoroughly through dry shales. The great similarity between 
these oils and those of Pennsylvania and West Virginia is shown by 
the considerable proportion of paraffin wax and the" low percentage 
of unsaturated hydrocarbons in the crude oil and in the burning dis- 
tillate. It is hoped that in a short time further distillation of these 
oils can be made, by which the quality of the individual hydrocarbons 
may be estimated." 
f> The Engler method for the distillation of samples of petroleum 
consists of very definite conditions for a fractional distillation in which 
the size of the flask, the rate of distillation, and in general all the man- 
ipulation processes are very specifically described. 

The fraction designated as "To 150° C." includes the benzine and 
gasoline fraction or crude naphtha of the trade. 

The fraction "150°-300°" includes the burning oil distillate or 

The fraction "Residuum" includes heavy lubricating oils, paraffin 
oils, etc. 

The columns headed "Unsaturated Hydrocarbons" represent the 
portion of the oil that is removed by treatment with sulphuric acid in 
the process of refining. 




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The territory is drained by Rush Creek and its tributaries, chief 
of which is North Fork. The valleys attain a maximum width of nearly 
a mile, and are very flat and usually poorly drained. The uplands 
vary from gently rolling to hilly; the Pleasantville pool illustrates the 
former and all others, outside of the valleys, the latter. In the western 
part of the field the surface rocks belong to the Mississippian (Lower 
Carboniferous), while farther east they lie in the Pennsylvanian (Coal 
Measures). Everywhere they consist essentially of sandstones and 

The surface rocks in the western part of the field lie at about the 
stratigraphical horizon of the "Big Injun" series which is so important 
a source of oil in the extreme southeastern part of Ohio and in West 
Virginia, but is void of both oil and gas in the Bremen field. The Berea 
sandstone is everywhere found at its proper horizon and occasionally 
makes a show of oil or gas. At Goble's station, near Junction City, 
several wells in this formation supply fuel for a brick yard and at Corning 
the rock has yielded oil in a commercial way for nearly 20 years. 1 

Well Records, — The thickness of the Clinton sand, its dip and po- 
sition with reference to overlying formations, and the varying thick- 
ness of the latter are shown by well records. Starting in the Pleasant- 
ville pool and running southeast to McCuneville, near Shawnee, a dis- 
tance of seventeen miles, conditions were found as follows: 

Pleasantville pool; Ruff well No. 2, southeast quarter of Section 
18; well head 975 feet above sea level: 

Thickness. To bottom of 
Feet. formation. 

,. Feet. 

Drive pipe 175 175 

Berea sand 25 610 

Casing 6M inch., 610 feet. 

Bedford and Ohio shales 880 1,490 

Big lime 710 2,200 

Casing 5 -j\ inch., 2,211 feet. 
Clinton sand 41 2,364 

Gas at 2,331 feet. 

Oil at 2,339 feet. 
Total depth 2,368 

This well produces oil in paying quantity, but so little water that 
it is a question whether any exists in the sand. 

Kennedy No. 1, in valley of Rush Creek, near the station Rushville, 
well head 860 feet above sea level. Authority, S. W. Friesner, West 
Rushville, Ohio: 

^ownocker, J. A. Geol. Surv. of Ohio, Fourth Ser., Bull. I, pp. 257-265. 


Thickness. To bottom of 
Feet. formation. 


Drive pipe, 8 inch 37 37 

Berea sand 35 667 

Casing 6^ inch, 667 feet. 

Bedford and Ohio shales 990 1,657 

"Big lime" 750 2,407 

Casing 5 T %- inch., 2,229 feet. 

Clintonsand 32 2,483 

This well, which is situated two and one-half miles nearly due 
southeast of the preceding one, shows a thickening of 110 feet in the 
shales lying between the Berea and "Big lime" and 40 feet in the "Big 
lime" itself. In the Ruff well the Clinton sand is 1,348 feet below sea 
level and in the Kennedy, 1,591, a drop of 243 feet, or 97 to the mile. 
This well produces gas. 

The next well is Householder No. 1, on Section 2 in the Bremen 
pool; well head 835 feet above sea level. Authority, W. S. Turner, 
Bremen, Ohio. 

Thickness. To bottom of 
Feet. formation. 


Drive pipe 49 49 

Berea sand 710 

Bedford and Ohio shales 975 1,685 

"Big lime" 790 2,475 

" Big water" at 2,185 feet. 

Clinton sand 34 2,619 

Bottom of well 2,620 

This well, which is 3§ miles southeast of the Kennedy, shows a de- 
crease of 15 feet in the thickness of the Bedford and Berea shales and an 
increase of 40 feet in the ' ' Big lime." The top of the Clinton sand lies 
1,750 feet below sea level, a drop of 159 feet from the Rushville well, or 
more than 43 feet per mile. As stated elsewhere the Householder began 
flowing 250 barrels a day. 

Continuing southeast the valley of Bush Creek is reached at Flag- 
dale, where the following record was secured from well No. 8, T. L. Griggs 
farm; elevation of well head 805 feet. Authority, Schrier and Kerr: 

Thickness. To bottom of 
Feet. formation. 


Mantle rock 55 55 

Drive pipe 10 inch, 56 feet. 

Big Injun sand 100 235 

Berea sand 33 718 

Casing 8 inch, 720 feet. 

Bedford and Ohio shales t 1,032 .1,750 

"Big lime" 798 2,548 

Casing 6^ inch, 2,425 feet. 

Clinton sand 33 2,708 

Total depth 2,717 


This well is about 2j miles southeast of the Householder and shows 
an increase in thickness of the "Big lime" of 8 feet; in the Bedford and 
Ohio shales of 57 feet, and a drop in the position of the Clinton sand of 
120 or 48 feet to the mile. It produces oil in commercial quantities. 

One more record is needed to complete this section within the limits 
assigned, and that is at McCuneville. The well head is 797 feet above 
ocean level, and the record provided by L. C. Laube follows: 

Thickness. To bottom of 
Feet. formation. 


Drive pipe 17 inches 17 17 

Through salt sand at 370 feet 

Casing 10 inch, 370 feet. 

Berea sand 15 850 

Bedford and Ohio shales 1,245. 2,095 

"Big lime" 870 2,965 

"Big water" at 2,755 feet. 

Lime and shells at 3,094 feet . 

Clinton sand 32 3,148 

Bottom of well, 3,165 feet. 

In comparison with the well at Flagdale this shows a thickening in 
the Bedford and Ohio shales of 213 feet; the i ' Big lime" of 72 feet, and a 
drop in the place of the Clinton sand of 449 feet or 52 feet to the mile. 

For the sake of ready reference the dips of the sand are grouped 

Pleasantville Pool to West Rushville 97 feet per mile 

West Rushville to Householder well .43 " " " 

Bremen Pool to Flagdale 48 " " " 

Flagdale to McCuneville.. 52 " '" " 

Average dip 57 " " " 

These figures show a varying dip, the greatest to the northwest and 
the least near the middle. It will be noted that they do not indicate an 
anticline — a structure that many geologists and prospectors regard as 
essential to oil or gas in marketable quantities. Plate IV shows diagram- 
matically these features and others of interest. 

To show the changes in the formations along an east-west line a 
number of records from Lancaster to the vicinity of New Lexington will 
next be given. 

Well drilled in 1886 in valley of Hocking River at Lancaster; eleva- 
tion 812 feet. Authority, Edward Orton: 

Thickness. To bottom of 
Feet. formation. 


Drift 132 132 

Cuyahoga and Sunbury shales 268 400 

Berea sand '. 20 420 

Bedford and Ohio shales 630 1,050 

"Big lime" 700 1,750 

Clinton sand at about 1,955 feet. 

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The next record is that of Morrow No. 1 at Berne, 5i miles east of 
Lancaster; elevation of well head 815 feet. Authority, The Logan Gas & 
Fuel Company. 

Thickness. To bottom of 
Feet. formation. 


"Big lime" 710 2,150 

Clinton sand 35 2,298 

These two records show a thickening of the "Big lime'' of 10 feet, 
and a dip of the Clinton sand of 305 feet or 55 feet to the mile. Both 
were gas wells, the first small, while the second started flowing at the rate 
of 1,250,000 cubic feet per day. 

Three and one-half miles east brings us to Bremen, where the' under- 
ground succession is well known. Rodafer well No. 13 at edge of village; 
elevation of well head 800 feet. Authority, Schrier & Kerr: 

Thickness. To bottom of 
Feet. formation. 


Mantle rock 40 40 

Casing 8 inch, 43 feet. 

Berea sand 25 650 

Casing 6^ inch, 655 feet. 

Bedford and Ohio shales 935 1,585 

"Big lime" 770 2,355 

Heavy flow of water at 2,115 feet 2,115 

Clinton sand 30 2,488 

Bottom of well 2,493 feet. 

Here the "Big lime" is 770 feet thick, an increase of 17 feet to the 
mile, while the Clinton sand lies 1,658 feet below sea level, an increase of 
210 feet or a dip of 60 feet to the mile. 

The next record is Welch No. 8, northeast quarter of Section 19, 
Jackson Township, Perry County, two miles south of Flagdale; elevation 
of well head 864 feet. Authority, J. J. Klise: 

Thickness. To bottom of 
Feet. formation. 


Drive pipe 35 35 

Berea sand 40 800 

Casing 8% inch, 800 feet. 

Bedford and Ohio shales 1,060 1,860 

"Big lime" 780 2,640 

Casing 6f inch, 2,544 feet. 

Cave from 2,640 to 2,774 feet. 
Clinton sand 31 2,805 

Pay rock 2,789 to 2,774 feet. 
Bottom of well, 2,805 feet. 

This well began producing oil at the rate of 25 barrels a day. It is 4 
miles east of Bremen and shows an increase of 10 feet in the ' ' Big lime ' ' 


and 125 feet in the Bedford and Ohio shales. Wells in this vicinity show 
that the surface of the Clinton sand is gently rolling, but no relation was 
found between the elevations and depressions and the production of oil. 

The last of this group of records is on the Lefever farm, Section 13 of 
Pike Township, three miles south of east of New Lexington; elevation 
of well head 831 feet above ocean level. Authority, J. J. McGonagle: 

Thickness. To bottom of 
Feet. formation. 


Conductor . . . .- 17 17 

Flow of water at 62 feet. 
Berea sand 15 960 

Casing 6-| inch, 960 feet. 

Bedford and Ohio shales 1,345 2,305 

"Big lime" 800 3,105 

Heavy flow of water at 2,993 feet. 

Casing 5 T 3 ¥ inch, 3,290 feet. 

Shales 195 3,300 

Clinton sand 35 3,335 

The sand was of poor quality and was without oil or gas. This well 
is ilO miles east and one mile north of Welch No. 8, and shows a thicken- 
ing in the Bedford and Ohio shales of 285 feet and in the ' ■ Big lime ' ' of 
20. The Clinton sand is 2,469 feet below sea level, a drop of 559 or 59 
feet to the mile. 

As a summary it may be stated that from Lancaster to the Lefever 
well southeast of New Lexington, a distance of 23 miles, the Bedford and 
Ohio shales have increased 715 feet in thickness, an average of 31 feet to 
the mile; the "Big lime" has thickened 100 feet or more than 4 feet to 
the mile, and the Clinton sand has dipped 1,326 feet, an average of 57 
per mile. It should be noted that the dip of the sand does not vary 
greatly, as the following summary shows* 

Lancaster to Berne 55 feet per mile. 

Berne to Bremen 60 feet per mile. 

Bremen to Welch No. 8 63 feet per mile. 

Welch No. 8 to Lefever No. 1 56 feet per mile. 

These figures not only do not show an anticline, but the larger dip in 
the vicinity of Bremen and the Welch well indicates rather the reverse. 
The structure of the sand may be likened to a very shallow basin tipping 
to the east and south. Pools usually show low folds with intervening 
depressions, but oil was found in both places. 

Having shown the changes in the principal formations to the east 
and southeast, a record will next be given of a well in the New Straits- 
ville pool; this is Martin No. 3. Authority, Hon. E. S. Martin: 


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Thickness. To bottom of 
Feet. formation. 


Drive pipe 50 50 

First water at 75 feet. 

Second water at 380 feet. 

Berea sand 20 940 

Bedford shales (red) 60 1,000 

f Black, 20 ft 1 

Ohio shales 1 " Little Cinnamon," 30 ft. . I 1,170 2,170 

["Big Cinnamon," 25 ft. . . . J 

"Big lime" 820 2,990 

Clinton sand 17 3,192 

Bottom of well 3,213 feet. 

The elevation of this well head was not determined, but that of 
the Clancey heirs is 760 feet. The oil sand in that was reached at a 
depth of 3,106 feet and therefore lies 2,346 feet below ocean level. This 
is a drop of 212 feet from Junction City and 688 feet from Bremen. 

The Clinton Sand* — This is unique in that it nowhere outcrops 
in the State. Not that the associated strata fail to rise to the surface, 
for they may be seen in a broad belt extending from Preble to Adams 
Counties in the southwestern part of the State. The sand in question, 
which nowhere has been reported more than 102 feet thick in Ohio, 
thins rapidly to the west and disappears before the longitude of the Scioto 
River is reached. At any rate, no wells that far west have reported 
the Clinton sand. Wells in such places record nothing but shales between 
the base of the "Big lime" and the red rock usually called Medina. 

The sand has not been reported farther south than Washington 
Township, Jackson County, but its horizon has not been reached farther 
south, with the exception of Mt. Vernon and Ironton, Lawrence County, 
where no sand was found. 1 To the north it has been traced to Lake 
Brie, and is there a source of gas in commercial quantities. Eastward it 
has been found in Olmsted Township, Cuyahoga County, and at 
Wooster. In central Ohio it has not been reported farther east 
than Muskingum County, and in Crooksville and near Roseville in 
eastern Perry County. There is no reason to believe however, that 
the sand is not present farther east, but its depth is such that the drill 
has not penetrated it. Facts will later be stated concerning the sand 
in the Vinton, Knox, and Richland County pools, and it remains now 
to state the record for the Bremen field. Later, the many tests in ter- 
ritory that has not proven a source of oil or gas will be reviewed. 

Like most sands, the Clinton has no characteristics that serve to 
distinguish it from others, and few men with experience would be so 
rash as to say whether a given hand specimen is Clinton or not. Com- 
monly the color is gray, but the shade may change to brick-red, and both 
may be a source of oil. Especially is this true near Bremen, but in all 
directions from that village the red color usually fades away. The rock is 
commonly fine-grained and compact. Anyone basing his knowledge of oil 

^ests have also been made near Oak Hill, Jackson County and Vinton, Gallia 
County, but neither reported the Clinton sand. 


sands on the coarse open-textured varieties represented by the Cow Run 
and Big Injun would look with scant favor on the Clinton. Wells generally 
make a poor showing until after being shot, indicating a compact sand. 

The sand in the Bremen field is persistent, rarely wanting. Twenty 
wells selected at random in the Bremen pool showed thicknesses rang- 
ing from 4 to 38 feet, with an average of 29 feet. Those in the New 
Straitsville pool found the sand more uniform, varying from 17 to 38 
feet and averaging 27 feet. Wells near Junction City give similar 
results, and this is true also in the Pleasantville pool. 

In no other oil rock in Ohio are similar conditions found with ref- 
erence to salt water. Generally an oil well pumps several times as 
much brine as oil, but in the Clinton sand — everywhere in Ohio — the 
reverse is true. Some of the drillers of wide experience maintain that 
the rock is free from water and that the little occasionally found has 
worked down from the "Big lime." Others take the view that the 
sand in places contains a small quantity of water. Considering the 
small volume found and that some wells pump none at all, as well as 
the chances for water to work down around the casing or through leaky 
joints, leads the writer to the conclusion that the sand is normally 
free from water when first penetrated by the drill. 

The closed or rock pressure of gas wells is commonly regarded as due 
to the weight of a column of water; that is, to hydrostatic pressure. 
Occasionally gas wells in the Bremen field register 700 pounds or even 
more to the square inch, and yet the fuel comes from a formation that 
is free or nearly so from water and that is imbedded in shales that are 
impervious. The same is true in the great gas fields of Central Ohio. 
These facts demonstrate that water is not the cause or even a factor 
in the rock pressure of gas in* the Clinton sand. 

The dip of the sand has been indicated on preceding pages and is 
shown on Plates IV and V. Gas, when found, is nearly always in the 
higher parts of the formation, that is, along its western border, and oil at 
greater depth to the east. It is a common theory that oil rests on the 
surface of salt water and rises or falls with this liquid. That cannot 
apply in the Bremen field for the reason little or no brine is present, and 
it is a reasonable assumption that the oil accumulates in the depressions 
where the Clinton sand is sufficiently open textured to store it. 

Shales between the Clinton Sand and the "Big lime". — The 
position of the oil rock with reference to the "Big lime" varies from 
pool to pool and to a smaller extent from well to well. In that part 
of the Bremen pool first drilled, five wells selected at random showed 
intervals ranging from 113 to 140 feet with an average of 126. In the 
valley of Rush Creek near Flagdale six wells gave figures varying from 
117 to 142 feet, an average of 128. Near the village of Bremen the 
interval is less, seven wells showing variations from 88 to 115 feet and 
averaging 103. At ; New Straitsville, farther south, the interval is 
notably larger, five wells averaging 171 feet. 

This interval is occupied by shales with occasional thin layers of 


shaly limestone, known as shells among drillers. A workman of large 
experience in the Bremen pool gave the succession as follows: 

Base of "Big lime" Feet. 

Shales, lead color 55 

Shales, green color , 30 

Shales and shells 20 

Shales, red 5 

Top of Clinton sand. 

Following is a partial record from a well near .Sugar Grove, sam- 
ples of the drillings having been collected by the writer: 1 

Base of the " Big lime." Feet. 

Shales, light chocolate color; some lime 36 

Shales, green and chocolate colors, the latter f ossilif erous ; 

some lime 31 

Shales, green and chocolate colors; much lime 37 

Top of Clinton sand. 

Doubtless the shales vary somewhat in color as in other properties, 
from well to well. The red band reported in the Bremen pool is quite 
persistent and is one of the guides to the driller. It has been confused 
with the red shales lying below the Clinton and commonly known as 
Medina. In such cases the driller concludes that he has passed the 
horizon of the desired sand, when in fact he has not reached it. 
' The "Big lime" — In nearly every oil and gas field some formation 
or formations exist to serve as a guide to the driller. Thus in the shallow 
sand territory of Morgan, Noble and Washington Counties, the Ames or 
Crinoidal and the Cambridge limestones serve in this capacity. Farther 
east the "Big lime" is the great guide. This name is used for 
another formation already referred to a score or more times in this bulle- 
tin, and it is very important that the two be not confused. 

The ' ' Big lime ' ' of southeastern Ohio is the Maxville limestone of 
this State and the Greenbrier of West Virginia. It forms the summit of 
the Mississippian (Lower Carboniferous) rocks and hence lies high above 
the ' c Big lime ; ' of the Clinton fields which represents the lower part of 
the Devonian and nearly the whole of the Silurian (Upper Silurian). 

The Maxville or "Big lime" attains a maximum thickness of 110 
feet in Ohio, but thins rapidly to the northwest and is seldom re- 
ported by the driller beyond the middle of Washington and Monroe 
counties. Occasionally it has a little oil or gas, but the formation is not 
rated as one of the commercial sources of either of these fuels. Im- 
bedded in rocks, otherwise without limestone, it serves admirably as a 
guide to the driller. Interesting to report, this formation lies above drain- 
age in parts of Muskingum County and others to the southw r est. It was 
named from Maxville Perry County, where a fine exposure may be seen. 

The 1 1 Big lime" of the Clinton sand territory lies much lower in the 
geological column and comprises nearly the whole of the Silurian (Upper 
^ownocker, J. A. Geol.Surv. of Ohio, Fourth Ser., Bull. I, p. 118. 



Silurian) and the lower part of the Devonian. The relative positions of 
the two ' ' Big limes ' ' are shown below: 

' Maxville limestone f The "Big lime 17 of South- 

\ eastern Ohio. 


(Lower Carboniferous) 

{Keener sand. 
Big Injun sand. 
Squaw sand. 
Berea sand. 

{Ohio shales. 
Delaware limestone . 
Columbus limestone 

Silurian . 

Monroe or " Lower 
Helderberg" limestone 

| Niagara limestone 

Clinton limestone 

'Big lime" of the Clinton 
sand fields. 

As is well known, the Columbus and Delaware formations outcrop 
as a narrow strip from Pickaway County north to Lake Erie, while the 
remaining members of the 1 1 Big lime ' ' are found at or near the surface 
over much the larger part of the western half of the State. 

In thickness the formation varies in different parts of Ohio. Its 
greatest measurement was at Newburg near Cleveland where it is about 
1,700 feet, but according to Orton 1 800 feet of this belongs to the Salina, 
a formation that is wanting in central and southern Ohio. Westward 
it thins, measuring 1,325 feet near Avon, Elyria County, and 1,150 feet at 
Sandusky. Abundant figures and illustrations have already been given 
to demonstrate its variation in thickness in Central Ohio. Passing 
south from Lake Erie the formation again thins. It measures 1,100 feet 
in Jackson Township, Ashland County; 863 feet near Bladensburg, Knox 
County; 817 feet near Clay lick, Licking County; 780 feet at Bremen; 
725 feet at Logan; 590 feet in northern Jackson County, and 584 feet at 
Ironton on the bank of the Ohio River. These facts are shown diagram- 
matic&lly on Plate VI. 

In the Bremen field the ' ' Big lime ' ' is fairly uniform in character. 
Rarely or never is it broken by shales; in other words, it is a massive 
formation or rather group of formations, all of limestone. Drillers speak 
of the top 150 feet as "gritty" and hard to drill. Occasionally it shows 
a little black oil. Water is found in it at various depths and in varying 
quantities; near Bremen the heaviest flow is found at about 550 feet. It 
may fill the hole or when the flow is light may be controlled with the 
bailer. Where the water is abundant the rock drills easily, indicating a 
very porous structure. Near its base the "Big lime" is reported of a 
darker color, softer, and occasionally streaked with shales. 

The Survey is indebted to Mr. J. J. McCarten, of Bremen, for an 
excellent set of drillings from Holliday well No. 8, Section 12, of Rush 
^rton. Edward. Geol. Surv. of Ohio. Vol. VI, p. 356. 

H3AIX omo V 

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Creek Township, Fairfield County. Thirty-three of the samples are from 
the "Big lime," and on the basis of chemical composition and physical 
properties they may be classified as follows: 

Columbus limestone. 50 feet. Calcareous. Gray color. 

Monroe limestone. 275 feet. Magnesian. Dark gray color, con- 
trasting in this respect sharply with the Columbus limestone. 
Some gypsum at from 125 to 200 feet in the formation. 

Niagara limestone. 360 feet. Magnesian. Light gray color 
changing to brown in lower part. Drillings fine, resembling 
sand grains. These drillings in size and color make a sharp 
contrast with those of the Monroe limestone. 

Clinton limestone. 95 feet. Calcareous. Dark gray at top, 
changing to various tints below with slate color at base. 

In the vicinity of Sugar Grove a layer of sand is occasionally re- 
ported in the "Big lime" and may yield a good flow of gas. The same 
condition has been found in Ashtabula County, 1 while in Lucas County a 
sandstone in the Monroe limestone ("Lower Helderberg") has long been 
quarried for making glass. As the "Big lime" is followed north and 
south from Bremen it shows little change, except in thickness, until the 
northern counties are reached, when rock salt appears. The latter point 
will be referred to again in the review of Wayne, Medina and Lorain 

The Ohio Shales* — This great formation and the Bedford shales — 
the latter lying immediately below the Berea sand — occupy the great 
interval between the latter and the "Big lime." Quite commonly the 
Bedford has a red color, and then may easily be distinguished from the 
Ohio shales, but when the color is that of slate, or dark gray, green Or 
black, the usual colors of the Ohio shales, it is difficult or impossible for 
the driller to determine where the Bedford terminates below. These 
shales outcrop along the shores of Lake Erie almost as far west as San- 
dusky, and from there south across the state to the Ohio River. The 
Ohio shales have been described in our State reports for the past forty 
years, and nothing more than the salient features will be attempted here. 
As is well known, they consist of shales only, but along the Ohio River 
in the eastern part of the State they have been reported, a very few times, 
to contain a thin bed of sandstone, the western extension of one of the 
oil bearing rocks of Pennsylvania. Their color varies from dark gray, 
through green to black, and the texture is that of clay. In other words, 
they are composed of aluminous particles rather than sand. Their com- 
position varies rapidly, horizontally as well as vertically, and this has 
operated against their use in the manufacture of clay products. Con- 
cretions of various kinds are abundant, and constitute the most impor- 
tant structural feature of the formation. The most striking feature, 
however, to the driller for oil or gas has already been specifically pointed 
out, and will simply be mentioned here; the shales thicken to the east 
and south, and hence increase the interval between the Berea sand and 

^ownocker, J. A. Geol. Surv. of Ohio, Fourth Ser., Bull. I, p. 303. 


the "Big lime." At McConnelsville, on the Muskingum River, they meas- 
ure 1,739 feet. The variations from the lake to Ironton have already 
been shown on Plate VI, and further consideration of that matter will 
not be given here. * 

The importance of these variations and those of the "Big lime" are 
of the first grade to the driller. It increases the dip of the Clinton sand, 
and hence its depth, limiting the territory in which it is accessible. 
Along the Ohio River in eastern Ohio, the shales may be 3,000 feet thick, 
and manifestly the Clinton sand is at such a depth that it cannot be a 
commercial source of fuel. In the vicinity of Zanesville this formation 
is reached at a depth of 3,543 feet, 1 and in the writer's judgment this 
is about the maximum depth to which drilling will extend in Ohia 
under existing conditions. 

The Ohio shales have long been a source of gas along the lake shore. 
Usually a well supplies heat and light for a residence, and occasionally 
for several, but the supply is never large. The gas is not found at any 
one horizon, and hence the depth varies. In central Ohio the shales 
contain less fuel, and these are not a source of gas in a commercial way. 
In Pennsylvania this great formation contains a number of important 
oil and gas rocks, such as the Bradford, McDonald and Gordon sands. 
Westward these thin and disappear, or practically so, by the time the 
Ohio River is reached. Many wells for one or the other have been sunk 
in eastern Ohio, but the result in every case has been failure. 

The Bei-ea Sand, — This is the last formation in the ascending col- 
umn that will be considered, and only a few sentences will be given to 
it. The formation outcrops in much the same way and places as the 
Ohio shales. It is very persistent, and has been penetrated by the drill 
in every county where due, and in many of them scores of times. Well 
records already given and those which follow show its thickness in many 
counties. Farther east and south it is thinner, but nearly always pres- 
ent. As is well known, it is a valuable source of oil and gas in Jefferson, 
Belmont, Washington, Perry and other counties, and in eastern Ohio 
is the lowest available source of these fuels. 

Formations- Below the Clinton Sand — These are well shown for 
this part of the state by the following well record: Grouse Well No. 1, 
Section 32, Pleasant Township, Fairfield County; completed August 19, 
1907. Authority, B. S. Stretton: 

Drive pipe 

Casing 6}£ inch, 605 feet. 
"Big lime" top at 1,378 feet. 

Casing 5 inch, 2,044 feet. 
Clinton sand 




To bottom of 




*For well record see p. 35. 




To bottom of 









red 8 feet. 

blue 76 fee.t. 

Medina (?) <j pale red 90 feet. 

green 40 feet. 

red 70 feet. 

blue 75 feet. 

slate and shells 100 feet. 

white shells 90 feet. 

dark 28 feet. 

shells 90 feet. 

harder shales 121 feet. 

black shells 35 feet. 

white shells 12 feet. 

dark shells 27 feet. 

blue at 2,224 feet... 

Ordovician J pale red at 2,300 feet. 

shales. | green at 2,390 feet. 

red at 2,430 feet. 

blue at.. 2,500 feet. 

slate and shells 

(100 ft.) 2,575 feet. 

white shells at 2,675 feet. 

green at 2,765 feet. 

dark at 3,078 feet. 

shells at 3,106 feet. 

shells at 3,196 feet. 

black shells 3,396 feet. 

flight shells at 3431 feet.. 

Trenton limestone at 3,470 feet. 
Bottom of well at 3,569 feet. 

This shows an interval of 1,285 feet between the Clinton and Tren- 
ton. At Amanda, approximately ten miles to the southwest, the same 
interval measures 1,193 feet. Persons desiring the thickness of the Tren- 
ton and information on the formations below it should consult the record 
of the test at Waverly on page 48. 


This varies but little from other deep sand territory in the Appa- 
lachian field. At first the wells were drilled "wet" — that is, casing was 
inserted at the base of the Berea, and none other was used until the Clin- 
ton sand was reached. As already stated, heavy, flows of brine were 
found in the "Big lime," especially at from 500 to 600 feet in that for- 
mation, and that greatly retarded the progress of the drill by its buoy- 
ant action on the hemp cable. This objection, however, was later over- 
come by using a wire cable in place of hemp from the water down. At 
present the casing is hung on a disc packer which is usually set just 
below the place of the heavy flow. In other words, the casing is hung 
in the well rather than placed on the Clinton sand. The long column 
of water may crowd the oil away from the hole, thus diminishing the pro- 
duction, and may enter the sand, producing possible evil effects. 

30 BEEMBN 01]*, FIELD. 

These difficulties may be overcome by drilling "dry." In this 
method casing is set just below the Berea, and another string below the 
heavy flow of water in the "Big lime." Sometimes several flows are found 
and it may be necessary to recase each time, adding materially to the 
labor. Worse still, the shales lying above the Clinton sand cave badly, 
necessitating a liner between that formation and the base of the "Big 
lime." This increases the difficulty in shooting, for when the shot is 
placed and the liner drawn, a cave follows and may cause difficulty in 
discharging the shot. This is usually met by placing a loaded anchor 
of such length that it extends above the cave. Perhaps one-half of the 
wells in the Bremen field have been drilled "dry." In drilling "wet" 
little or no cave takes place, the weight of water apparently keeping the 
shales in position. 

In this method hemp cables are used, but when drilling "wet" 
wire replaces the hemp as soon as a heavy flow of water is found in 
the "Big lime." Friction with the rough walls of the hole soon destroys 
this cable, but the pieces may later be used in pumping wells. Derricks 
80 feet high are used. Nearly all are wood, but steel has made its 
appearance and may be the reliance of the driller in the future. It is 
more expensive, the cost being about $900 against $725 for wood. 

The expense and time necessary for drilling a producing well nat- 
urally varies with the depth and the freedom from accidents. For 
the territory in the valley at Bremen it is about as follows: 

Derrick (wooden) $725 

Drilling 2,450 feet at $1.10 2,695 

Conductor 80 feet at 70 cents 56 

Casing to base of Berea 650 feet at 55 cents 358 

Casing to Clinton, 2,450 feet at 45 cents 1,102 

Tubing 2,460 feet at 15 cents 369 

Pumping outfit 250 

Gas engine and belt for pumping 850 

Two tanks 225 

Tank house 100 

Lead lines, etc 100 

Total $6,830 

If the well is dry the expense is approximately as follows: 

Drilling $2,698 

Moving rig 200 

Conductor 56 

Total $2,951 

It will be noted that allowance is not made here for the wear and 
tear on materials used. This will increase the expense to about $3,500. 
With good luck, such a well may be completed in 30 days from the time 
drilling begins. 




The search for the Clinton sand in Southern Ohio has been in prog- 
ress twenty years. The formation has not been found farther south 
than Jackson County, though tests have extended to the bank of the 
Ohio River. 


Many tests of the Clinton sand have been made in this county 
with the hope of extending the Bremen field, and while these in the 
main have been unsuccessful, they have occasionally found the desired 
fuel and may lead to important extensions. 

Monday Creek Township* — About a score of Clinton wells have 
been drilled in this township, with but little success. The following 
record of the Perrill well at Maxville- shows the succession of the impor- 
tant strata as far down as the Clinton: 

' Thickness. To bottom of 

Feet. formation. 


Drive pipe 27 27 

Fresh water at 250 feet. 
Berea sand 25 830 

Casing 6}^ inch, 840 feet. 

Bedford and Ohio shales, 1,128 1,958 

"Big lime" 810 2,768 

Gas at 2,426 feet. 

Water at 2,442 feet. 

Clinton sand. 33 2,973 

Bottom of well 2,984 feet. 

This well was completed in July, 1909, .and is reported to have 
begun producing 40 barrels of oil a day, and a year later about one- 
fourth as much/ 

The Columbus Hocking Coal & Iron Company has drilled a number 
of wells. One on the southeast quarter of Section 22 gave a moderate 
flow of gas which is piped four miles to Kachelmacher's brick yard and 
used in burning brick. Another well, drilled a few hundred feet to the 
south, was dry. The company drilled also in the southwestern corner 
of Section 11, but found only a shell of the desired sand; a depth of 3,565 
feet was reached. A well in the southeastern corner of Section 13 was 

Other wells were drilled in this township as follows: a small oil 
well and a dry hole on the southeastern quarter of Section 4, and a dry 


hole along the western border of the section; two dry holes on Section 
5, one on the southeastern quarter, and dry, and one near the northern 
line of the section, the latter making a showing of oil; a small oil well 
and a dry hole on Section 7, the former on the northwestern quarter 
and the latter on the southeastern; a dry hole on the northwestern 
quarter of Section 8; two wells on Section 9, an oil well that started at 
about 30 barrels on the northeastern quarter and a dry hole on the 
southeastern; a dry hole on the northwestern quarter of Section 10; 
a dry hole drilled by the Carter Oil Company on the northeastern quarter 
of Section 19, and a small oil well, drilled by the same company, and now 
abandoned on the same quarter of Section 20. 

Salt Lick Township* — But one well has been drilled in this town- 
ship, and that was about one-half mile west of McCuneville. The 
elevation of the well head is 797 feet above ocean level. The well was 
drilled by the Shawnee Oil & Gas Company, and the record, as fur- 
nished by L. C. Laube, may be found on page 20. 

At 1,510 feet the drill struck a sandstone about one foot thick 
which contained a heavy black oil. The sand was shot with 8 quarts 
and the well pumped; it yielded five barrels the first day, three the 
second and then two a day for approximately two weeks. The driller 
calls this sand the Gordon. It lies in the Ohio shales and is probably 
of local extent only; at any rMe it has not been reported elsewhere in 
Ohio. Not satisfied with the production, the tubing was drawn and 
the drill started for the Clinton. Work progressed favorably until 
the "Big water" was reached at 2,756 feet. Casing was inserted at 
about 2,800, and after pumping 2,600 feet of water from this, the hole 
was dry until 20 feet advance was made, when another heavy flow was 
encountered and the well filled to within 20 feet of the top. Again 
the casing was set and drilling resumed. Seven additional times heavy 
flows of water were found, and each time the casing was reset. The 
last flow was on]y 6 feet above the base of the "Big lime," and the casing 
was finally set 8 feet below the base of that formation. To add to the 
trouble the packer broke twice, necessitating drawing the casing each 
time, making 10 changes in all. 

At a depth of 3,070 feet the well began caving and of course this 
delayed the work, but the liner was finally set on top of the Clinton 
sand. This formation was 32 feet thick and varied somewhat in color 
as follows: 


Gray sand 12 

White sand 1H 

Pink sand 5 

Lighter colored sand, gray near the bottom 13j^ 

The next step was to shoot the well, for the sand made a showing 
of oil. Fifty quarts of nitroglycerine increased the production to such 


an extent that the bailer came up filled with the fluid and it was decided 
to shoot again. Accordingly a dump shot of 200 quarts and 100 feet 
of loaded anchor were placed in the well. The liner was then withdrawn, 
and after two unsuccessful efforts to discharge the shot, the line was 
run and a bridge found about 30 feet above the top of the anchor. On 
the following day the driller ran down the tools to remove the bridge, 
and after about ten minutes' work it gave way and discharged the shot. 
The tools were blown up about 300 feet in the hole and torn loose from 
the cable, but were removed without great difficulty. Next an effort 
was made to clean the well. As soon as the bottom of the casing was 
reached, water again appeared and could not be controlled. Thinking 
that the casing was leaking, it was again withdrawn, but found to be all 
right. Apparently the shoulder of Clinton sand on which it rested had 
been partly blown away, letting the water flow in below. Not knowing 
what to do, and completely discouraged, "the company plugged the 
hole, drew the casing, and quit." 

Considering the large sum of money already expended, it may be 
asked if it would not have been worth while to try developing a new 
shoulder for the casing to rest on, after the manner in California. The hole 
could have been filled with cement to a little above the Clinton sand, 
and after setting redrilled, and the casing placed on top of the new shoul- 
der. The expense of this experiment would have been small, and might 
have saved the well. 

Pleasant Township* — At least two Clinton wells have been sunk in 
this township. In the spring of 1909 one was drilled on the McGonagle 
farm a half mile south of Moxahala. The well head was 832 feet above 
ocean level, and the Clinton sand was found 52 feet thick, but it contained 
not even a smell of oil or gas. About a year later the Penn Oil Company, 
of Pittsburg, drilled a well two miles south of Moxahala, on land of James 
Kelly, but it, too, was a failure. 

This sand is remarkable for its thickness, 102 feet. So far as the 
writer knows, it is far and away the greatest yet reported for the Clinton 
in Ohio, and it is twice the usual maximum given. The sand is also not- 
able for its coloring. In spite of the great quantity, it did not contain 
a trace of either oil or gas. Neither did the sand contain water, while 
the "Big lime" had so little that no casing was used below the 

Hamson Township. — The survey has record of three Clinton wells 
in this township, which lies along the eastern edge of the county, and 
all produce oil or gas. They are the deepest successful wells yet drilled 
in Ohio. On November 10, 1909, a well was started on the farm of 
David Allen, Section 8 of Harrison Township, about two miles south- 
west of Roseville, and progress was such that the well was not completed 
until March 29, 1910. The well was drilled by Stretton & Cole, who 
have provided the following record: 

4-G. B. 12—1000. 


Thickness. To bottom of 
Feet. formation. 


Drive pipe 10 inch 40 40 

Casing 8 inch, 550 feet. 

Casing 63^ inch, 920 feet. 
"Big lime" 955 3,280 

Casing 5 T 8 F inch, 3,240 feet. 
Clinton sand 44 3,476 

Oil at 3,470 feet. 
Total depth 3,439 feet. 

This well started pumping about 15 barrels a day. though some have 
reported the rate as high as 25 barrels. When visited in July, 1910, it was 
out of order, and, in fact, does not seem to have been properly cared for. 
It is the deepest oil well in Ohio, and one of the deepest in this country, 

A well was completed by the Ohio Fuel Supply Company in the 
valley at Crooksville in October, 1909, and is reported to have started 
producing gas at the rate of 2.000,000 cubic feet a day. Later an over- 
flow of the creek flooded the well, and it had not been put in condition 
by July, 1910. The Clinton sand, 28 feet thick, was struck at 3,409. 
January 5, 1910, a well was completed by the same company one location 
from the above, and began producing ten barrels of oil a day, and six 
months later was making 15 barrels. The well was shot first with 60 
quarts, and later with 200. When agitated it still flows (Ju]y 16, 1910). 
The well head is 760 feet above ocean level, and the Clinton sand was 
struck at a depth of 3,407. The sand is 54 feet deep; it contained a 
break at 3,422 feet, and 14 feet of pay beginning at 3,444. 

A location has been made by the Sago Oil Company near the edge 
of the corporation, and probably by the time these lines are in print a 
third will have been drilled to the Clinton sand. To be profitable such 
wells must be at least fairly large, long-lived and dry holes few. 

Reading Township* — This lies north of Jackson, one of the largest 
producers in the entire Bremen field, and has been tested at numerous 
places. In the northwest quarter of Section 32, seven wells have been 
drilled, of which three produce oil. In the southern half of Section 35, 
out of five wells drilled two oil producers were gotten. On land of the 
St. Joseph's Literary Society four gas wells have been secured in the 
southwestern quarter of Section 14. Well No. 2 on this property gave 
measurements as follows, the head being 1,025 feet above ocean level: 

Thickness. To bottom of 
Feet. formation. 


Drive pipe . 30 30 

Berea sand 75 1,015 

Casing 6f inch, 1,060 feet. 

Bedford and Ohio shales 1,100 2,115 

"Big lime" 817 2,932 

(sand 34 f eet*1 
shale 5 feet I 59 3,128 

sand 20feetJ 

Bottom of well at 3,130 feet. 


Occasionally a small oil or gas well has been secured elsewhere in 
the township, but the usual result has been a dry hole. The location 
of these is shown on Plate I. 

The Northern Tier of Townships* — Less exploration has been 
done in these townships than farther south, and little has been found 
to reward the driller. About three years ago seven wells were drilled 
in the northwestern corner of Thorn Township, the result being three 
small gas wells and four dry holes. The following measurements are from 
the John Trovinger Well No. 1, on the southeastern quarter of Section 8: 

Thickness. To bottom of 
Feet. formation. 


"Big lime" 710 2,320 

Clinton sand 20 2,480 

Bottom of well 2,570 feet. 

Four wells are reported from Hopewell Township. One along the 
eastern line of Section 11 produced some oil, but the well has been aban- 
doned. The other tests were as follows: A dry hole along the eastern 
border of Section 17; a dry hole on the eastern side of Section 12 and 
one on the southeastern quarter of Section 24. 

The only test of which the Survey has knowledge in Madison Town- 
ship is on the southwestern quarter of Section 5. A flow of gas was se- 
cured, but apparently the result has not encouraged further drilling. 


Several Clinton wells have been drilled in this county, the first at- 
tempt having been made in 1884 following the excitement from the dis- 
covery at Findlay. The location was at Zanesville and a depth of 2,000 
feet reached, but the Berea was without oil or gas and the drill did not 
even approach the horizon of the Clinton sand. 

- In 1903 The Chicago-Zanesville Oil & Gas Company made a test at 
Dillon's Falls in the valley of the Licking River a few miles above Zanes- 
ville, the record of which follows: 

Thickness. To bottom of 
Feet. formation. 


Berea sand 12 907 

Bedford shales 21 928 

Ohio shales 1,192 2,120 

(limestone 160 feetl 

black shales 68 feet I 1,275 3,395 

limestone 1,047 feet J 

Shales 88 3,483 

Lime shell ' 6 3,489 

Shales 11 3,500 

Sandstone 3 3,503 

Shales 12 3,515 

Lime shell 7 3,522 

Shales ' 21 3,543 

Clinton sand 21 3,564 

Blue shales 3 3,567 


Small flows of salt water were struck at 2,560 and 3,205 feet, and a 
show of oil and gas in the Clinton at 3,562; the well was abandoned. 

Quite recently three wells have been drilled on Sections 18 and 19 of 
Newton Township, near the village Fultonham, two of which produce oil 
and one gas. The latter is on land of W. J. Roberts, Section 18, and the 
former on farms of Mary E. Grimsley and Emily Moore, Section 19. The 
Grimsley well started producing 7 barrels per day, but after having been 
shot with 60 quarts increased to approximately 20 barrels. At date of 
writing the Moore well has not been completed and its production cannot 
be stated. Following is a record of the Roberts well: 

Thickness. To bottom of 
Feet. formation. 


Limestone 54 96 

Shale.. 5 101 

Limestone 19 120 

Water at 75 feet. 

Sandstone , 130 250 

Limestone 38 288 

Much water at 270 feet. 

Big Injun sand 224 512 

Limestone 98 610 

Berea sandstone 14 861 

Water in Berea sand. 
Bedford shales 26 887 

Casing 882 feet. 

Ohio shales 1,308 2,195 

"Big lime" 970 3,165 

Casing 5 T 3 ¥ inch, 3,003 feet. 

Limestone shell 8 3,282 

Clinton sand at 3,296 feet. 

Gas at 3,298. 
Total depth 3,314 feet. 

On May 21, 1909, the Zanesville Gas & Oil Company completed a 
well on the farm of George Handchsy, Section 25 of Perry Township, six 
miles east of Zanesville. The Clinton sand was struck at 3,705 feet and 
though 38 feet thick it did not contain a trace of oil or gas. For the fol- 
lowing record of this well the survey is indebted to Mr. W. Hunter Atha 
of Zanesville.:* 


To bottom of 







Berea sand 

Bedford shales (red) 

Casing 6 inch, 1,065 feet. 

pimestone 15 feet s 

shale and lime 

shells 1,312 feet 

lime shells 265 feet 

"Big lime" 1,005 3,645 

Much water at 3,486 and 3,544 feet. 
Casing 5 inch, 3,553 feet. 

Ohio shales < 

1,592 2,640 


To bottom of 





















Black shales 

Lime shells 


Sand shells . .' 


Red sandstone 

Black shale 

Clinton sand 


In the autumn of 1910 two wells were being drilled in the northwest- 
ern part of the county, one in Jackson Township about three miles north- 
west of Frazeysburg, and one in Muskingum Township about two miles 
southeast of the hamlet Shannon. 

In October, 1910, a well was completed on the Fairall land in the 
southwest quarter of Section 7 of Jackson Township, the record of 
which follows: 

Thickness. To bottom of 
Feet. formation. 


Drive pipe 28 28 

Berea sand 16 850 

Casing 6% inch, 863 feet. 

Bedford and Ohio shales 1,185 2,035 

"Big lime" 934 2,969 

Casing 5^ inch, 2,844 feet. 

Shales 172 3,141 

Clinton sand 21 3,160 

Shales 24 3,194 

Total depth of well 3,194 feet. 

This "well is rated among the successful producers of oil, though its 
capacity has not been learned. A test is now being made in the north- 
western quarter of Muskingum Township, but it has not reached the 
horizon of the Clinton sand. 

While tests have thus far disclosed but little oil or gas in this county, 
they have proven the Clinton sand present in good thickness at widely 
separated intervals, and with this encouragement further drilling is 


In September, 1894, a deep well was begun at McConnelsville, the 
town council having provided $5,000 to meet the expense. Progress was 
slow. By the middle of the next March a depth of 3,186 feet was reached, 
and the tools having become fast the well was abandoned. Following is a 
record of this well: 1 

*For a detailed record see Bownocker, J. A. Geol. Surv. of Ohio Fourth Ser., Bull. 
I, p. 145. 


Thickness. To bottom of 
Feet. formation. , 


Surface materials 15 15 

Shales, sandstones, clay and coal 610 625 

Maxville limestone or " Big lime" 44 669 

Keener sand 40 709 

Big Injun sand 45 840 

Cuyahoga shales 409 1,249 

Sunbury (Berea) shales 30 1,279 

Berea sand 66 1,345 

Bedford sandstone and shales 25 1,37,0 

Ohio shales 1,712 3,082 

" Big lime" at 3,082 feet. 

Bottom of well in "Big lime" at 3,186 feet. 

As the record shows, the drill stopped far short of the Clinton, and 
while it was a failure so far as its object was concerned, it performed a 
useful service to geology by providing additional information on the 
deeper formations in this part of Ohio. The point of most interest is the 
great thickness of the Ohio shales, a fact already referred to in this report 
and in previous ones. 

Only one well in the county has reached the Clinton sand, and that 
was on land of T. J. Chappalear in the southwestern corner of Union 
Township. The well was located on Bloody Run about three-fourths of a 
mile above the old Blackburn P.O., near the northern margin of Section 
32. The altitude of the well head was 750 feet, and was not far from the 
horizon of the Cambridge limestone. Both this and the Ames limestone 
are well shown in the vicinity. Mr. J. P. Fishel, the contractor, has fur- 
nished the following data from the driller's record • 

Thickness. To bottom of 
Feet. formation. 


Berea sand 20 1,170 

Bedford and Ohio shales 1,530 2,700 

"Big lime" 900 3,600 

Clinton sand 9 3,944 

Bottom of well in red rock at 3,947 feet. 

Not a smell of oil or gas was found. The "Big lime" yielded only 
about a bailer of water an hour, and it was not necessary to case in it. 
The geological fact of most interest is the great distance between the 
"Big lime" and the Clinton, 335 feet. At Bremen this interval measures 
only 103 feet, but at New Straitsville it has increased to 171. 


The west central part of this county contains an important part of 
the great Sugar Grove gas field, but that does not fall within the scope of 
this discussion. On the eastern side of the county a number of Clinton 
wells have been drilled and these will now be considered: 

"Big limes" 

715 2 ; 430 


Falls Township* — The county seat, Logan, is in this township. Nat- 
urally its citizens viewed with admiration the discovery in large quantity 
of gaseous fuel at Lancaster and vicinity, and as early as 1890 drilled a 
test well. This was on North Walnut Street, the elevation of the well 
head having been about 748 feet. For the following log the survey is 
indebted to Mr. A. Magoon: 

Thickness. To bottom of 
Feet. formation. 


Drift .....: 40 40 

Logan sandstone 170 210 

Cuyahoga shales ^439 649 

Sunbury (Berea) shales 34 683 

Berea sand 45 728 

Bedford shales 85 813 

Ohio shales 902 1,715 

* Devonian 75 feet s 

Monroe 300 feet 

Niagara and 

Clinton 340 feet 

Shales .* '. . 197 2,627 

Clinton sand 18 2,645 

Total depth 2,694 feet. 

To an unusual degree this gives the formations and their thicknesses, 
and may be taken as representative for that section of the State. In one 
or two places the writer has made slight changes in the names, making 
them conform with the nomenclature in present usage. The shales be- 
tween the "Big lime" and Clinton sand are left without a name, though 
Mr. Magoon called them Niagara. According to the writer's interpreta- 
tion the base of the "Big lime" is represented by the Clinton limestone, 
and the shales lying beneath it could not therefore be the Niagara. 

Not satisfied with this failure, another well was drilled to the Clinton, 
the location being on the western edge of the town, but a show of gas was 
the only reward. Some years ago a well was drilled at Enterprise in the 
northwestern corner of the township. The Clinton sand was found and 
made a showing of oil, but the well was abandoned. Later a hole was 
drilled on the Hensel farm, southeast quarter of Section 27, where the fol- 
lowing record was made: 


To bottom of 











Berea sand 

Bedford and Ohio shales 

"Big lime" 

Clinton sand 

A flow of gas was secured at 512 feet in sand in the "Big lime." The 
Clinton w T as much broken and without anything in commercial quanti- 
ties, and the well was abandoned. Two holes have been drilled in the 
southwestern corner of the township, one on Section 30 and the other on 
Section 31: both were failures. 


Marion Township* — This is the northernmost township of the 
county. It lies south of Rush Creek of Fairfield which contains im- 
portant deposits of both oil and gas, and of course has been, well tested. 
Along the western edge a number of gas wells were secured some years 
ago, but most, of them have been abandoned. 

Quite recently a test was made on the farm of H. R. Bending, 
northeast quarter of Section 25. For the following record of this the 
Survey, is indebted to J. P. Bebout, county surveyor; elevation of well 
head, 983 feet. 

Thickness. To bottom o£ 
Feet. formation. 

' Feet. 

Berea sand 35 . 950 

Casing 6 ^ inch, 982 feet. 

Bedford and Ohio shales 990 1,940 

"Big lime" at 1,940 feet. 

Clinton sand 26 2,941 

Green shales 30 2,971 

Limestone 20 2,991 

Red shales 8 2,999 

Limestone 0% 2,999M 

Blueshales 13 3,012% 

After shooting, the well caved badly and has not been cleaned, 
though it made a little oil. The casing and a string of tools rest in it. 
Other tests of the Clinton sand have been made as follows: northeast 
quarter of Section 4; southeast quarter of Sections 9 and 10; along the 
southern edge of 11, and northeast quarter of Section 21. None of 
these found the sand with anything better than a showing of oil 
or gas. 

Falls Gore Township* — Within the past year or two a number 
of tests have been made in this township. One on Section 30 yielded 
some oil, and, encouraged by this, a well was drilled in the spring of 
1910 on the Terrell farm nearby, where the following succession was 
found : 

Thickness. To bottom of 
Feet. formation. 


Big Injun sand 190 290 

Berea sand at 726 feet. 

"Big lime" 720 2,560 

Clinton sand 22 2,801 

Bottom of well 2,838 feet. 

After shooting, this well began flowing between 10 and 20 barrels 
of oil a day. 

About the time that the above wells were being sunk, the drill 
was busy near Gore on the eastern side of the township. In the autumn 
of 1909 one was completed on the Lemon farm in the southwestern 
quarter of Section 25, and the Clinton sand, 26 feet thick, was found 


at 2,9873^ feet. After shooting with 40 quarts of nitroglycerine, the 
well caved badly and has not been cleaned. It flowed as high as 63 
barrels of oil a day, and in July, 1910, was pumping about 25 barrels. 

Early in September, 1910, a well was completed on the Williams 
farm, Section 33, about a mile west of Gore, and 26 feet of Clinton sand 
found, the top at 2,866. The well has not been connected with the 
pipe line and its capacity cannot be accurately stated, but it will not 
be far from 25 barrels. 

Green Township* — In 1888, when the excitement about natural 
gas was high, a deep well was drilled at Haydenville with the hope of 
securing that fuel for use in the clay industries. The first well found 
the Berea sand at 788 feet which yielded 100,000 cubic feet of gas per 
24 hours. A second well was soon begun, but found that sand without 
fuel of any kind, and it was decided to continue to the Clinton which 
was then giving such fine results farther north. A record of this well 
provided by Mr. J. W. Jones, of Logan, follows. Its elevation above 
sea level was very nearly 710 feet. 

Thickness. To bottom of 
Feet. formation. 


Maxville limestone 8 39 

Sandstones, shales and conglomerate 306 345 

Large flow of salt water at 250 feet. 

Cuyahoga and Sunbury shales 443 788 

Berea sand 44 832 

Bedford and Ohio shales 1,108 1,940 

"Big lime" 800 2,740 

Shales 145 2,885 

Red and green shales 33 2,918 

Clinton sand 12 2,930 

The well did not show T either oil or gas. 

Sandstone in the "Big Lime." — In Sections 21 and 22 and prob- 
ably others of Laurel Township a layer of sandstone, with a maximum 
reported thickness of 40 feet, is found in the "Big lime/' and occa- 
sionally yields oil and gas. The oil is dark and heavy and is rarely 
in commercial quantities, but the gas wells are occasionally valuable. 
The same general condition holds in Falls and Falls Gore townships. 
This sand is found also in Berne Township of Fairfield County, but 
has not been reported in the Bremen field. 


So far as the writer knows only one Clinton well has been drilled 
in this county. This was at Buchtel in York Township and was sunk 
by the Columbus Hocking Coal & Iron Company. No further infor- 
mation is at hand beyond the fact the well yielded neither oil nor gas 
in commercial quantities. 



A large amount of exploration has been done in the Clinton sand 
of this county for oil or gas, but primarily the former. The measure 
of success has been small for both. For the benefit of seekers after 
these fuels the tests and their results will be reviewed briefly here. 

Jackson Township. — This is the only township in the county 
that has yielded Clinton oil in commercial quantities. As already 
stated, the first well was completed in August, 1899. By Septem- 
ber, 1902, five oil w T ells, one gas well and three dry holes had been drilled. 
Nearly all of these lie in Sections 3 and 4, along the Vinton-Hocking 
line. These wells are now the property of the Southern Ohio Oil Com- 
pany. Two new wells were drilled near these in 1909 and small pro- 
ducers secured. These belong to the Locust Grove Ridge Oil & Gas 
Company. Dry holes nearly surround the pool and important exten- 
sions need not be expected. In all about 12 wells have been sunk to 
the Clinton in this township. 

Early wells ranged in production from 10 to 70 barrels per day, 
later ones being smaller. In the late spring of 1902 the four producing 
wells then completed were yielding 125 barrels a day. By the following 
September the production from five wells had dropped to, 109 barrels 
and in July, 1910, to 12 barrels or less, one well alone producing nearly 
one-half of this. At the same time the two wells drilled in 1909 were 
making 7 barrels per day. The gas pressure is strong with the result 
that an occasional flow of oil still takes place. The oil has a density 
of 47^° Beaume and a green color, but when viewed in small quantity 
with transmitted light its color is amber. 1 At first the oil was pumped 
to Orland on the Hocking Valley Railroad and then shipped in tank 
cars. Later the line was extended to Joy and this method of shipping 
is still followed. ' 

The producing sand is quite spotted, and this increases the hazard 
of drilling, but it is soft, and consequently the wells seldom require 
shooting. Commonly the "pay" has the color of brown sugar, but some- 
times it changes to red-brown. Little or no water exists in the sand, 
and when the pool was visited in July, 1910, no well was reported making 
as much as one barrel of water a day, and the largest oil well no water 
at all. 

Following is a skeleton record of Clinton Well No. 1, whose altitude 
above sea-level is approximately 875 feet. 

Thickness. To bottom of 
Feet. formation. 


Berea sand 45 7,50 

"Big lime" 700 2,270 

Heavy flow of brine at 2,010 feet. 

Clinton sand 15 2,443 

Bottom of well 2,449. 

*For analysis of oil see p. 17. 


Richland Township, — This lies south of Jackson, and has at least 
six wells to the Clinton. The first of these was drilled early, probably in 
1898, but may not have reached the sand. It was located on the! east 
side of Section 4, but gave neither oil nor gas. A little later a well was 
drilled on land of William Poland, in Section 28. The Clinton was 
found at approximately 2,340 feet, and gave a heavy flow of gas, which 
is still used. Encouraged by this result, two additional wells have been 
sunk on this section, but were failures. 

A test has been made on the Wyatt land, near the center of Section 
10, but was a failure. The Clinton was reported about 11 feet thick, 
with a little gas in the top and near the bottom. About 1902 or 1903 a 
well was drilled on the John Bethel land in the northern part of Section 
21; the Clinton, 14 feet thick, was found at 2,377 feet, but was without 
oil or gas. About the same time a well was drilled on the Radcliffe farm, 
in the southeastern quarter of Section 6, in the northwestern corner of 
the township. The "Big lime" was struck at 1,264 feet and the bottom 
at 1,855. Fifty feet of Clinton sand were found, the top at 2,080. Neither 
oil nor gas was present in the sand, but a little dark, heavy oil was found 
in the "Big lime," which was bailed out, but was not renewed. 

Swan Township*— This contains a number of deep wells. The first 
was located on the Cradlebaugh land, about one mile south of Orland, 
and was drilled in 1901. The Clinton sand was found at a depth of 
about 2,900 feet, and contained gas. The rock pressure was at ]east 
800 pounds to the square inch, but the open flow was disappointing, 
being only about 400,000 cubic feet per day. In the following year a 
well was drilled on the Wadsworth farm, about one-half mile north of 
the last one. The Clinton sand, in good quality, was found at a depth 
of 2,811 feet, but was entirely dry. 

Near the center of Section 2, on the E. H. Waller farm, the Clinton 
gave nothing better than a show of gas. On land of George Schurtz, 
near the middle of Section 15, a little more gas was found, but not enough 
to warrant tubing. A well on the northwest quarter of Section 14 was 
dry, and the same is true of one on the northeast quarter of Section 29. 
No data are at hand with reference to the depth of these, the nature 
or thickness of the sand. Several wells have been drilled for gas 
with favorable results near the middle of the western edge of the 

Clinton Township* — Only one Clinton well is reported in this town- 
ship. This is on the farm of I. N. Bay, and was drilled in 1910. The 
Clinton is reported as having been found at between 2,600 and 2,700 
feet, but was dry. 

Vinton Township* — In 1909 a well was completed on land of 
Vinton Cattrell, in Section 13, the well head being about 613 feet above 



sea level. The "Big lime", 900 feet thick, was struck at 2,160 feet, 
and ten feet of Clinton sand at 3,210 feet. A depth of 3,268 feet was 
reached, but neither oil nor gas was secured. For these brief facts the 
Survey is indebted to Mr. E. F. Clagett, of Columbus. 


About the year 1898 a well was drilled to a depth approximating 
3,200 feet near the village Vinton. No details concerning this have been 
received, but the Clinton sand was not found, and, of course, neither oil 
nor gas was secured. 


Four wells to the Clinton sand have been drilled on Section 20 of 
Washington Township, two on land of the Buckeye Coal Company and 
two on the farm of Richard Wills. No. 2 on the Buckeye Coal Company 
tract was a gas well having rock pressure of 980 pounds and an open 
flow of 4,000,000 cubic feet per day. No. 1 on the Wills farm started 
at 500,000 cubic feet. The remaining two wells were dry. Following 
is a record of Buckeye No. 2: 





Casing 10 inch, 74 feet 
Berea sand 

Casing 8H inch. 680 feet. 

Bedford and Ohio shales 794 

"Big lime" 596 

Shales from 1,750 to 1,760 feet. 

Casing 5i% inch, 1,946 feet. 

To bottom of 






'chocolate . .". 140 feet" 


white . 
brown . 
white . 
Clinton sand . . . 

40 feet 
15 feet 
10 feet 

„. . f white 44 feet\ 

ShaleS W 8 feet/ 

Bottom of well at 2 ,315" feet. 





• No. 1 on the Wills farm showed only four feet of sand, and No. 2 
none at all. These figures can hardly be rated encouraging to the pros- 
pector. As previously reported, the "Big lime" continued to contract, 
while the underlying shales thicken. 


About the year 1903-4 a test was made on the Gerkins farm, about 
three miles northwest of Oak Hill, and a depth of about 2,700 feet 
reached, but no Clinton sand was found. 


A few tests have been made for oil or gas in the Clinton sand in 
this county. Thus far neither has been found, and there is no reason to 
expect better results. One of the tests was at Waverly, and because of 
its depth and the unusually complete record a full report of it is given. 
First acknowledgment is made to Mr. Peru Hutt, who not only kept a 
detailed log of the well, but also 68 samples of the drillings, representing 
every type of rock penetrated. He generously permitted the writer to ex- 
amine these, and furnished also an interesting account of the trials and 
tribulations of drilling a well more than 3,000 feet deep. The latter will 
be reviewed, and then the well record given. 

In the spring of 1908 a group of men from the East started drilling, 
the location being in a hoPow a little north of west of the Detroit, Toledo 
& Ironton Railroad station at Waverly. All went well until at a depth 
approximating 780 feet, when a heavy flow of water was encountered. 
Casing was inserted, and drilling resumed, when another flow was found. 
A longer string of casing replaced the first one, and again the drilling 
started. Soon another heavy flow was found, and the casing had to be 
withdrawn two or three times more before the lower limit of water was 
passed. So abundant was the supply that it flowed from the top of the 
well, and when it was cased off, flowed outside to the surface, and now 
from the abandoned hole. It has a strong odor of hydrogen sulphide. 
The water came from the "Big lime," as anyone who has read the pre- 
ceding pages might conclude. 

These troubles delayed the drill, and progress was slow. When a 
depth of 1,428 feet was reached the company was without the necessary 
funds to continue, and citizens of the town, desiring to see a first-rate 
test made, organized the Waverly Oil & Gas Company. When drilling 
was again resumed, January 4, 1909, it was found that the hole had filled 
, to a depth of about 400 feet with shales or clay, the result of a cave from 
below the "Big lime." The hole was soon cleaned, and good progress 
made to a depth of 1,960 feet, when the Trenton limestone was struck, 
which checked, but did not stop, the advance. At 2,250 the rock became 
harder, and this variety continued until the bottom of the formation 
was reached, at a depth of 2,810 feet. A trace of oil was found at a depth 
of 1,960 feet. While this great formation was being penetrated, the 
caving of the overlying shales became so troublesome that the casing 
had to be drawn again and a string inserted that reached below the 
base of the cave. By that time the hole had filled more than 1,000 feet 


with the shales or clay, and after removing 700 feet the cable 
broke and the drill buried itself in the shales remaining in the 
hole. Fishing tools were gotten, and after working four days the drill 
was recovered. 

A new cable w r as ordered at once and received on the following day. 
Drilling was resumed three days later, the tools advancing about one foot 
an hour. On March 13 the bailer broke, leaving that necessary tool at the 
bottom, about 2,725 feet below the surface. This was fished out without 
great trouble and the base of the Trenton limestone reached. On enter- 
ing the sandstone that underlies that formation, water was again en- 
countered; at first this was not abundant, but as the drill descended the 
volume increased, and at a depth of about 2,900 feet rose to within 400 
feet of the surface. At about 2,960 feet the bailer was again lost and for 
nine days rested on the bottom of the well. 

Water in the hole made drilling extremely slow with a hemp cable, 
and a wire one 3,500 feet in length and seven-eights of an inch in diameter 
was purchased. April 20, 1909, at a depth of 3,188 feet the new cable 
broke and the tools with about 3,000 feet of the wire were in the well. 
These were recovered the next day, but ere long the cable broke again. 
Not to allow one part of the outfit to monopolize attention, the walking 
beam gave way on June 7, but was replaced with a timber from the forest 
primeval, and work resumed a w T eek later. The cable stranded the next 
day, but was spliced and drilling resumed without notable interruption 
until June 30 when the bailer with 400 feet of the sand line were lost in the 
well. Again it was fished out and the drill started. 

June 18 a new 3,500 foot wire cable was purchased and put to work 
on the 25th. Five days later the bit was lost in the well at a depth of 
3,250 feet and the bailer on top of it. While fishing for the tools on July 
11, the new cable severed, leaving the fishing tools and 1,700 feet of cable 
in the hole. The board of directors met July 14, 1909, received a report 
from their manager and suspended operations. Later the casing was 
drawn and all that now remains to show for the $12,000 is an artesian 
well with a pungent odor and a derrick that will soon yield to a stiff 
wind. The troubles recorded were not the only ones, numerous as they 
were, but sufficient to show the difficulties that may accompany drilling 
very deep wells. 

Record* — Waverly Oil & Gas Company's well at Waverly, Ohio. 
Began drilling in the spring of 1908; suspended operations July 14, 1909. 
Elevation of well head 575 feet above ocean level. 

This record with samples of drillings was kept by Mr. Peru Hutt. 
The figures are his, but the formation names were supplied by the writer 
after an examination of the samples. Mr. Hutt's interpretation of the 
record is different from that which follows: 



Number of 

Mantle rock 
Black shale . 
Gray shale . 


. 300 


To bottom of 









Fawn colored limestone 

Sulphur water at 510 feet. 

Gray sandstone 

Gray limestone 

Buff limestone 

Dark gray limestone 

Salt water and gas at 780 feet. 

Dark gray limestone 

Yellow limestone with shale 

Black, yellow and white limestone . 
Brown mottled limestone 









White sandstone * 

White sandstone and dark green 

Dark green shales and white sand- 

Gray sand 

Light yellow sand 

Gray sand (show of oil and gas from 

Gray sand and dark shale 







14 Chocolate shales 40 1,015 

15 Green shales , . 50 1,065 

16 Light brown and green shales 303 1,368 

17 Gray shales 532 1,900 

18 Dark and light shale with trace of oil 10 1,910 

19 Dark shale 50 1,960 

20-22 Dark and gray limestone 170 2,130 

23 Gray limestone 60 2,190 

24 Buff limestone 210 2,400 

25 Dark limestone 20 2,420 

26-27 Buff limestone 20 2,440 

28 Darker buff limestone 45 2,485 

29-32 Light and dark limestone 255 2,740 

33 Light limestone and dark shales 8 2,748 



41-43 Dark shales, fossiliferous 50 2,955 

44-47 Buff limestone and dark shales 65 3,020 

48 Dark green shales, soft '. 10 3,030 

49-68 Buff limestone and dark shales 285 3,315 

Gas at 3,270 and 3,322. 

In measuring an error of about 3 per cent was made, 
tne well was 3,220 feet. 

Simplifying this record we have the following: 

The depth of 


Thickness. To bottom of 
Feet. formation. 


1 Mantle rock 35 35 

2-3 Ohio shales 450 485 

4-13 "Big lime" 490 975 

14-19 Silurian and Ordovician shales 985 1,960 

20-33 Trenton limestone 808 2,768 

34-40 St. Peter's sandstone and shales 157 2,925 

41-43 Dark shales, f ossiferous, unclassified 50 2,975 
44-68 Buff limestone and dark shales 

(Lower Magnesian?) 360 3,335 

At a depth of 140 feet in the "Big lime/' a bed of white sandstone, 
reported 50 feet thick, was found. This fact, with the drillings above 
and below responding but slightly to cold acid, misled those interested in 
the well and the entire series was called sandstone or sandstone and 
shales. When these drillings, with the exception of the sand, were 
treated with hot acid, free effervescence took place, showing that the 
rocks are dolomitic limestone. The lower 80 feet resemble the Clinton 
limestone along its outcrop and are so classified; in fact the 60 feet above 
this may also be placed with the Clinton, but the evidence was not con- 
clusive. The writer was unable to determine how much of the remaining 
parts belonged each to the Niagara, Monroe and Devonian limestones. 
Probably the sandstone forms part of the Monroe ("Lower Helder- 

The shales between the "Big lime" and the Trenton represent the 
Clinton, Medina (if that formation is present in southern Ohio) and the 
Cincinnati and Utica of the older Ohio reports. As the section shows, the 
Clinton sandstone was not found, substantiating the statement already 
made that it does not extend as far west as the Scioto River. 

The Trenton limestone is represented by 808 feet, a somewhat greater 
thickness than has heretofore been reported for southern Ohio. It con- 
tains little shale, has a buff, gray or dark color and responds freely to cold 
acid, showing it is not dolomitic. In the latter respect it differs from the 
great repository of oil in northwestern Ohio. 1 The upper 300 feet con- 
tained some shale and drilled fairly easily, but below that was solid lime- 
stone, except eight feet at the base. 

Below the Trenton is a formation whose name is not well known in 
Ohio geology. In this record it consists of 82 feet of light colored sand 
and a subordinate quantity of shale, overlying 75 feet of gray sand with a 
larger proportion of shales. A similar formation underlies the Trenton 
in Illinois and other western states, and has been named the St. Peter's 
sandstone. This name is applied to the rocks in question in Ohio. 

* The St. Peter's sandstone is underlaid with 50 feet of dark shales 
that stuck to the bit and hence were hard to drill. Specimens brought 
up by the bailer show numerous fossils, but the fragments are so small 

^rton, Edward. Geol. Surv. of Ohio, Vol. VI, p. 103. 


that the forms are hard to identify. Whether these shales should be 
classed with the overlying formation or the one beneath, the writer is 
unable to say. 

The lowest rocks penetrated in this well, representing 360 feet, con- 
sist of buff limestone interbedded with dark shales, the latter resembling 
the 50 feet reviewed in the last paragraph. The proportion of shale to 
limestone varies. In No. 58 the two appear to be nearly equal; in 59 
the shale is less abundant ; in 67 it comprises more than 50 per cent. ; in 
68 the drillings resemble pepper and salt ; in other bottles the limestone 
is most abundant, and in some there is just enough shale to be easily 
visible. The limestone responds slowly when treated with cold acid, 
but acts freely when the acid is hot, indicating its magnesian or dol- 
omitic character. 

Below the St. Peter's sandstone in Illinois and neighboring states' 
lies the Lower Magnesian limestone. The rocks in the basal portion of 
the well at Waverly resemble those in composition and position, and are 
probably their eastern extension. 


This, the southernmost county in the state, has been tested to or 
below the horizon of the Clinton sand at two or more places. 

In 1885 a well was begun at Ironton for natural gas. Not finding 
the fuel in the Berea sand, which was struck at 1,010, it was decided to 
push on to the Trenton, which was then attracting so much attention 
in Northwestern Ohio. Work was continued somewhat irregularly until 
the middle of 1887, when a depth of 3,600 feet was reached. Dr. Orton 
was of the opinion that the Trenton was probably struck at 3,440 feet. 
No Clinton sand was reported, and it is a fair conclusion none was found. 
Following is Dr. Orton 's interpretation of the record: 

Thickness To bottom of 
Feet. formation 


Coal measures..-. 282 282 

Logan and Cuyahoga groups 728 1,010 

Berea sand — — 47 1,057 

Bedford and Ohio shales.-.. 770 1,827 

"Big Lime" . 584 2,411 

Silurian and Ordovician shales 1,029 3,440 

Trenton limestone at 3,440 feet. 
Bottom of well at 3,600 feet. 

It should be stated that Dr. Orton was not sure that the Trenton was 
reached at 3,440 feet, but at any rate that figure is not far from the true 
position. The well head he places at a "little less than 500 feet above 


'Orton, Edward. Geol. Surv. of Ohio, Vol. VI, p. 304. 

5— G. B. 12—1,000, 


Not believing the result of this test condemnatory for the county, 
another well was drilled in 1906, the location being at Mt. Vernon, near 
the middle of Decatur Township. Following is the record : 

Thickness To bottom of 
Feet. formation 


Berea sand 25 1,120 

Bedford and Ohio shales . ...J. 690 1,810 

"Big lime" 620 2,430 

Shales of various colors. _-__._. 289 2,719 

Redrock (shales) 11 2,730 

This well, too, found no Clinton sand. Probably the red rock struck 
at 2,719 feet lies just below the desired formation. These tests are all 
the more discouraging because in neither was the Clinton sand present, 
leaving the prospect anything but flattering for the county. 




The extension of the gas field into Knox County greatly encouraged 
drilling in Northern Ohio, with the result that tests have been made to 
the shore of Lake Erie. These kave shown the Clinton sand somewhat 
spotted in Eichland County, usually if not always absent in Huron, thin 
and uncertain in Lorain and Cuyahoga. Apparently the sand thickens 
to the east and southeast, but the tests have been few, owing to the depth 
of the formation. "While both oil and gas have occasionally been found, 
the yield has not been in proportion to the great expense. 


While this county has long been a heavy producer of natural gas 
from the Clinton sand, it has not yielded oil in commercial quantities, 
with the exception of an occasional well in the gas belt. 

In September, 1910, a well was completed on the Deeds farm, about 
two miles west of Union Station in Union Township, and 10 feet of sand 
found* the top at 2,218 feet. After shooting, the hole^ filled 1,800 feet 
with oil, and when tubed began flowing at the rate of 30 barrels per day. 
About a half-mile northeast is a gas well, and another the same interval 
due west. Two dry holes have been found, one three-quarters of a mile 
southwest and the other a mile southeast of the oil well. 

In October, 1910, a well was completed on the Ashcroft farm, in the 
southeast corner of Fallsbury Township. The Clinton sand was struck 
at 2,875 feet, and was 40 feet thick. It began producing oil but the rate 
has not been determined at date of writing. For the following record 
of this well the survey is indebted to Mr. G. C. Scott, of Columbus : 

Thickness To bottom of 
Feet. formation 


Drive pipe .-_ 58 58 

Berea sand .__„.. 20 632 

Casing 6% inch, 650 feet. 

Bedford and Ohio shales 1,168 1,800 

"Big lime" 912 2,712 

First water at 2,400 feet. 

Second water at 2,440 feet. 

"Big water" at 2,475 feet. 

Casing 5 3 /i6 inch, 2 ; 612 feet. 

Shales 163 2,851 

Clinton sand . 40 2,915 

Break in sand from 2,892 to 2,894 feet. 
Depth of well 2,927 feet. 



"While this is a large producer of gas from the Clinton, its yield of 
oil from that formation is small. At the present time (August, 1910) 
the producing wells number about a baker's dozen and are scattered over 
four townships in the eastern and northern parts of the county. * The 
results have not been at all in harmony with the labor, and in fact the 
fuel secured has been simply enough to lead the operator on with the 
hope that a large deposit might be near. 

Jackson Township— This contains the best known pool of oil in the 
county, but it is of doubtful value. In ^August, 1904, a well was com- 
pleted on the McKee farm in Section 14. The Clinton sand was struck at 
2,771 feet, and began flowing oil at about 35 barrels per day. A second 
well was sunk at once, and a very small producer secured. The third 
well was drilled a few hundred yards farther west, on the Hall farm, and 
a 10-barrel producer secured. The fourth well of the field was drilled 
on the same section, but a little bit farther south, on land of John Wolf, 
the result being similar to that on the Hall farm. One more producing 
well was secured in this field. It was located between the Wolf and Mc- 
Kee wells, and started at about 15 barrels per day. An effort to extend 
the pool northward met with failure. A dry hole was drilled to the north 
and just across the road from the McKee well, and a like result followed 
on the Blymer farm about two miles to the northwest. Here, however, 
a little oil and gas were secured. The latter was used a short time for a 
boiler, and then the well was abandoned. The last failure recorded was 
on the Kerr farm, in the southeastern quarter of Section 4. 

Four of the five producing wells secured in this township are still 
producing. The McKee, which all along has been the best in the field, 
now pumps about 8 barrels in 10 hours, while the other wells are smaller 
and not pumped daily. Each makes about one and one-half barrels of 
water per day, indicating that this is in the sand, for it is hardly possible 
that the casing in all would leak at the same rate. 

Oil from the MlcKee well has a dark color, and at a temperature of 
68° F. a density of 35° Beaume. 1 The oil is shipped by pipe line to 
Cooperdale, on the C. A. & C. E. E. 2 

Finally there is added a record of the McKee well, furnished by the 
driller, Mr. Irving Forbing, of Mt. Vernon : 

Thickness To bottom of 
Feet. formation 


Drive pipe, 8 inch .___ --- 30 30 

Bereasand 10 680 

Casing 6% inch, 680 feet. 

"Big lime" - 863 2,623 

I sand— _ 35 feet 
shale _- 4 feet > 49 2,820 
sand.. lOfeet, 

*For analysis of this oil see'p. 17. 

*This pool is commonly known as the Bladensburg. 


The division of the oil rock into two parts by a few feet of shales, 
while uncommon, is occasionally reported from different parts of the 

Butler Township*— Only one test to the Clinton sand is reported from 
this township. This was on the Beal farm in Section 4 and was a failure. 

Union Township* — Two wells are reported to the Clinton. About 
the year 1907 a test was made on land of David Colopy in Section 22; it 
gave a little gas, but not enough for commercial purposes and was 
abandoned. The other well is just west of Danville and yields gas. 

Jefferson Township* — This lies north of Union and comprises the 
northeastern corner of the county. Nine wells to the Clinton sand have 
been drilled, the result being four small oil wells and five failures. On land 
of Henry Black in the extreme southeastern corner of the township, two 
small oil wells have been secured. The first, which was drilled about 
1907, began flowing 5 barrels of oil per day, but a little later an accident 
occurred and the well was ruined. About 1908 the second well was com- 
pleted and is reported to have begun producing approximately 17 barrels 
of oil daily. It is now pumped every other day. 

About one mile west of the hamlet, Greer, three wells have been sunk 
to the Clinton, the result being two oil wells and one dry hole. The well 
on the Tisserand farm was drilled about 1904 and is still producing. The 
other successful well is reported to have begun flowing 25 barrels per day 
and still yields some oil. South of these wells and near the middle of Sec- 
tion 8 a test has been made, but the result was failure. Two wells are re- 
ported from the southern half of Section 14; one yielded some gas, but the 
other was a complete failure. 

Howard Township* — This lies north of the eastern terminus of the 
great gas field and has been tested to the Clinton in at least 4 places. The 
only well that made a show of success was drilled about one mile south 
of Howard on the Lindza Horn farm, perhaps in 1908. It started produc- 
ing 10 barrels of oil per day and now yields about half that quantity. 
About two miles west of this place the result was failure and the same is 
true of two wells near the village, Howard. 

Brown Township. — This lies north of Howard and has been twice 
tested, both being in the southeastern corner of the township. About 5 
years ago a well was drilled on land of Channing Rice in the valley of 
Jellow Creek, but was dry. In 1909 a test was made on the farm of 
Edward Grant, approximately a mile southwest of the Rice well, and like 
the latter was a failure. 

Monroe Township. — This lies northeast of Mt. Vernon and has been 
tested to the Clinton in at least three places. One of these was near the 
middle of the eastern border of the township and two along the west 
ern. All were dry. 

Pike Township* — Only three Clinton wells are reported from this 
township. About 1906 a gas well was secured on land of Robert Shira in 

*6-G. B. 12-1000. 


the southwestern quarter of the township. The rock pressure was re- 
ported at 1/250 pounds per square inch. In 1909 a test was made about 
a mile and one-half to the northwest on land of James Phillips, and a 
small oil well secured. It started at 5 barrels per day and is still pro- 
ducing. A well drilled on the farm of Thomas Simmons in the south 
central part of the township was a failure. 

Berlin Township* — Three small oil wells were secured in 1906 and 
1909 in the Clinton on land of Joseph Love, near the eastern border of 
the township. These started at from 5 to 15 barrels per day and are still 
producing. A half mile to the northwest another test was made with 
the hope of extending the pool, but without success. Failure also re- 
sulted from two wells, one drilled about a mile northeast of Frederick- 
town and the other about twice that distance southeast of the village. 

Other Townships in Knox County* — The part lying south and west 
of the county seat comprises an important part of the great gas field, 
but that constitutes no part of this bulletin and so will not be discussed. 
The territory near or along the western border of the county has been 
amply tested, but without favorable results. 


One small pool of oil has been found in the Clinton in the southeast- 
ern corner of the county. While the production from this has been small 
and the balance is probably on the wrong side of the sheet, the scientific 
problems presented are of niore than ordinary interest. Considerable 
drilling has been done farther north, but the results have been unfavorable. 

Wor thington Township* — This is the extreme southeastern corner of 
the county and contains the one pool of oil already referred to. For the 
history of this, the Survey is indebted to Judge F. 0. Levering, of 
Mt. Vernon. 

In June, 1905, a well was completed by the Butler Oil & Gas Co. , on 
land of Mary McClellen in the southwest quarter of Section 28. The 
Clinton sand, 6 feet thick, was struck at a depth of 2,518 feet and gave a 
. heavy flow of gas. The rock pressure reached the astonishing figure of 
1,260 pounds to the square inch and the open flow started at 4,700,000 
cubic feet per day. August 1, 1910, it was yielding 150,000 cubic feet 
against a line pressure of 200 pounds to the square inch. 

The next test was in the northwest quarter of Section 33, but no Clin- 
ton sand was found and of course the well was a failure. The third well 
in the field was on the Mengert heirs farm in the northwest quarter of 
Section 33. It was completed in December, 1905, and its record is unique 
among the many thousand wells of Ohio. No tankage had been pro- 
vided and so the flow during the first day was not determined, but it was 
estimated at 200 barrels and the oil was water white. The first day the oil 
could be measured, the flow was 132 barrels. By the close of January, 


1906, the production had dropped to 87 barrels per day, and about No- 
vember 1, 1906, the yield had become so small that it was abandoned as 
an oil well and used for gas, of which it had been prolific from the start. 

The production all told was about 1,600 barrels of oil, and was 
all of the water white variety. It commanded a price 10 cents in ad- 
vance of the regular Pennsylvania grade. People residing nearby 
used the oil in lamps and lanterns, for which it seemed well adapted/ 
but the owners, fearing explosions, stopped this practice. No accident 
resulted from its use. The well is still used for gas and its owners state 
that it will produce small quantities of the white oil now if allowed to 
flow a few days. 

Following are a few facts from the driller's record: 

Thickness. To bottom of 
Feet. formation. 


"Big lime" 890 2,430 

Clinton sand 6% 2,516^ 

This shows that the interval between the "Big lime" and the oil 
and gas rock is only 80 feet, which is much less than usual in other 
fields. The "Big lime" is normal and th,e short interval below it may 
give the Clinton sand a low dome shape. The sand had a gray color 
and was quite soft. No water at all was produced while the well was 
flowing oil, and very little after it began to be used for gas. It was 
shot with 20 quarts of nitroglycerine. 

Greatly encouraged by this well the company began three addi- 
tional ones in the spring of 1906. In the meantime the Standard Oil 
Company had entered the field and started three strings of tools at 
work. For a 40-aere lease this company is reported to have paid $7,700 
on which it drilled one well that Avas a total failure; and $3,500 for 
a 67-acre lease, on which it secured two oil wells, one starting at about 
5 barrels and the other at approximately 15. Toward the close of 
1907 these were abandoned as oil wells, but one was used for gas about 
a year longer. j J < ' : j 

Of the three wells started by the Butler Oil & Gas Company, re- 
ferred to in the beginning of the preceding paragraph, two were dry, 
while the third (drilled between two dry holes), completed in March, 
1906, started flowing 40 barrels of water white oil. In the following 
September the well was shot with 30 quarts for the first time, the 
production of both oil and gas being notably increased. Later the 
flow of oil having again become small, the well was connected with 
gas mains and is still used in that way. In April, 1906, the company 
went into the hands of a receiver and sold' out the following June to 
Waight & Levering, who are the present holders of the property. Later 
these men drilled a dry hole in the southwest quarter of Section 28, 
one on the northeast quarter of Section 32 and another on the north- 


west quarter of the same section. The last well drilled in the field was 
located on the southeast quarter of Section 29. This is about a half 
mile from the nearest gas w T ell, but the rock pressure was only 600 pounds 
while the open flow started at 5,000,000 cubic feet per 24 hours. 

When the excitement was at its highest in the spring of 1906, Smith, 
Kerr & Neely entered the field and secured a small oil well. This flowed 
at first, but later was pumped, and was abandoned in about two years. 
Still believing in the territory, the Fredericktown Oil & Gas Company 
drilled three holes in the northwest quarter of Section 28, securing two 
gas wells, one of which was very small and a dry hole. Seventeen 
wells in all were drilled in the Butler field. Eight of these were total 
failures, involving an expense aside from leases of at least $30,000. 

All oil wells in this field produced the water white variety that 
resembles kerosene. As has already been shown, these were short 
lived, produced much gas and always or nearly so changed to gas wells. 
The rock pressure in the field was not uniform, but ranged from ap- 
proximately 600 to 1,260 pounds. Not a well was producing oil 
in 1910. 

Finally there is given a record for a well, the first drilled in the 

Thic kness. To bottom of 
Feet. formation. 


Drive pipe 56 56 

6^8 inch casing, 555 feet. 
Berea sand at 600 feet. 

"Big lime" 881 2,391 

Clinton sand 6 2,524 

Total depth 2,559 feet. 

The sand is thin, and, according to Judge Levering, was absent 
wherever oil or gas was wanting. Formations to the base of the "Big 
lime" were regular, but those below were not so. Wherever oil was 
found the interval between the sand and the limestones was reported 
less, due to a rise in the oil rock. According to this the Clinton is uneven, 
forming very low domes and shallow basins. In the higher of these, 
oil was found and in the lower gas. 

Outside of Worthington Township, quite a number of Clinton 
wells 'have been drilled in Richland County, but the results have been 
far from satisfactory. In Jefferson Township, along the southern 
edge of the county, at least half a dozen tests have been made, but the 
only reward has been a small gas well or two. Four wells have been 
sunk in the southwestern corner of Monroe Township, three of which 
were failures, while the fourth yielded gas. 

Madison Township contains the flourishing manufacturing city of 
Mansfield, and, as might be expected, the rocks have been tested for 


mineral fuels. As early as 1886, a well in search of gas was drilled, 
reaching a depth of 2,005 feet, but was a failure. 1 Twenty years later 
a test was made on land of A. Burnison, about two miles southwest 
of Mansfield. The well record, provided by Joseph Schrier, is as follows: 

Thickness. To bottom of 
Feet. formation. 


Drive pipe 125 125 

Berea sandstone 40 600 

"Big lime"...; 915 2,215 

Flood of salt water at 1,990 feet. 

Shales 54 2,269 

Medina shales (red rock) at 2,270 feet. 
Bottom of well (in red rock) 2,435 feet. 

As the record discloses, the much sought after Clinton sand is 
wanting and it is doubtful if it exists as a continuous or well-marked 
formation farther west than Mansfield. Patches of it, however, may 
from time to time be expected. The sand is very uncertain also 
in the southern half of the county and according to Judge Levering, 
of Mt. Vernon, the absence of oil or gas is characterized by the absence 
of the sand also. 

This well was not without reward. At a depth of 1,910 feet or 610 
feet in the "Big lime" a heavy flow of gas was struck. The closed or 
rock pressure is reported as having been 580 pounds and the open flow 
1,200,000 cubic feet per day. From that time the drill has been at. 
work irregularly in the neighborhood, and in all about 16 wells have 
been drilled to the "lime/' only two or three of which were failures. 
The wells varied considerably in production, the largest having started 
at 3,500,000 cubic feet per day. The producing rock is said to be a 
limestone and not a sandstone in the "lime." Its position is usually 
about 640 feet in that formation, but figures of 390 and 500 are re- 
ported. The gas has a pungent odor and is not suitable for domestic 
purposes, but does very well for boilers. In drilling, care must be 
exercised not to strike the "big water" lying below the gas rock. 

Along the P., Ft. W. & C. R. R., about two miles southeast of 
Mansfield, a Clinton well has been drilled, but no information concern- 
ing it has been secured beyond the fact that it was dry. A well is now 
drilling about three miles east and a little north of the one just mentioned. 
In Weller Township, northeast of Mansfield, two tests have been made: 
one at or near the hamlet, Pavonia, was without reward, and the same 
is true of the other, about a mile north and a little east of Epworth. 
In the last well the Berea was reported at 600 feet, the "Big lime" at 
1,500, and the Clinton at 2,475. Doubtless more money and energy 

2 Orton, Edward. Geol. Surv. of Ohio, Vol. VI, p. 365. 


will be expended in seeking oil or gas in the Clinton in Richland County, 
but judging from information now available the results are not prom- 


Records ar,e at hand of only two wells to the Clinton sand in this 
county. One was drilled on the farm of William Bumpus, in Tiverton 
Township, near the Knox County line, in 1904. The salient features 
of the record are as follows : 

Thickness. To bottom of 
Feet. formation. 


Berea sand, base of ' 700 

Bedford and Ohio shales 1,100 1,800 

"Biglime" 950 2,750 

Showing of oil at 2,330 feet. 

Break in "Big lime" at 2,650 feet. 

Clinton sand 35 2,907 

Bottom of well at 2,943 feet. 

This well was shot, but made nothing better than a showing of oil. 

A year later a well was drilled on the George Oxley farm near the 
western margin of Perry Township, and the record is similar to the one 
just given. The Clinton sand was reached at 2,960 feet and was 52 feet 
•thick, but contained 4 feet of shales in the lower part. It made nothing 
better than a show of gas. These two wells show unusual thicknesses of 
sand and lead to the hope that the stratum may be both continuous and 
in good quantity. Prospective drillers, however, should note the in- 
creasing thickness of the "Big lime." 


This county lies north of Coshocton and like that has been but little 
explored so far as the Clintom sand is concerned. As will be surmised, the 
one obstacle is the great depth. A test made on the Colopy farm in the 
southwestern corner of Richland Township found the Clinton sand at 
3,059 feet with the following structure: 


Sand 14 

Shales , 24 

Sand 22 

The rock was shot, but yielded nothing more than a show of oil. 

On March 1, 1904, a well was begun on the farm of Peter Schlarb 
about three miles west of Millersburg. Troubles of various kinds, espe- 
cially those resulting from heavy flows of brine, impeded the work so that 
the well was not completed until August 1. The record as provided by 
Mr. B. S. Stretton follows: 




. 178 

Drive pipe , 

Sand and shales 

Casing 6% inch, 264 feet. 

Shales 431 

Berea sand 45 

Bedford and Ohio shales .' ' . . . . 1,180 

"Big lime" 1,152 





To bottom of 




3,093 • 




Clinton sand 

Total depth 3,211 feet. 

The first salt water in the "Big lime" was found at 2,150 feet, and a 
much larger one at 2,806. This was cased off, but at 2,900 feet another 
flow was encountered and the casing was reset. The first screw in the 
Clinton sand the hole filled with water and the well was finished with that 
handicap. This report of water in the sand is most unusual and leads to 
the suspicion that it came from the "Big lime." The well was a total 
failure so far as oil and gas are concerned. . 

A test has also been made on the Kaylor farm along the western edge 
of Knox Township, the only reward being a show of gas. An unusually 
good record of this -well was kept and is given below: 

Sand and gravel 

Shales and sandstone 



Berea sand 

Show of oil in Berea. 

Bedford shales (red) 

Ohio shales 1,010 

" limestone 470 feet 

shales 7 feet 

limestone 443 feet 

s brown limestone ... 40 feet ^ 



Shales and shells 

Black peppery limestone 

Limestone with various colors 

Limestone, white and soft 

Shales and shells . . : 

(sand 5 feet "1 
shales and sand ... 9 feet > 
sand and shales 14 feet J 

Shales and shells 


Shales (red) 

Shales and shells 

Bottom of well at 2,957 feet. 


To bottom of 

















"Big lime" 





























Only four wells have reached the Clinton sand in Wayne county. 
One of these was a total failure while the remaining three produced gas. 
The result, however, has fallen far short of making the search profitable. 
In 1909 a well was drilled on the Ryland farm in Section 6 of Plain Town- 
ship, the log of which follows: 

Thickness. To bottom of 
Feet. formation. 


Drive pipe 40 40 

Casing 8 inch, 450 feet. 

Casing 6K inch, 2,000 feet. 

"Big lime" 1,060 2,760 

Clinton sand 15 2,920 

Bottom of well at 2,964 feet. 

The result was a flow of gas that was estimated at from 1,000,000 to 
2,000,000 cubic feet per day and a closed or rock pressure that measured 
650 pounds to the square inch. In the same year a well was drilled on a 
farm that joins the Ryland on the northeast. The Clinton sand was found, 
but was thin and without fuel of any kind. Both wells showed oil in the 
Berea. Early in the spring of 1910 a well was completed to the Clinton 
sand on the southwest quarter of Section 17 of Congress Township. The 
top 8 feet of the sand was of good quality, but farther down it was mixed 
with shales. The well is classed with the small gas producers. 

The fourth test in the county was about one mile west of Wooster 
and was completed July 1, 1910. The well head is approximately 860 
feet above sea level. For the following record and facts, the Survey is in- 
debted to Mr. H. B. Qdenkirk, of Wooster: . 

Drive pipe 10 inch 

Berea sand 

Casing 8 inch, 509 feet. 

Bedford shales (red) 

Ohio shales 1,285 

Heavy flow of brine at 2,055. 
"Big lime" 1,085 2,915 

Salt 2,360 to 2,400 feet. 

Casing 6% inch, 2,126 feet. 

Shales 189 3,104 

Clinton sand 31 3,135 

Bottom of well at 3,140 feet. 

After shooting the sand with 80 quarts of nitroglycerine, it began 
flowing gas at the rate of 1,440,000 cubic feet per day, but a week later, 
during which it was blowing freely into the air, it measured 325,000 cubic 


To bottom of 












feet. The rock pressure was 850 pounds. It showed some oil also, but 
this had not been pumped when the well was visited in August, 1910. 
Thinking that another shot would improve the well, an effort was made to 
draw the tubing, but without success. The gas was used for a short time 
in burning bricks, and that may be its permanent service. No water was 
found in the sand, which lies 2,244 feet below ocean level. Interesting to 
note, the well disclosed 40 feet of rock salt, this being reported free from 
shales or other impurities. It is the farthest south that this formation 
has been found. 


This lies west of Wayne and has been tested to the Clinton sand at 
more than a dozen places. These will now be reviewed : 

Vermilion Township* — This is the only township in the county that 
has yielded fuel in commercial quantities and that is natural gas. In 
January, 1910, a well was completed on the farm of George W. Long 
near the southern margin of Section 9. and a gas well with a closed 
pressure of 1,000 pounds and an open flow of 230,000 cubic feet per 24 
hours secured. The well head is 1,250 feet above tide level, and the log 
is as follows: 

Thickness. To bottom of 
Feet. formation. 

■> Feet. 

Drive pipe 145 145 

Berea sand 18 750 

Bedford and Ohio shales 920 1,670 

"Big lime" 980 2,650 

Water at 1,900 feet. 

Casing 6^ inch, 2,015 feet. 

Clinton sand 3 2,792 

Bottom of well at 2,852 feet 

Three additional wells have been drilled in the township and gas pro- 
ducers secured. One of these was very large and with a rock pressure of 
1,075 pounds, but the yield of the remaining two was much smaller. 
Several locations have been made near these and the Clinton will have 
been reached, ere these lines are in print. The thickness of the sand 
r anges from 3 to 20 feet. 

Hanover Township* — About 1905 a well was drilled on the Stull 
farm near the southern margin of the township. The Clinton sand, two 
feet thick, was found at 2,763 feet, but was without oil or gas. 

Green Township* — A well to the Clinton sand is reported about one 
mile north of Perrysville, but no information has been secured concern- 
ing it beyond the fact that it was dry. 

Mohican Township* — A Clinton well is reported a short distance 
northwest of Jeromeville, but it disclosed neither oil or gas. 


Jackson Township*— March 9, 1906, a well was completed on the 
Utz farm, northwest quarter of Section 21, the altitude of the well head 
being 1,265 feet. The following record of this well was secured: 

Thickness. To bottom of 
Feet. formation. 


Berea sand 15 670 

Bedford and Ohio shales 995 1,665 

'f Big lime" 1,100 2,765 

Shales 96 2,861 

Clinton sand 12 2,873 

The sand lies 1,611 below sea level while in the Long well it was 
only 1,539, a drop of 72 feet in 12 miles or 6 feet to the mile, the direction 
being nearly northeast. 

The Utz well showed oil, was shot and the pump attached. The 
yield, however, was small and the well was soon abandoned. Encour- 
aged by this, another hole was drilled in 1909 just across the road, a good 
flow of gas being secured, but this soon gave out. Two additional wells 
have been drilled in this township; one in the northeastern corner on the 
Landis farm in Section 3, and one in the southwestern corner on the Kel- 
ley farm in Section 29. The first found 3 feet of sand, the second little 
or none, and both wells were failures. 

Ruggles Township — Three wells have been reported in this town- 
ship, but the data are very indefinite and unsatisfactory. Possibly two 
may not have reached the Clinton. All were failures. 


Quite a number of Clinton wells have been sunk in the south- 
western corner of this county, the result being 4 gas wells, one oil well 
and 3 dry holes. From two to three miles south of west of Lodi is the 
most promising territory. Even there the sand is thin, ranging from 5 to 
12 feet, and the wells rather small. The general rock succession is 
shown by the following record of E. S-. Albert well No. 1, the head 
being 920 feet above sea level : 

Thickness. To bottom of 
Feet. formation. 


Berea sand 10 396 

Bedford and Ohio shales 1,116 1,512 

"Big lime" 1,127 2,639 

Water at 1,722 feet. 

Clinton sand 14 2,763 

Bottom of well at 2,777 feet. 

This well is northeast of those in Jackson and Vermilion Town- 


ships of Ashland County, whose sea level position has already been 
stated. The sand in the Albert well record, just given, lies 1,829 feet 
below sea level, a drop from the Utz well (page G2) of 218 feet or 27 
feet to the mile. 

North of the Lodi field a number of tests have been made. One 
in Chatham Township found the sand dry, while farther north, in 
Litchfield, the result is somewhat mixed. *Near the middle of the 
southern part a dry hole was secured; but about two miles farther north, 
on the Stranahan farm, an oil well, starting at about 10 barrels per day, 
was the reward. In this the Clinton sand lies about 1,739 feet below 
sea level. Encouraged by this result, another test is being made about 
a mile to the west. Near the southern margin of Penfield Township 
a gas well has been secured and two additional tests are now being 
made, one north and one west of the producer. 


This county, which borders on Lake Erie, has been tested at a 
number of places, and in Avon Township nearly 30 wells have been 
drilled, of which 15 were total failures. Following is a record of Kenzel 
No. 1, in the southeastern quarter of the township: 

Thickness. To bottom of 
Feet. formation. 


Drive pipe 63 63 

Bedford and Ohio shales 957 1,020 

"Biglime" 1,325 2,345 

Casing 6% inch, 1,425 feet. 

Salt from 1,535 to 1,570 and from 1,680 to 1,698. 

Clinton sand 8 2,420 

Bottom of well at 2,480 feet. 

The Ohio shales lie immediately below the drift in this territory, 
and so the Berea does not appear in the well record. The "Big lime" 
contained much water, filling the hole 2,000 feet, but the Clinton sand, 
1,722 feet below sea level, was free from water as well as oil and gas. 
Salt was found at two horizons in the "Big lime," and this useful min- 
eral is reported in every well as far west as the meridian passing through 
Elyria. The Clinton sand usually ranges from 4 to 15 feet in thick- 
ness, but sometimes is wanting. The rock pressure for the field is about 
1,000 pounds to the square inch, and the largest well is reported as 
having started flowing at the rate of 5,000,000 cubic feet per day. In 
general the wells are much smaller, and this fact, with the very large 
proportion of dry holes, has made the territory unprofitable. 

Ridgeville Township lies south of Avon and has been tested at 


three places, one each in the northeast and northwest corner, and one 
between these and a little farther south, but all were failures. In 
Sheffield Township, west of Avon, one test has been made, the location 
being near the Lorain & Elyria Electric R. R., and about a half mile 
from the southern line of the township. The head was about 650 feet 
above *sea level, and the log is as follows: 

Thickness. To bottom of 
Feet. formation. 


Drift and shales 840 840 

"Big lime" 1,230 2,070 

Water at 1,075 feet. 

Clinton sand 7 2,204 

Bottom of well at 2 ,405 feet. 

This well is reported as showing 80 feet of rock salt, but neither 
oil nor gas. The top of the sand lies 1,547 feet below ocean level, a 
rise of 64 feet from the Utz well, which is 32 miles nearly due south. 
In other words, the southward dip of the sand in this part of Ohio is 
less than 2 feet to the mile. Some years ago a well was drilled at Oberlin, 
but no record has been secured of it. Neither oil nor gas was found. 

It may be worth while at this place to give a record showing the 
Trenton limestone, since many prospectors are not clear as to the posi- 
tion of the "Big lime" and Clinton with reference to the Trenton. The 
record which follows is that of the Citizens Well No. 1, drilled at Nor- 
walk, in 1887: 

Thickness. To bottom of 
Feet. formation. 


Drift 85 85 

Bedford and Ohio shales 355 440 

"Big lime" 850 1,290 

Niagara and Clinton shales and limestones . 400 1,690 

Medina shales 110 1,800 

Ordovician (Lower Silurian) shales and 

limestones 845 2,645 

Trenton limestone at 2,645 feet. 

This log does not show the Clinton sand for the simple reason that 
it does not extend that far west, its place being occupied by shales. 


Many tests for oil or gas have been made in this county. In 1886 
a well was drilled at Newburg, in search of gas for a rolling mill, but 
at a depth of 3,000 feet the tools became fast in the well and it was 
abandoned. According to Qrton, work was suspended in the Clinton 


limestone which forms the basal part of the "Big lime." 1 A little gas 
was secured, and another well soon started, but with no better success. 
Since that time a number of tests on the western side of the county 
have reached the Clinton sand, but with little or no success. A well 
on the White farm just west of Rocky River showed a little oil, and 
that is occasionally dipped from the well by farmers and used as a lubri- 
cant. 2 Possibly the source of this was in the "Big lime" rather than 
in the Clinton sand. 

In the summer of 1907, the East Ohio Gas Company drilled a well 
on the Gray farm about one mile north of Berea. The "Big lime'' 1 
was struck at 1,075 feet and at 1,280 a flow of gas, reported at 500,000 
cubic feet, was found. Work continued to 3,200 feet without finding 
the Clinton sand, and the well was abandoned. 

About the same year (1907), three wells were drilled near Olmsted 
Falls, two of which were total failures, while the third yielded a little 
gas, though no use has been made of it. This well is on the Garfield 
and Caine farm and is about one-half mile west of the village. The 
record as furnished by the East Ohio Gas Company follows: 

Thickness. To bottom of 
Feet. formation. 


Drift 10 10 

Drive pipe 10 inch, 19 feet. 
Berea sand 80 90 

Casing 8j^ inch, 85 feet, 

Bedford and Ohio shales . . /f 1,120 1,210 

"Big lime" 1^455 2,665 

Casing 6% inch, 1,540 feet. 

First salt water at 1,480 feet. 

Casing 5% w inch, 2,613 feet. 

Heavy flow of water at 2,450 feet. 

Showing of oil at 2,300, 2,355 and 2,390 feet. 
Clinton sand at 2,680 feet. 
Total depth of well 2,770 feet. 

The well head is 780 feet above ocean level, and hence the top of 
the Clinton sand lies 1,900 feet below the same datum plane. 

For the convenience of persons desiring to know the position of 
the Clinton sand in Northern Ohio, the following summary is given* 

Ashland County. 

Vermilion Township. 

Long well No. 1 1,539 feet below tide level. 

Jackson Township. 

Utz well No. 1 1,611 feet below tide level. 

^rton, Edward. Geol. Surv. of Ohio, Vol. VI, p. 352. 
2 Manuscript of Professor Frank Carney. 


Wayne County. 

Wooster 2,244 feet below tide level. 

Medina County. 

Harrisville Township. 

E. S. Albert well No. 1 .... 1,829 feet below tide level. 
Lorain County. 

Avon Township. 

Kenzel Well No. 1 1,722 feet below tide level. 

Ridgeville Township. 

Sheffield well No. 1 1,547 feet below tide level. 

Cuyahoga County. 

Olmsted Township. 

Garfield and Caine well 1,900 feet below tide level. 




November, J9J0. 

5— G. B. 13—1,000. 



Professor of Natural Sciences at Marietta College from 
1852 to I860, and one of Ohio's leading geologists 
during the seventies. 

Dr. J. A. Bownocker, 

State Geologist. 

Dear Sir : — I submit herewith my report on the Maxville limestone. 
It represents a somewhat careful and rather detailed study of this im- 
portant formation which is represented at too many places in our state 
by only a gap — hiatus — in the stratigraphic record. 

Very truly yours, 

W. C. Morse. 
Ohio State University, 
Columbus, Ohio, November 23, 1910. 




Introduction and Bibliography. 


Areas of outcrop 7 5 

Area beneath the surface 75 

Exploration * 75 

Previous field work ' 5 

Present field work ' 5 

Geologic position ' 7 " 

Bibliography and abstract of literature 77 


Summary • yo 


Location and description of exposures. 

The Northern Area 101 • 

Jonathan Creek exposures •• 101 

Kents Run exposures * 21 

Wells of the South Fork of Jonathan Creek and tributaries 130 

Exposures of Rush Creek and tributaries 131 

Exposures along Little Monday Creek and its tributaries 138 

Exposure on Three Mile Run l44 

The Central Area 145 

The Southern Area l47 

Little Raccoon Creek exposures I 47 

Exposures of the Little Scioto River and tributaries 151 

Records of wells along Pine Creek and tributaries 154 

Exposures along the Ohio River 159 

The Area beneath the surface 164 

The fossiliferous blocks in the Sharon conglomerate 165 

Summary 1 "5 


Introductory statement 168 

Correlation with Mississippian formations of East-Central Kentucky. 168 

Correlation with Mississippian formations of the West 170 

Correlation with the Mississippian formations of the Appalachian 

Region 175 

Economic Geology. 

Introductory statement 178 

Road metal • * 7 8 

General statement 178 

Muskingum County 179 

Perry County 170 




Hocking County 181 

Vinton County 181 

Jackson County 181 

Scioto County 181 

Railway ballast 181 

General statement 181 

Perry and Muskingum Counties 182 

Vinton County 182 

Ohio River Valley 182 

Cement stone 183 

General statement 183 

Fultonham and White Cottage 184 

Olive Furnace 185 

Furnace flux 185 

Lime 187 

Fertilizer 187 

Building stone 187 




VLL. Ebenezer Baldwin Andrews 78 

VIII. A. — A view of the Maxville limestone in Cut No. 4 between Mt. 
Perry and Fultonham. 
B. — An exposure of the Maxville limestone in Jonathan Creek op- 
posite the Fultonham Depot 108 

IX. A view of the Maxville limestone and the Sharon member in Cut No. 

5 between Mt. Perry and Fultonham 112 

X. A. — An exposure of the Maxville in Kents Run opposite the Thomp- 

son Residence at White Cottage. 
B. — A view of the Hendricks Quarry on the west bank of the stream 

at Maxville 128 

XI. A.— A view of the Maxville limestone and the Sharon member in the 

Hendricks Quarry on the east bank of the valley at Maxville. 
B. — Contact of the Maxville limestone and the Sharon member in 

the same Hendricks Quarry at Maxville 140 



1. — A diagram of the uneven upper surface of the Maxville limestone and 

the iron ore in the base of the Pennsylvanian '. 113 

2. — A "fossil" valley. A sketch of the south bank of Kents Run at Opera 123 

3. — A sketch of the Maxville limestone and Rushville shales in Jockey 

Hollow 133 

4. — The disconformity between the Maxville limestone and the Sharon 
conglomerate in the Hendricks Quarry on the west bank at Max- 
ville 142 

5. — A diagrammatic sketch to illustrate the thinning out of a number of 

Mississippian formations in the Kentucky- Ohio area 175 

6. — A cross section of the Maxville limestone along Jonathan Creek be- 
tween Mt. Perry Iron Bridge and a point one mile below the Ful- 
tonham Depot 186 


The study of the Maxville limestone was undertaken as a thesis 
requirement for an advanced degree at the Ohio State University 
(granted in 1908) under the direction of Prof. Charles S. Prosser, and 
has been continued until the present time. The writer wishes to express 
his appreciation of an inspiring teacher and his thanks. for the many 
suggestions and criticisms. A grant of fifty dollars was made by the 
Ohio Academy of Science to defray a part of the expense of the field 
work. This amount furnished a beginning, and the author takes this 
opportunity of expressing his sense of obligation to that organization, 
through the former chairman of the executive committee, Prof. "William 
E. Lazenby. Dr. John A. Bownocker, State Geologist, also kindly al- 
lowed the expense and salary for a number of days of field work per- 
formed during the summer of 1909. Mr. James Morse of Hocking Coun- 
ty, and Mr. Samuel Earick of Perry, very generously furnished a horse 
and buggy for a number of weeks without charge to the Academy or to 
the state. To both of these and to a number of other friends the writer 
is under obligation. 






The Maxville limestone appears at the surface in an interrupted 
series of outcrops in the southern half of the state of Ohio. More 
specifically, the series extends from Kents. Run and Jonathan Creek, 
near Zanesville, southwest to the Kentucky side of the Ohio River, 
near Wheelersburg. Because of the interruptions, the region is nat- 
urally divisible into three parts — a northern, a central and a southern 
area. The northern area extends from Kents Run to Logan, and within 
it the Maxville is most fully developed. It also contains the best ex- 
posures, since the Zanesville & Western Railway cuts through the forma- 
tion in a number of places along Jonathan Creek. The southern area 
extends from Hamden to the Ohio River. Only a few exceedingly small 
and isolated patches of Maxville are found in this area. The central 
area lies between Logan and Hamden, and so far as known contains no 


Besides the few wells near the line of outcrop in which the Maxville 
was encountered, there are a large number of wells far to the east of 
this line in which the limestone is also found. These wells are located 
principally in Monroe and Washington counties, in the southeastern 
part of the state. So universally present is the limestone in this region 
that it has become an important horizon marker for the oil diillers. 



Practically all of the field work upon the Maxville limestone was 
done in the years 1869 and 1870. It was performed by Prof. E. B. 
Andrews, while engaged in the study of the rocks of the second district, 
which comprised nearly the whole of the twenty-three counties lying 
southeast of Columbus. Considering the large extent of the district 
and the limited time of study, the work was most accurately done, and 
Andrews will ever receive credit for discovering, naming and correctly 
determining the geologic position of the stratum. 


The present study of the stratum was begun during the spring of 
1906, and has been continued intermittently until the present time. 




Days and weeks of consecutive work have been spent in the field. How 
ever, during most of this period only such time has been available for 
study as was not required for regular duties. 

In the northern area all of the known exposures have been care- 
fully studied and sections made of them. Within the central area the 
line of contact between the Waverly and Pennsylvanian has been 
crossed and recrossed time and time again in the hope of finding an ex- 
posure of the limestone, but in vain. The few known exposures within the 
southern area have been treated like those of the northern area. 

In addition, the basal conglomerate — the Sharon — • of the overlying 
Pennsylvanian series was studied in Licking and Summit counties. 
Blocks in the conglomerate were known to be fossiliferous, and were 
supposed to be of Maxville origin. In company with Professor Carney, 
these were studied and fossils collected in them in Licking County, and 
Professor Carney's own collection from the same locality was very kindly 
donated for study. A similar study was made in the Cuyahoga Gorge 
and at Boston Ledges in Summit County. 


The Maxville limestone occurs at the top of the Mississippian series. 
It is underlain by the highest formation of the Waverly and overlain 
by the lowest formation of the Pennsylvanian series. Its position and 
relation to the -other formations and members of the Carboniferous sys- 
tem is clearly shown in the following table: 






Monongahela formation. 

Conemaugh formation. 

Allegheny formation. 

'Homewood sandstone. 

Mercer limestones and coals. 

Upper Massillon sandstone. 
Pottsville formation { Wellston coal (No. 2). 

Lower Massillon sandstone. 

Sharon coal (No. 1). 
.Sharon conglomerate. 

Maxville limestone. 

Logan formation. 

Black Hand formation. 

Cuyahoga formation. 

Sunbury shale. 

Berea formation. 

Bedford shale. 



The literature relating to the Maxville stratum is taken up chrono- 
logically in the following pages. The references come first. These are 
followed by either short quotations or brief abstracts, • and the latter in 
turn often by the present writer's interpretations. 

Practically all of this literature pertaining to the Maxville is based 
upon Andrews's report of the field work which he performed during the 
years 1869 and 1870. That the subject of the Maxville limestone should 
reappear in state and other publications from time to time without 
further field work and reports is due primarily to two factors. These 
are (1) the questioning of the stratigraphical assignment of Andrews, 
and (2) the short reviews of the "geological relations" by the chief 
geologists in the succeeding state reports. 

Previous to Andrews's reports, however, some four or five references 
are made to a limetsone, which is believed to be the Maxville. These 
references are in the First and Second Annual State Reports, and appeared 
in the year 1838. The priority of these references necessitates their dis- 
cussion first, although a presentation of Andrews's reports first would 
seem more appropriate. 

Briggs, Jr., C. Report of. Geol. Surv. Ohio, First Ann. Rept., pp. 82, 

83. 1838. 

In this report the author states that: "At Reid's mill, ten miles 
from the former place (Jackson), is a sandy limestone, ten or twelve 
feet thick, which may belong to this stratum, although the question of 
its identity is not entirely settled. Here much of it is light colored and 
sandy, and unless closely examined would be passed by as sandstone 
(p. 82)." 

Continuing, he says: "There remains to be mentioned another 
stratum of limestone, the relative position of which has not been deter- 
mined. It occurs in the south or southwest part of Jackson County, 
on the land of John Canter. The whole stratum may be ten or twelve 
feet thick. The superior part is white, or nearly so, and is fissured in 
almost every direction. The lower part is subcrystalline, and, in some 
places, beautifully shaded with green and red (p. 83)." 

Although in doubt as to the correct position of these limestones, he 
places them, at least tentatively, in the Coal Measures, for they, with 
others, are discussed under "Limestones" of the "Lower coal series." 
The Maxville occurs at both of these places, and the description fits it 
fairly well. For these reasons it is believed that these limestones and 
the Maxville are one and the same. 

Briggs, Jr., C. Report of. Geol. Surv. Ohio, Second Ann. Ret>t. t p. 135. 



In the second report Briggs has, among others, a geological account 
of Hocking and Athens counties. In his description of the Coal Measure 
limestones he says: "The lowest stratum of limestone which was ob- 
served is in Hocking County, on Three Mile Run, Sec. 28, Green Town- 
ship, a little more than a mile from the Hocking River and about three 
miles below Logan. It lies in layers from a few inches to a foot in 
thickness, the average depth of the stratum being from eight to nine feet. 
The upper portion, from three to four feet in thickness, is yellowish or 
buff colored, containing so much iron that it may perhaps be used as an 
iron ore. At any rate, the ferruginous matter will render it the more 
valuable for a flux. The lower layer is nearly white, and will make lime 
of a superior quality. It seems to be nearly pure carbonate of lime, 
and in places sub-crystalline and sufficiently compact to admit of a 

"* * * It can be seen to the best advantage in the southeast part 
of Perry County, at McCormick's Quarry, on Sec. 17, in the township 
before mentioned (Monday Creek). Here it is extensively quarried for 
the manufacture of lime. A new quarry has also been opened south of 
it on Sec. 20 (p. 135). " 

The Maxville occurs at both of these places. At the former place 
nine feet and four inches are now exposed. At, the latter it was formerly 
quite extensively burned for lime. It would seem that the limestone 
which Briggs described at both places is, the Maxville. 

Andrews, E. B. Report of Progress in the Second District. Geol. Surv. 
Ohio, Rept. Prog, in 1869, pp. 80-86. 1870. 

As has already been stated, Andrews named, described and deter- 
mined the geological position of the Maxville limestone. He says: 
"There is above the Logan sandstone group a limestone horizon, although 
the limestone is not everywhere persistent. It often gives place to sand- 
stone of the usual coal measure grit. It was evidently formed on local 
basins occupied by quiet waters and cut off from the reach of the strong, 
sand-moving currents. But as these limestones group themselves upon 
one geological horizon, and always rest upon the top of the Logan sand- 
stone group, I have no doubt that they have the same geological age and 
were formed at the same time. I have called it the Maxville limestone 
from the village of that name in Monday Creek Township, in Perry 
County, eight or ten miles northeast of Logan, where it has been exten- 
sively burned into quicklime (p. 80). ;; 

As a second place of occurrence, Andrews refers on the same page 
to the quarry on the land of James Tonnihill, Section 28, Green Town- 
ship, Hocking County. This is undoubtedly the limestone which Briggs 
found on Three Mile Creek a mile from the Hocking River, 

Nothing was known of the limestone in any direction from this 


place, except to the north. "It appears continuously northward for 

half a mile, and then is said not to be seen until within two miles of 

Maxville." Andrews states further that "south and west of the Hocking 

River it has not been noticed; but from recollections of explorations 

made by me several years since between Jackson and the Ohio River, I 

am led to think that in a few places I saw small developments of this 

limestone in its true geological horizon. The same horizon, continued 

across the Ohio River, would strike the Sub -carboniferous limestone df 

Kentucky. I shall be able, next season, to settle this important point." 

In a footnote at the bottom of the page he says: "This has subsequently 

been verified, and the Maxville limestone will probably prove to be the 

equivalent of the Chester limestone of the Illinois Reports (pp. 80, 81)." 

After commenting on the limited extent of the limestone at Maxville, 

Andrews refers to a third basin, which is much larger than the other two. 

"Following the horizon of the Maxville limestone north through Perry 

County," he says, "we find the stone finely exhibited in Section 16, 

Madison Township, Perry County, on the land of Edward Danison. 

Here the waters of Jonathan Creek have excavated a deep channel, and 

the limestone, with perhaps fifty feet of the Logan sandstone, is exposed 

to view. * * * The limestone is from this point often seen in the 

valley, and is well exposed at Newtonville (now called White Cottage), 

Newton Township, Muskingum County, where it lies in the bed of the 

stream. At Newtonville and in the vicinity a fine collection of fossils 

was made from the limestones, all indicating the Sub-carboniferous 

character of the rocks (p. 82). " 

Andrews, E. B. Lower Carboniferous Limestone in Ohio. Am. Jour. 
Sci., Vol. 1, pp. 91, 92. 1871. 

To further substantiate his position with reference to the age of 
the Maxville, Andrews writes: "For several years I have suspected that 
a certain limestone in southeastern Ohio should be classed with those of 
the Lower Carboniferous limestones. The supposition was entirely con- 
trary to the 'traditions of the elders/ and furthermore, the limestone was 
above the principal range of conglomerate which has been ever regarded 
as true Coal Measure conglomerate. In the prosecution of the Ohio 
Geological Survey in the Second District, entrusted to me, I find the con- ' 
glomerate referred to is a Waverly conglomerate; that it is separated 
from the base of the productive Coal Measures by an upper Waverly 
sandstone group, rich in fossils, which I have called the Logan sandstone 
group j and that resting upon this group is, in many places, a limestone, 
called the Maxville limestone, which is a true Lower Carboniferous lime- 
stone. * * * The stratigraphical position of the limestone and the 
contained fossils led me to suspect that we had in it an Ohio representa- 
tive of the Chester limestone of the Illinois Reports. This opinion has 
been confirmed (p. 91). " 


He then gives the following "List of species and genera," b;y Meek: 

1. Zaphrentis spc. 

2. Scaphiocrinus decadactylus Hall ? 

3. Productus pileiformis McChesney 

4. Productus elegans N. and P. 

5. Chonetes spc. 

6. Athyris subquadrata Hall 

7. Athyris trinuclea Hall 

8. Spirifer (Martinia) contractus M. and W. 

9. Spirifer spc. 

10. Terebratula spc. 

11. Aviculopecten spc. 

12. Allorisma spc. 

13. Naticopsis spc. 

14. Straparollus perspectivus Swallow, spc. 

15. Bellerophon sublsevis Hall 

16. Pleurotomaria spc. 

17. Nautilus spc. 

18. Nautilus spc. 

Quoting farther from Meek's letter, Andrews adds, in part: "Of the 
18 or 20 species of fossils sent from this rock, about one-half are repre- 
sented in the collection only by specimens that are too imperfect for 
specific identification, though none of them, so far as their characters 
can be made out, appear to be allied to known forms from any horizon 
below the St. Louis limestone." 

"Of the remaining species, five can be identified confidently with 
Chester forms, and three others are either identical with Chester species 
or most closely allied to forms of that age. Hence we may safely say 
that eight of the species are Chester types. Two, however, seem to be 
identical with species described from the St. Louis limestone farther 
west (p. 92)." 

Andrews, E. B. Report of Labors in the Second Geological District. 
Geol. Surv. Ohio, Rept. Prog, in 1870, pp. 60-66. 1871. 

Andrews reports the occurrence of the Maxville limestone at a num- 
ber of new places in this survey report, which appeared subsequently 
to the above article in the Journal. He says: "In addition to the loca- 
tions of this limestone in my district, mentioned in my last report, it is 
found on the Zanesville and Maysville turnpike, near the west line of 
Perry County; at Reed's Mill, one mile northeast of Hamden, Vinton 
County; near Enoch Canter's, Section 24, Hamilton Township, Jackson 
County, and on the Harrison Furnace lands, Section 24, Clay Township, 
and Section 7, Harrison Township, Scioto County (p. 65)." 

With reference to the origin of the Maxville, he says, on page 91 of 
the Journal: "This limestone is not a continuous deposit, but has only 
a local development here and there, always resting, however, upon the 


fine-grained Logan sandstone group. It was deposited in quiet basins 
along a uniform horizon. Generally there is an iron ore adhering to 
the top of the limestone. There is no evidence that the local deposits 
were once continuous and united and were subsequently separated by 
erosion.' ' 

This was followed, shortly after, by the following statement on page 
62 of the 1870 Report : "It is more than probable that the Logan deposits, 
and with them the Maxville limestones, which were doubtless formed in 
depressions in the Logan, were brought up above the water, and remained 
for an indefinite period as a vast stretch of sandy flats. It is possible 
that during this period more or less surface erosion took place, but to 
what extent my observations thus far do not furnish data for a definite 
answer/ ' 

With the conditions for erosion so fresh in mind, it seems strange 
that Andrews did not consider erosion at least as one of the possible 
causes why the Maxville is found in isolated patches. A careful study 
of the above statements will show, however, that he considers the depo- 
sition in isolated basins as sufficient to explain the conditions. 


Newberry, J. S. Geological Relations of Ohio. Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. I, 
Pt 1 "D 73 1873 

Andrews, E. B.' Report of Muskingum County. Pp. 314, 315, 317, 319, 
320, 321, 328, 345, 346. 

In this report nothing new about the Maxville limestone was brought 
out. Only a casual reference to it is made by Newberry. A few similar 
references occur in Andrews's report. However, Andrews does state the 
other side of this question as to the origin of the stratum in the following 
sentence: "Whether the thin beds of the Maxville limestone were de- 
posited before this erosion took place, and so shared in it as now to be 
left in isolated patches, or were deposited at first in limited basins, is as 
yet undetermined (pp. 345, 346). " 

Newberry, J. S. Descriptions of Fossil Fishes. Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. 
I, pt. II, pp. 282, 283. 1873. 

This part of Vol. I was devoted to Paleontology. .Among other 
things, it contains descriptions and figures of fossil fishes by Newberry. 
"Fishes of the Sub-Carboniferous Limestone" is the somewhat imposing 
subtitle of some two pages of general discussion. That the basis for the 
discussion was principally the happy anticipation of a true scientist may 
be judged from the closing paragraph. It reads: "The exposures of 
the Carboniferous (sub) limestone in Ohio are few, and they have never 
yet been carefully searched for fish remains. It is to be expected, how- 
ever, that some fishes will be obtained from them, and these are likely 


to be those found in the upper or Chester subdivision, the only portion 

of the great western limestone mass that is represented in our state 

(p. 283). " 

Newberry, J. S. The Carboniferous System. Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. II, 
Pt. I, pp. 99-103. 1874. 

In this report Newberry devotes a few pages to the "Lower Car- 
boniferous Limestone. " In these he copies Meek's list of Maxville fos- 
sils, to which previous reference has been made. He seeks to qualify 
one of Meek's statements, but this seems unnecessary, since Newberry 
evidently misinterpreted the statement. A few general remarks are 
also made about conditions under which the "Lower Carboniferous 7 ' 
rocks of Ohio and adjacent states were laid down. 

Andrews, E. B. Descriptions of Fossil Plants from the Coal Measures ot 
Ohio. Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. II, Pt. II, pp. 415, 416. 1875 

Only two casual references are made to the Maxville limestone. 
Although confined to two sentences, they are sufficient for Andrews to 
drive home his belief that the Maxville is the Ohio equivalent of the 
Chester limestone. ~ 


Read, M. C. Report on the Geology of the Hocking Valley Coal- Field. 
Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. Ill, pp. 653-655, and 712. 1878. 

Newberry, J. S. Review of the Geological' Structure of Ohio. Geol. 
Surv. Ohio, Vol. Ill, pp. 23-25. 1878. 

Orton, Edward. Supplemental Report on the Geology of the Hanging 
Rock District. Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. Ill, pp. 883, 888, op. p. 889, pp. 889-891, 
op. p. 912, pp. 921, 933. 1878. 

Andrews, E. B. Supplemental Report on Perry County, and Portions 
of Hocking and Athens Counties. Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. Ill, pp. 817-824. 

In this volume the Maxville limestone receives more than the usual 
amount of attention. Read gives a "Section of Rocks about Shawnee," 
in which the Maxville is shown at its proper horizon. Some three or 
four references are subsequently made to the formation, and in each 
case it is mentioned as occurring to the west, in the vicinity of Webb's 
Summit and Maxville. The important references occur, however, in the 
controversy between Orton and Newberry on the one hand and Andrews 
on the other. Since the stratigraphical position which Andrews assigned 
to the Maxville and adjacent rocks was questioned by both of the other 
men, the discussion will be given somewhat in detail. 

Newberry, in his "Review of Geological Structure," states that : 
"Prof. Edward Orton, who has been engaged during the past summer 
in a careful review of the geology of the Hocking Valley region, has 
brought out some new facts in regard to the Maxwell limestone which 
will give it fresh interest to geologists, while at the same time they explain 


in ail unexpected way all the mysteries that have hung around it. These 
facts are briefly as follows: 1. That the Maxville limestone can be fol- 
lowed by numerous outcrops as a distinct geological horizon from Perry 
"County to the Ohio River, and that it does not lie in patches alternating 
with others of conglomerate, as has been represented. 2. That one, 
sometimes two, limestones or flints are found within* a hundred feet 
below it, which share in a degree its lithological character and fossils. 
3. That the Wellston and Jackson coals, well known and important 
seams in southern Ohio, are both beneath the Maxville limestone. 

"A recent visit to the Hocking Valley, in company with Prof. 
Orton, has resulted in the verification of all his observations, and the 
collection of fossils from the Maxville limestone and Waverly shales, 
which prove beyond question that the lower coals, two or three in num- 
ber, of southern Ohio are of Lower Carboniferous age. 

" Another important result of the recent observations of Prof. 
Orton is to demonstrate that all the conglomerate of southern Ohio lies 
below the Maxville limestone, and is therefore distinct from and older 
than the conglomerate of northern Ohio. The latter conclusion, which 
will, perhaps, be questioned, is established by the facts that the con- 
glomerate of southern Ohio is overlain by shales, which contain the 
fossils characteristic of the Upper Waverly in Holmes, Summit, Mahon- 
ing, etc.; while the conglomerate of northern Ohio — which, apparently, 
extends no further south than Licking County, and thence thickens 
greatly northward — lies upon the Upper Waverly, and has no Waverly 
fossils in or above it (pp. 24, 25)." 

These statements seem to be just a trifle more sweeping than those 
in Orton's letter, which accompanied the latter's report to the Chief 
Geologist, Newberry. In this, letter Orton gives the following conclu- 

"1. The conglomerate of Pike and Jackson counties, which holds 
within it workable coal, is the conglomerate (Black Hand) of the Hock- 
ing Valley, which has been proved to be of Sub-carboniferous age. There 
are several divisions of this Conglomerate, but they are all included within 
two hundred feet of vertical range, and they all belong to one main 

"2. The Jackson Shaft Coal belongs within the limits of this con- 
glomerate, and is therefore of Sub-carboniferous age. The same thing 
is probably true of several other workable coal seams of the district. 

"3. The Maxville limestone does not constitute the base of the Coal 
Measures of southern Ohio, but its place is from fifty to one hundred 
feet above the lowest coal seams. The Sub-carboniferous age of the 
limestone is not hereby questioned, but the same age is asserted for the 
lowest Coal Measures of this district (p. 883). " 

In the report proper Orton says: "The horizon of the Maxville 
limestone can apparently be followed in patches of gray or drab, some- 

6— G. B. 13—1000. 


times bluish, limestones, generally sandy in composition, from the south 
line of Vinton County, through the townships of Lick, Franklin and 

Hamilton, of Jackson County,' and through Harrison and ( ) 

townships, (of) Scioto County, to the Ohio River. In other words, the 
Maxville limestone constitutes a definite horizon in the Lower Coal 
Measures. It may be described as an intra-conglomerate limestone. 
The main body of the conglomerate, the Waverly conglomerate of 
Prof. Andrews, lies below it, but in the southern part of the district it 
is also overlain in some instances by twenty or thirty feet of conglom- 
erate (p. 891)." 

From this it is seen that Orton's published claims of the distribu- 
tion of the Maxville limestone are not so great as Newberry reported 
above. The northern limit is Vinton instead of Perry County, while the 
southern is the same in either case. To what limestone in Lick and 
Franklin townships, Jackson County, Orton referred, is not known, 
but it must have been one of the limestones belonging to the Pennsyl- 
vanian series. 

A chart of the "Coal Seams of the Hanging Rock District" is given 
in which the position of the limestones is also shown (op. p. 912). 
Another chart, "General Section, Showing Order of Succession of Coals, 
Ores and Limestones in the Hanging Rock District," as its name indi- 
cates, shows all of the rocks (op. p. 921). In both charts the Maxville 
is placed above the Jackson Shaft and Wellston coals. "Combined 
Sections from Vicinity of Hamden Junction, Vinton County, by Dr. L. 
W. Baker," is the title of still another chart published by Orton in this 
same report (op. p. 933). All of the strata are given in this section. 
The Maxville limestone is shown well up in the Pennsylvanian series 
with two or three coals below. 

In this report Andrews firmly defends the position and age assigned 
to the Maxville limestone. He says: "The Maxville limestone rests 
upon the Waverly, and its deposition marked a new era in geological 
history. It is no part of the Waverly series, and has nothing in common 
with the Productive Coal Measures. As the last statement has recently 
been questioned by my associate, President Orton, who has expressed 
to me and to others his strong belief that the Maxville limestone is one 
of the regular Coal Measure limestones, having its true place about one 
hundred feet above the base of the Coal Measures, I shall be expected 
to give the reasons for the conclusions reached during the progress of 
the Survey and which I firmly hold (p. 817)." 

After the seven places of occurrence are mentioned, the limestone 
is briefly described at each one. When the rocks are shown above and 
below, attention is always called to this fact and that these are the "Coal 
Measures" and Logan respectively. The "Lower Carboniferous" posi- 
tion of the Maxville is thus clearly shown. 

Near the close of the discussion Andrews states that: "In the report 
for 1869 it was suggested that these areas of Maxville limestone may 


represent local basins in which the limestone was deposited. This may 
have been wrong, for it is quite possible that in the original deposition 
the areas were connected and the formation continuous. After deposi- 
tion, large areas of it might have been removed with much of the Waverly 
before the beds of the Coal Measure rocks were laid down. This would 
leave valleys between the remnants of the Maxville limestone series. 
The subject of the erosion of the Waverly and consequent uneven char- 
acter of the floor on which the Coal Measures rest, has often been referred 
to in the Ohio Reports, and by different persons. In the report of Holmes 
County, in the present volume, Mr. M. C. Read gives, on page 544, an 
interesting illustration of this. Waverly rocksj capped with Conglom- 
erate, are seen on one side of a hill, while on the other there are one hun- 
dred and ninety-eight feet of Coal Measures, including five seams of 
coal. There was evidently an ancient valley in the old Waverly in which 
the Coal Measures were formed. Proofs of similar valleys- in regions ad- 
jacent to deposits of the Maxville limestone were long since observed. 
Of course the levels of the coals in them, if continued, would pass below 
the level of the limestone; but in no case have any rocks of the true 
Coal Measures been found directly underneath any of the limestone of the 
Maxville series , and I do not believe that such a case is possible 
(pp. 821, 822)." 

In the above paragraph Andrews admits that his idea that "the areas 
of Maxville limestone may represent local basins in which the limestone 
was deposited/' may have been wrong. To take its place, he suggests 
the possibility of an original continuous deposit, later separated by ero- 
sion. The latter hypothesis is not proven, for the instances of erosion 
cited could have taken place as well before the Maxville age as after it. 
The statement only shows his readiness to accept proof that the separate 
patches are due to erosion. The uppermost thought in his mind was to 
prove that although there were coals below the level of the Maxville 
limestone, yet none occurred underneath it, as Orton so unfortunately 


Andrews, E. B. Discovery of a New Group of Lower Carboniferous Rocks 
in Southeastern Ohio. Am. Jour. Sci., Vol. XVIII, p. 137. 1879. 

Andrews reports the 'discovery in Perry County of a group of fos- 
siliferous rocks between the Maxville limestone and the Waverly. From 
the fauna it is inferred that the group is approximately the equivalent 
of the Keokuk in age. The exact place of occurrence is not given, but, 
since the term Rushville was proposed for the group, the exposure is 
probably near the town of that name. A section is shown in which the 
Maxville limestone occurs at the top and is estimated to be from 45 
to 18 feet in thickness. 

Newberry, J. S., Chief Geologist; Andrews, E. B.; Orton, Edward; Read, 
M. C; Gilbert, G. K.; Winchell, N. H., and Hill, F. C, Assistant Geologists* 
Geological Map of the State of Ohio. Geol. Surv. Ohio. 1879. 


With the exception of a small area at Zanesville, the Lower Carbon- 
iferous limestone horizon is shown on this map as extending continuously 
from Dresden to the Ohio River. 

Geological Atlas of the State of Ohio (Review). Am. Tour. Sci., Vol. 
XVIII, p. 410, 1879. 

From the following quotation it will be seen that Andrews objected 
rather strenuously to the Maxville limestone appearing as a continuous 
formation on a map a part of the work of which was credited to him. 
"Some points in the details of the part of the map relating to the section 
of the state under the charge of Professor E. B. Andrews are not in accor- 
dance with his conclusions; and since he had no part personally, as he 
states, in the preparation of the map, his proposed corrections, recently 
received for this Journal, are here annexed (Newberry, p. 410). 

"(1) The Lower Carboniferous limestone — the Maxville limestone 
of my reports — is represented on the map as having a continuous out- 
crop, forming, with but a single short break, a continuous belt more 
than four hundred miles long around the sinuous margin of the Coal 
Measures. In my investigations in this district, where I have long lived, 
I have found the Lower Carboniferous limestone only in a few localities 
mentioned in the Reports, and always in limited patches. The lime- 
stone belt of the map crosses the paths of Professor Orton in Pike County, 
Professor M. C. Read in Licking County and Professor Stevenson in 
Muskingum (northern), but none of these field-workers saw it, and their 
detailed geological sections give no hint of it. (2) The Conglomerate 
at the base of the Coal Measures reported by Professor Orton in Pike 
County and by myself in Jackson County is omitted from the map 
(Andrews, p. 410)." 

Orton, Edward. Review of Certain Points in the Geology of Eastern 
Ohio. Ann. Rept. Sec'y State for 1879, pp. 612, 613. 1880. 

In this report the Maxville limestone is made a member of a group 
which consists of limestone, flint, fire-clay, coal and other "Coal Measure" 
rocks. After referring to his statements about the Maxville limestone 
in Volume III, Orton says : "I have never discussed this formation for- 
mally, but I am obliged to confess that in what I have said of it incident- 
ally, and in what I have represented in sections accompanying my re- 
ports, I have incorporated several considerable errors. I regret these 
errors all the more because my friends have been, in some instances, 
misled by them in publications that they have made. I refer especially 
to Prof. Newberry's statements in Vol. Ill, Geol. of Ohio. The errors 
to which I refer consist in placing the Wellston coal below the Maxville 
limestone and the Jackson coal 100 feet below the same horizon. I am 
now satisfied that the Wellston coal belongs above the Maxville group, 


and the conglomerate as well, and I am not sure that the Jackson coal 
lies below (pp. 612, 613)." 

Whitfield, R. P. Descriptions of New Species of Fossils from Ohio, with 
Remarks on Some of the Geological Formations in Which They Occur. Annals 
New York Acad. Sci., Vol. II, pp. 219-226. 1882. 

The fossils described in this paper were not illustrated, but each 
species was referred to a certain figure and plate in Volume III of the 
Paleontology of Ohio. This volume was to appear later, and in it the 
original descriptions were to be reprinted. The volume was, however, 
never printed. 

The new species included eleven from the Maxville limestone, the 
"equivalent to the Chester limestone or Chester and St. Louis lime- 
stones." They are: 

1. Cyathocrinus inequidactylus 

2. Synocladia rectistyla 

3. Pinna maxvillensis 

4. Allorisma andrewsi 

5. Allorisma maxvillensis 

6. Naticopsis zic-zac 

7. Holopea newtonensis 

8. Macrocheilus subcorpulentus 

9. Polyphemopsis melanoides 

10. Bellerophon alternodosus 

11. Nautilus pauper. 

Orton, Edward. The Stratigraphical Order of the Lower Coal Measures 
of Ohio. Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. V, p. 99, 117. 1884. 

Orton, in- this report, gives a section of Jonathan Creek, in which 
the Maxville limestone is placed at the base of the section and below_ 
the "Coal Measures." The stratum is also referred to the Sub-carbon 
iferous horizon (p. 99). Later in the report he says: "The strati- 
graphical order of the Hanging Rock District was in the main clearly 
shown in my report upon that field in Volume III, Geology of Ohio. 
The general section there published has proved a true one for almost 
every portion of the series, and has become an accepted guide in the 
practical development of the region. An error of some magnitude, and 
very confusing to the true order, is, however, to be found in the position 
assigned to the Maxville limestone. This limestone is undoubtedly of 
Sub-carboniferous age, and is geologically below both the Wellston and 
Jackson coals, whereas the section reverses this true order. The view 
so strenuously maintained by Andrews in regard to this point was the 
true one (p. 117)." 

Hawes, George W. Building Stones of Ohio. Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. V 
pp. 578, 137 (637). 1884. 


In this report of Hawes it is not quite clear whether the author 
places the Maxville limestone within the limits of the Waverly or not 
(p. 578). If he intended so to do he has departed from the usual methods. 
He also refers to the fine Muskingum County court house, which was 
built of limestone from this formation quarried at Newtonville (p. 137 
should be 637, p. 638). 

Orton, Edward. The Coal Seams of the Lower Coal Measures of Ohio. 
Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. V, pp. 869, 885, 991, 1009 and 1010. 1884. 

The author refers to the Newtonville limestone of Chester limestone 
age as occurring near Uniontown (Fultonham), Muskingum County (p. 
869). The term " Newtonville " is simply a synonym that is sometimes 
used instead of the Maxville. A slight reference is also made to the 
Maxville under the subheading, "Coal Mines of Perry County " (p. 885). 
Under the title "The Hocking Valley Coal Field," Orton says: "The 
horizon (Sharon) is well marked, even when the coal is wanting, the 
Maxville limestone (Sub-carboniferous) or its clay, ore or flint being 
often found at nearly the same level (p. 991)." For reasons which will 
be presented later in the stratigraphical division of the present paper, it 
is not best to speak of the Maxville group as consisting of clay, ore or 
flint as well as of limestone. These rocks other than the limestone 
belong to a distinct and later date. 

Under "Mines of Jackson County," we are pleased to hear Orton 
say: "The several conglomerates that occur in this general field are 
in fact one source of the confusion that prevails as to the true order. 
The Waverly (Black Hand) conglomerate is in strong force within this 
district. There are, besides, the conglomerate below and the one above 
the Jackson Shaft coal. As has been abundantly proved, the Carbon- 
iferous Conglomerate can no longer be counted an undivided stratum, 
but it is rather a complex and much varied formation. There is no 
single stratum of pebble rock in the state that has any longer a right to 
be called 'the Conglomerate/ " "In my report upon the Hanging 
Rock District in 1877, Vol. Ill, page 885, a mischievous and confusing 
error appears in all of the sections involving this part of the scale. The 
Jackson Shaft coal and the Wellston coal are represented as lying below 
the Maxville limestone. The real order is given in the preceding state- 
ment (pp. 1009, 1010)." 

Orton, Edward. The Geological Scale of Ohio. Geol. Surv. Ohio, Pre- 
lim. Rept. Petroleum and Inflammable Gas, pp. 17, 26. 1886. 

In this report the "Sub-carboniferous" limestone is given at its 
proper horizon. Mention is also made of its occurrence under cover in 
many drillings in the Ohio Valley, without locating the wells. 


Orton, Edwa d. The Geological Scale of Ohio. Geol. Surv. Ohio, Pre- 
lim. Rept. Petroleum and Inflammable Gas. Reprinted for the author, with 
a supplement by A. H. Smythe, pp. 26, 39. 1887. 

As the title indicates, this is a reprint of the previous volume, with 
a supplement, in the latter of which the Maxville is not mentioned. 

Herrick, C. L. A Sketch of the Geological History of Licking .County. 
Bull. Sci. Lab. Denison Univ., Vol. II, pp. 14, 15. 1887. 

The Maxville limestone is shown in a number of sections in a plate 
of "Grouped Sections from Granville to Newton." The presence of the 
stratum near water level from Newton to near Mt. Perry is also men- 

Orton, Edward. The Geology of Ohio Considered in Its Relations to 
Petroleum and Natural Gas. Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. VI, p. 3, op. p. 4, and p. 
42. 1888. 

The Maxville limestone is placed at its proper horizon in both the 
geological scale and in the vertical section. Speaking of the stratum, 
Orton says: "The limestone is found in outcrop in Scioto, Jackson, 
Hocking, Perry and Muskingum counties. It is reported in the well 
records of Steubenville, Brilliant, Macksburg and at several other points 
in the Ohio Valley (p. 42)." 

Orton, Edward. The Berea Grit as a Source of Oil and Gas in Ohio. 
Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. VI, pp. 321, 327 and 405. 1888. 

In the "general order" of the strata in the wells of the Macksburg 
oil-field (p. 321) the Maxville limestone is not shown, although it was 
mentioned above as occurring there. No record of the well at Brilliant 
is published. The record of the Jefferson Iron Works well at Steuben- 
ville shows a limestone fifty feet in thickness, which is referred to as 
the "Sub-carboniferous" limestcme (p. 337). Speaking of the limestone 
which occurs in the Laughlin well at Martin's Ferry, Orton says: "The 
record can be interpreted with but little difficulty, the Sub-carbonifer- 
ous limestone, which was found at a depth of 845 feet, proving a great 
help in this work of classification (p. 405)." 

Orton, Edward. The Production of Lime in Ohio. Geol. Surv. Ohio, 
Vol. VI, p. 707. 1888. 

The author refers to the variability in composition of the Maxville 
limestone. This undoubtedly is due to a great extent in comparing the 


lower half of the stratum as exposed at one place with the upper half 
at another. 

Herrick, C. L. The Geology of Licking County, Ohio; Part IV, The Sub- 
carboniferous and Waverly Groups. Bull. Sci. Lab. Denison Univ., Vol. Ill, 
Pt. I, pp. 20-23, 1888. 

The author says: "The next link in the series connecting the coal 
measures and the Waverly is found in the so-called Maxville or Chester 
limestone. A considerable fauna will yet be restored to us by a suffi- 
ciently prolonged search in the limestones and shales of this series in 
Ohio, which is nearly 25 feet thick in the vicinity of Fultonham. Eleven 
species have been described from this horizon"by Whitfield. The char- 
acteristic species which are everywhere abundant are Productus parvus, 
which, however, is often much larger than the type, and approaches 
P. semireticulatus in some characters, Spirifer glaber, Athyris subtilita; 
Euomphalus planodorsatus and Belief ophon sp., Pleurotomaria Ches- 
ter ensis (?), Holopea newtonensis (?), Nautilus spectabilis, Ctenodonta (?) 
sp., Allorisma andrewsi (Plate XIII, Fig. 12) and Spirifer increbescens } H. 
With regard to the last-mentioned species, it may be here noted that 
no difficulty exists in tracing this species to its successor in the coal 
measures (S. opimus), and to its probable progenitor in the St. Louis 
group (S. Keokuk var. Hall), this in turn to the Keokuk group. There 
are many hints of this sort which will occur to the attentive student of 
these successive faunae. A cup coral, Lophophyllum sp. (?) (see Plate 
XIII, Fig. 17), also occurs rarely (p. 20)." 

The two references to Plate XIII of Volume III are incorrect. 
They should be to Plate XI; and since this plate was accidentally omitted 
from Volume III, they should be to Plate XI of Volume IV. The state- 
ment of the abundance of the characteristic species is also decidedly 

In the description of Nautilis (?) bisulcatus, sp. n., Herrick says: 
"N. pauper, Whitfield may prove identical with our form, but it would 
not be suspected except from incidental similarities, and the fact that 
our form is derived from the same horizon at Fultonham (p. 21)." 

In this description the reference to "Plate XI, Fig. 16" should also 
be to Volume IV instead of Volume III. 

After giving a section from a point two or three miles west of Ful- 
tonham, Herrick says : "No unconformity could be detected between the 
shales forming here the base of the coal-measures and the reddish layers, 
which are undoubtedly Waverly and contain Chonetes illinoisensis and 
other characteristic fossils (p. 21)." 

t Later: "While conformity between the upper Waverly and lower 
Chester does not exclude the idea of a considerable interval of time be- 
tween the fossiliferous bands of the two groups, it is apparent that in 
Licking County the Chester interval is unrepresented and that much of 


the upper Waverly is generally absent, so that the white sandstone or 
conglomerate of the coal-measures lies unconformably on one or other of 
the Waverly beds and the upper surface of the Waverly itself has obviously 
suffered erosion. The amount of the erosion varied in different places, 
and where greatest is covered by coarse quartz pebbles of granitic or- 
igin mingled with coal-measure trees of large size. The suggestion of 
extensive erosion (has) been heretofore made, but absolute proof has 
been wanting. It is our privilege to complete the evidence and to point 
out in general the amount of loss thus incurred. It has been quite 
generally supposed that an elevation of the coast at the close of the 
Waverly period caused the recession of the water, and that the period 
occupied at the west by the deposition of some 550 feet of sediments 
was not a time of rock formation in central Ohio. The results of close 
study of the lowest coal-measure conglomerate has unexpectedly in- 
dicated the contrary. While engaged in collecting samples of the quartz 
pebbles forming the bulk of this conglomerate eight miles northeast of 
Newark, a large number of fragments of limestone were also broken out. 
These are angular, and, though very badly decomposed, show that they 
could not have been derived from a distance, as the quartz must have 
been in order to free itself so fully of the softer, including the country 
rock, and acquire its rounded form, and moreover, they contained a few 
fossils which can only be referred to the age of the Chester or St. Louis 
group. These conglomerates are full of the impressions of Lepidoden- 
drids and Calamites, and seem to have been torn from their places by 
torrents which carried from the mountains to the north their freight of 
coarser and finer material, much of it being of a metamorphic and 
igneous nature. The Chester limestone must at that time have been 
more or less firmly consolidated, perhaps in the form of clods of limy clay, 
and has preserved identifiable remains to tell the story. Thus the same 
coarse conglomerate tells us that a mighty river flowed into the coal- 
measures ocean from a region to the north, exposing igneous and meta- 
morphic (partly granitic) rock, that it flowed through a region covered 
by deposits of St. Louis or Chester age, thus showing that a large series 
supposed to be absent in this part of the state was simply obliterated 
by erosion (pp. 22, 23)." 

Herfick's interpretation of erosion and consequent unconformity is 
probably correct. But that he should have overlooked the proof pos- 
itive in the Fultonham region, and accepted the vaguer paleontological 
evidence, seems strange. Especially is this true when it is stated that 
more or less of the lime in the angular blocks of the Sharon conglomerate 
has been replaced by silica, and that the fossils are in such an extremely 
poor state of preservation that positive identification is practically im- 

Herri ck, C. L. Geology of Licking County. Ohio; Part IV, Waverly 
Group, Continued. Bull. Denison Univ., Vol. IV, Pt. I, p. 122, pi. XI. 1888. 


Plate XI is the one that was accidental y omitted from Volume III. 
It contains the following figures of fossils from the Maxville stratum: 

Fig. 11. Productus parvus. Chester limestone.. 

Fig. 12. Allorisma andrewsi. Chester limestone. 

Fig. 14. Spirifer increbescens. Chester limestone. 

Fig. 15. Spirifer "glaber. Chester limestone. 

Fig. 16. Nautilus bisulcatus. Her. Chester limestone. 

Fig. 17. Lophophyllum sp Chester limestone. 

Fig. 23. Spirifer increbescens. From limestone fragments 
in coal measure conglomerate in Licking County. 

With the exception of the figure of Nautilus bisulcatus, the descrip- 
tion of which appeared in Volume III, these figures are not accompanied 
by descriptions. As a result there is some uncertainty as to the correct- 
ness of at least some of the identifications. Weller has referred Spirifer 
glaber to Martinia contracta, and the writer Spirifer increbescens to 
Spirifer keokuk. Herrick himself admitted that Nautilus bisulcatus 
may prove identical with Whitfield's Nautilus pauper. It seems prob- 
able that Productus parvus and Lophophyllum sp. may also prove 
identical with Productus cestriensis and Zaphrentis sp., respectively. 

Orton, Edward. Geological Scale and Geological Structure of Ohio. 
Geol. Surv. Ohio, First Ann. Rept. (3rd organization), op. p. 9, and pp. 42, 
43. 1890. 

The portion which treats of the Maxville limestone in this report 
was copied from a similar portion, op. p. 4 and 42, of Volume VI. 

Whitfield, R. P. Species from the Maxville Limestone, the Equivalent 
of the St. Louis and Chester Limestones of the Mississippi Valley. Annals 
New York Acad. Sci., Vol. V, pp. 576-595 and pis. XIII and XIV. 1891. 

Since Part II, Paleontology, of Volume III was not printed, as has 
already been stated, the new fossils described by Whitfield in 1882 
failed to be illustrated. In this 1891 report, however, the descriptions 
of the eleven new forms from the Maxville are reprinted from the 1882 
report and are accompanied by illustrations. To these eleven are added 
the descriptions and figures of all of the other known forms, even though 
they had already been so treated. This addition was: 

Zaphrentis cliffordana 
Pentremites elegans 
Polypora varsouviensis ? 
Streptorhynchus crassum 
Productus elegans 
Productus pileiformis 
Spirifera (Martinia) contractus 
Spirifera rockymontana ? 


Athyris sub quadrat a 

Terebratula turgida 

Schizodus chesterensis 

Straparollus similis 

Bellerophon sublsevis ? 

Nautilus (Temnocheilus) spectabilis 

Orton, Edward. Geological Scale and Geological Structure of Ohio. 
Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. VII, Pt. I, p. 4 op. p. 4, and pp. 35, 36. 1893. 

This part (Part I) of Volume VII was later bound with Part II to 
form the complete volume of 1894. Since the description of the "Sub- 
carboniferous" or Maxville limestone in Part I is practically a copy of 
that which appeared in Volume VI, it is not necessary to discuss this 
description now or to refer to it again when Volume VII as a whole is 


Whitfield, R. P. Species from the Maxville Limestone, the Equivalent 
of the St. Louis and Chester Limestones of the Mississippi Valley. Geol. 
Surv. Ohio, Vol. VII, Pt. II, pp. 465-481, pis. IX. X. 1894. 

These descriptions and illustrations of the Maxville limestone are 
exact copies of the ones that appeared in Volume V of the AnnaJs of the 
New York Academy of Sciences. 

Weller, Stuart. The Batesville Sandstone of Arkansas. Trans. N. Y. 
Acad. Sci., Vol. XVI, pp. 251-282 and pis. 

In this report Weller describes a number of new species from 
the Batesville sandstone. From both the paleontologic and strati- 
graphic evidence he pronounces the Batesville and the Aux Vases (Cy- 
press) sandstone to be definite equivalents, and he states that "The 
paleontologic evidence also points to the equivalence of the Batesville 
sandstone and the Maxville limestone of Ohio (p. 282)." 

Martzolff, Clement L. History of Perry County, Ohio. Ward & Weiland, 
New Lexington, Ohio, pp 5, 6, 18 and 19. 1902. 

In this report Martzolff says: "At McCuneville the Sub-carbonif- 
erous limestone is one hundred and ten feet beneath the creek bed (pp. 
5, 6)." Later he gives a "Section of Rock at McCuneville" (pp. 18, 19), 
the lower part of which is from a salt well and includes the Maxville 
limestone. The section is credited to the Ohio Geological Report, but 
to which one is not stated. His "List of Fossils from the Maxville Lime- 
stone" consists of eighteen species. The list agrees, in its entirety, with 
Meek's list,, which Andrews published in Volume I of the American 
Journal of Science and in the 'Report of Progress' in 1870, and to both 
of which reference has already been made. 

Stevenson, John J. Notes on the Mauch Chunk of Pennsylvania. Am 
Geol., Vol. XXIX, pp. 242-249 1902. 



In this paper Stevenson has shown that the names Vespertine and 
Umbral, which H. D. Rogers applied to the lower and upper halves of 
the Mississippian rocks in Pennsylvania, were rejected, and replaced by 
Pocono and Mauch Chunk, by Lesley; and that the Mauch Chunk con- 
sists of three zones, shales, limestones, and shales, in the northern por- 
tion of the state, whereas it consists of only two, limestones and the upper 
shales, in the southern part, and that the United States and Maryland 
surveys have applied the terms Greenbrier and Mauch Chunk, respec- 
tively, to the limestone and upper shales of the original Mauch Chunk. 
These changes are shown more clearly in the following table: 

H. D. Rogers 



Southern Penn. 
and to the south 

States and 



Mauch Chunk 


•j limestones 


(shales , wanting) 

Mauch Chunk 



The limestones (Greenbrier) are, furthermore, shown by Stevenson 
to be made up of a lower siliceous limestone which is barren of fossils 
and an upper limestone which is much purer and very fossiliferous. 
From a rather extensive collection of fossils from this upper limestone, 
which Stevenson sent to him, Weller was enabled to pronounce the fauna 
as practically identical with that of the Maxville of Ohio as described 
by Whitfield in Volume VII of the Ohio Reports. 

Stevenson, John J. Lower Carboniferous of the Appalachian Basin. 
Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., Vol. XIV, pp. 15-96, 1903. 

In this subsequent report Stevenson has made some radical changes 
from the original classification of the Mississippian rocks of the Appa- 
lachian basin. The greater portion of the Pocono shales have had their 
old name supplanted by the term Logan, which the author, in following 
Herrick and Orton, has so expanded that it includes in Ohio not only 
the Logan, but at least the Black Hand as well, a usage not sanctioned 
by the later workers. Tuscumbia is adopted to cover the lower portion, 
siliceous limestone, of the Greenbrier and the shales just beneath which 
form one of the three subdivisions of the original Mauch Chunk and which 
are found only in northern Pennsylvania. For the upper portion — that 
is, the purer, fossiliferous limestone — of the Greenbrier, the term Max- 


ville is adopted. The name Mauch Chunk as used in the restricted sense 
is replaced by the term Shenango. These changes can also be shown 
more clearlv in a table: 

United States and 
Maryland Surveys 

Mauch Chunk, 

Greenbrier fe^ 



Maxville . 




Bownocker, John Adams. The Occurrence and Exploitation of Petro 
leum and Natural Gas in Ohio. Geol. Surv. Ohio, Bull. I. 1903. 

In this report it is said that the Maxville limestone is known to the 
driller as the "Mountain lime" or "Big lime" (p. 24). Under one or 
the other of these names a limestone occurs in the well records at a num- 
ber of different places. These will now be given. 

Wells in which the Maxville is reported: 

'Thickness Page, 
in feet. 

McConnellsville Fair Ground, Morgan County 44 145 

Mead farm, Washington County 35 185 

Hohman Pool, Ludlow Township, generalized, 

Washington County 50 188 ' 

Lucas Farm, Washington County 150 (?) 190 

Germantown Pool, Liberty Township, generalized, 

Washington County 0-20 192 

G. Carpenter Well No. 1, Monroe County 35 196 

J. R. Diest farm, Monroe County . . . 60 196, 197 

George Keller farm, Monroe County 134 201 

Graysville Pool, generalized, Monroe County 60—100 204 

J. Dearth farm, Monroe County 60 205-206 ; 

G. W. Martin farm, Monroe County 67 208 

Holtsclaw well, Monroe County 40 210 

F. C. Newhart well, Monroe County 36 212, 213 

Longshore farm, Muskingum County 40 267 

Orton, Jr., Edward, and Peppel, S. V. The Lime Resources of Ohio 
Available for Portland Cement Manufacture. Geol. Surv. Ohio, Bull. 3, p. 90. 

Orton and Peppel assign the Maxville limestone to a position at 
the base of the Coal Measures and just above the "Sub-carboniferous" 
without stating their reasons. In reference to its origin they say: "It 
appears to have been deposited in lakes or ponds of limited area." This 


statement is also incorrect, since the fossils of the limestone are of ma- 
rine origin. Its most southern exposure is given as two and a half miles 
below. Logan, whereas it is found in Vinton, Jackson and Scioto coun- 

Orton, Jr., Edward. The Composition of the Limestones of Ohio, with 
Special Reference to Their Fitness for Portland Cement Manufacture, Con- 
sidered by Counties. Geol. Surv. Ohio, Bull. 4, op. p. 31. and pp. 79, 82, 85, 
88, 92, 105, 113-115, 122 and 126. 1906. 

This report is accompanied by a map showing the principal lime- 
stone formations of the state. The "area in which the Maxville lime- 
stone may be expected" covers a part of Licking, Muskingum,Perry 
and Hocking counties (op. p. 3i). 

Under the heading of "Hocking County/ 7 Orton corrects his former 
error, and refers the Maxville to the "Sub-carboniferous" rather than to 
the Coal Measures. Speaking of its irregularity, he says: "It seems to 
be eminently a pocket, or lake bed formation, as it can be found only 
here and there inside the area represented by its outermost deposits. 
When found, these different deposits manifest wide differences in com- 
position, thickness and lithological structure, greater than would be apt 
to be the case in a continuous stratum in so short a distance (p. 79)." 
"Its southernmost known deposit" is again given as two and a half 
miles southeast of Logan. These statements in reference to the irreg- 
ularity, difference in composition and southern limit of the stratum 
have already been discussed, and need no further comment save perhaps 
the one in reference to the differences in composition. This variability 
in composition is undoubtedly due in a great degree to the comparing 
of the limestone of one-half of the stratum at one place with that of 
the other half at another locality. 

Under the title of "Jackson County," the author says: "The Max- 
ville has never been found (p. 82)." This seems to be an oversight. It 
will be recalled that Andrews reported as early as 1871 the Maxville 
as occurring near Enoch Canter's, Hamilton Township. 

In "Lawrence County" the Lower Mercer is given as the lowest 
limestone. He says: "This limestone, or the Maxville, was encoun- 
tered at Olive Furnace in a bore hole two hundred feet beneath the 
surface. The core removed was almost white, exceedingly dense, and 
a very pure carbonate of lime. The thickness was reported about twelve 
feet (p. 85)." 

Speaking of Bowling Green, Franklin and Hopewell townships in 
"Licking County," he says: "In this vicinity the Maxville limestone is 
due, and is reported to have been found and worked for road metal in 
1832 and 1835 for construction of the National Road to Columbus. 
Whether these old quarries came into Licking County is not known, but 
in any case they are not believed to represent a thick or important ex- 


tension of the Maxville field. Nothing can be found of this formation 
in the gorge of the Licking River, eight or nine miles north (p. 88)." 

Discussing the formations of "Mahoning County," the author says: 
"The Pottsville formation forms the floor on the north; Coal No. 1, at 
the bottom of the coal measures, was found in pockets around Youngs- 
town and exhausted long ago. * * * The Maxville is missing (p. 

Under "Muskingum County" the author says: "Mr. A. J. Hoover, 
of the Fultonham Brick Company, has drilled through the stone in sev- 
eral places in search of an artesian water supply. He reports the stone 
as variable, being cut out in spots, and present in points only one hun- 
dred feet or so distant. The thickness at the points drilled was about 
forty-five feet (p. 105)." 

Under "Perry County" the author gives a section and an analysis 
of the Maxville as found on the land of David Hendricks, near Maxville, 
and discusses its fitness for a cement stone (pp. 113, 114). Analyses 
of samples from Section 25, Reading Township, and from near Fulton- 
ham, are also given (p. 114). Farther on the author says: "It has 
been quarried here (Glenford) for furnace flux, and for road materials 
during the 1830's, while the Maysville Pike or National Road was being 
put through this section. These old workings were long since abandoned, 
and are now so filled up that samples could not be gotten (p. 115)." 

Speaking of the limestones of "Scioto County," Orton says: "The 
Maxville, due at the bottom of the coal measures, is represented locally 
by a flint fire clay of great purity. This formation occurs in basins or 
pockets, just as the Maxville limestone is suspected of doing. The latter 
is sparingly represented, if at all; by nuggets or bowlders of limestone 
occurring imbedded in clayey strata (p. 122)." Andrews, it will be re- 
called, reported this limestone on the Harrison Furnace lands, where it 
was mined for furnace flux. Under the heading of "Stark County" the 
author says: "The horizon of No. 1 Coal at Massillon is not character- 
ized by any -development of the Maxville limestone stratum (p. 126)." 

Orton, Jr., Edward, and Peppel, Samuel Vernon. The Composition, 
Physical Character and Uses of the Limestones of Ohio, Considered by Geo- 
logical Formations. Geol. Surv. Ohio, Bull. 4, pp. 168-172. 1906. 

As the title suggests, the previous information appearing under 
the separate county headings is here assembled under that of the respec- 
tive formations. At the close of the discussion on "The Maxville Lime- 
stone" the following note appears: "Since writing the foregoing some 
points have been raised which render the classification of the Fultonham 
stone as of Maxville age somewhat less certain than it had been regarded 
previously. The question is one of interest to stratigraphical geolo- 
gists primarily. No abatement need be made in the statements regard- 


ing the quantity or character of this stone, but it is barely possible that 
as a result of the investigations which will now be given to it that it 
may be found to be wrongly named, and that it may be Mercer in age 
instead of Maxville (p. 172)." 

The stratigraphical portion of the present paper shows that the Ful- 
tonham stone is undoubtedly of Maxville age. 


As early as 1838 Briggs described a limestone at Reed's Mill ten 
miles from Jackson, on the land of John Canter in Jackson County, 
on Three Mile Run near Logan, and in southern Perry County, and re- 
ferred it to the Coal Measures, but the limestone is undoubtedly the 
Maxville, and hence belongs to the Mississippian series. 

Andrews, in 1870, was the first to name, describe, and correctly 
refer the Maxville limestone to the Mississippian series. He studied the 
stone at three places, at Maxville, on Three Mile Run, and on Jonathan 
Creek, noted its occurrence in isolated patches, and accounted for this 
isolation by attributing its origin to deposition in local basins. 

In 1871 Andrews published Meek's list of fossils, which confirmed 
the former's belief in the Chester age of the Maxville, and mentioned 
the limestone as occurring at a number of new localities — namely, in 
western Perry County, at Reed's Mill, near Enoch Canter's in Jackson 
County, and on the Harrison Furnace Lands in Scioto County. 

In 1873 Andrews was ready to say that: "Whether the thin beds of 
the Maxville limestone were deposited before this erosion took place, 
and so shared in it as now to be left in isolated patches, or were depos- 
ited at first in limited basins, is as yet undetermined" — the only point 
concerning the stratum about which he ever had occasion to change 
his mind, and one which he never determined. 

The controversy between Orton and Newberry on the one hand 
and Andrews on the other led to the publication of the statements of 
their respective claims during 1878. Orton maintained that one or 
more beds of coal occur beneath the Maxville, and that the limestone 
constitutes a zone which can be followed from Vinton County to the 
Ohio River. Although this was an error, the field evidence was accepted 
by Newberry. Andrews, on the other hand, again showed the Sub- 
carboniferous age of the Maxville, the Logan age of the subjacent rocks, 
and that although there were coals below the level of the Maxville, yet 
none occur underneath it. 

The large geologic map of the state was published in 1879, and upon 
it the Maxville was shown as a continuous belt extending from Dresden 
to the Ohio River with the exception of a small break at Zanesville. 
Since this continuity was not in accord with Andrews's view, and since 
he had no part in the preparation of the map, he objected rather stren- 


uously to his name appearing upon it as one of the assistant geologists, 
and called attention to the fact that the limestone belt crossed the paths 
of Orton in Pike County, Read in Licking, and Stevenson in Muskingum 
(northern), but that none of these men saw it. 

In 1880 Orton somewhat modified his views in reference to the po- 
sition to which he assigned the Maxville, and states that the Wellston 
coal belongs above the limestone, and that he is not sure that the Jack- 
son coal lies below. 

A copy of the Annals of the New York Academy of Science appeared 
in 1882, in which eleven new species of fossils from the Maxville lime- 
stone, "the equivalent to the Chester limestone or Chester and St. Louis 
limestones/' were described by Whitfield. Each species was referred 
* © a certain figure and plate in Volume III of the Paleontology of Ohio, 
but this volume was never printed. 

In 1884 Orton unreservedly states that the Maxville "is geologically 
below both the Wellston and Jackson coals. " 

Orton refers a limestone that is found in a number of wells in south- 
eastern Ohio to the Maxville, in the 1888 report, and speaks of the vari- 
ability in composition of the stratum. 

During this same year Herrick published a section of the rocks at 
a point two or three miles west of Fultonham, and admitted his inability 
to find evidences of an unconformity at any horizon between the Coal 
Measure rocks and the Waverly. From his study of the fossiliferous 
blocks in the base of the Sharon in Licking County he concludes that 
such an unconformity exists there, and that these blocks were derived 
from the Maxville (Chester) of that vicinity. His conclusions are prob- 
ably correct, but they cannot be definitely proven since the fossils are 
so poorly preserved that specific identification is practically impossible. 

Since the Ohio report in which the eleven new species of Maxville 
fossils were to be illustrated was not printed, these forms were illustrated 
and the descriptions reprinted in the Annals of the New York Academy 
of Science by Whitfield in 1891. The forms which were already known 
to science were redescribed and reillustrated, thus raising the total num- 
ber in the formation to tw T enty-four species. The descriptions and il- 
lustrations of these twenty-four species were reprinted without change in 
Volume VII of the Ohio Reports^ in 1894. 

In 1897 Weller stated that the paleontologic evidence points to the 
equivalence of the Batesville sandstone and the Maxville limestone of 
Ohio, and in 1902 pronounced the Greenbrier limestone fauna as practi- 
cally identical with that of the Maxville of Ohio as described by Whitfield. 
Bownocker, in 1903, reported the presence of the Maxville limestone 
in a number of wells in Washington, Monroe, and portions of adjacent 

Edward Orton, Jr., and Peppel, in 1904, assigned the Maxville to 
a position at the base of the Coal Measures, spoke of it as having been 

7— G. B. 13—1,000. 


deposited in lakes or ponds of limited area, and gave its most southern 
exposure as two and one-half miles south of Logan. 

In 1906 Orton refers the Maxville to the Sub-carboniferous rather 
than to the Coal Measures, and again names the same "place as its 
southernmost known deposit. In the same report Orton and Peppel 
raise the question as to whether the Fultonham stone is not Mercer 
in age rather than Maxville. 



The northern extension of the Mississippian limestone qutcrops in 
Ohio at a number of places from the Ohio River near Sciotoville to a 
point near Zanesville. These outcrops, as has already been stated, are 
naturally divisible into three areas : a northern area, a central area and 
a southern area. These areas will now be taken up separately. 


The Northern Area extends from a point just below Logan to a 
point about a mile beyond White Cottage. It includes parts of Licking, 
Muskingum, Perry and Hocking counties. Within this field the Maxville 
has its best development. 


Two of the main branches of Jonathan Creek rise in the southern 
part of Licking County, and flow south into Perry County. At Glen- 
ford they unite, and thence maintain an easterly course through parts 
of Perry and Muskingum counties to the Muskingum River below 
Zanesville. The walls of the valley gradually converge to a point one 
mile east of Mt. Perry where the stream enters a gorge. The gorge con- 
sists of intrenched meanders, and continues very narrow as far east as 
Fultonham (Uniontown) . Here a tributary is received from the south 
and the valley widens abnormally. Beyond, the walls contract and 
then gradually widen out again. 

This lower portion of Jonathan Creek is far within the limits of the 
Coal^ Measures, but the stream has cut sufficiently deep in many places 
to expose the upper part of the Maxville limestone, and in others to show 
even the whole of the stratum as well as the upper Logan, thus giving 
us a most beautiful example of an inlier of Maxville — outcrops of Max- 
ville completely surrounded by younger rock. To maintain its course 
within this gorge from Mt. Perry to Fultonham, it was necessary for the 
Zanesville & Western Railway to make numerous cuts across the "points" 
and along the walls of the valley, and many of these cuts show nearly 
the entire thickness of the Maxville limestone. This series of cuts and 
the natural exposures make this one of the most important places for 
the study of the Maxville stratigraphy. 

About one mile below Mt. Perry the Zanesville and Western Rail- 
way crosses from the south to the north side of Jonathan Creek and fol- 
lows the north bank until Fultonham is reached. The above crossing is 
by means of a tall iron bridge, and for convenience it will be called the 
Mt. Perry Iron Bridge. The cuts will be numbered consecutively down 
stream from this bridge. 


Some two hundred yards below the Mt. Perry Iron Bridge, is Cut 
No. 1, in which the Sharon member rests upon the uneven surface of 
the Logan formation. Half-way between the bridge and the cut is a 
small gully in which the Sharon rests not upon the Logan, but upon the 
Maxville. For these reasons three sections were made of the cut, one 
on the south side and two on the north, and one of the gully. These 
sections will now be given. 

Section of the south side of Gut No. 1. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 
A 10 — Soil 5 

Sharon member 13 11 

A 9 - — Coarse-grained sandstone to fine con- 
glomerate, friable, yellowish-brown, 
exceedingly cross-bedded 10 

A 8 - — Thin, bluish, argillaceous shales 1 

A 7 - — 'Yellowish-brown, nodular, sandstone lay- 
er, containing some iron and fossils 4 

A - — -Thin, bluish, argillaceous shale 1 

A 5 - — Irregular, brownish, coarse-grained sand- 
stone with some iron and plant 
markings 10 

A 4 - — Friable, coarse-grained, shaly sandstone, 

interbedded with shaly coal 9+ 


Logan formation 18 

A 3 - — Thin bedded to shaly, bluish to buff sand- 
stone, the upper part soft and yel- 
lowish 2 

A 2 - — Buff, argillaceous shales with a few thin 

layers of sandstone .• . 2 3 

A 1 - — Thin bedded to shaly, fine-grained, bluish 
and buff sandstone to the Zanesville 
and Western Railway track level. . . 13 9 

Opposite the place where the above section was made, the following 
complete and partial sections were measured. 

Section of the north wall of Gut No. 1. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 
B 9 — Soil 5 6 

Sharon member 12 4 

B 8 < — Coarse-grained sandstone to fine conglom- 
erate, friable, brownish, ferruginous, 
and exceedingly cross-bedded 11 5 

B 7 - — Soft, coarsely arenaceous, bluish and 

brownish shale 10 

B 6 — Black, carbonaceous shale. Coal horizon 1 


Disco nformity. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

I ■ ) r ;an formation 22 4 

B' 1 — Thin-bedded, argillaceous sandstone 7 

B 4 — Brownish, soft, argillaceous shales with 

thin sandstone partings 3 6 

B 3 - — Thin-bedded to shaly, bluish, argillaceous 

- sandstone 2 9 

B 2 — Buff, argillaceous shales, with a few thin 

1 layers of sandstone 2 3 

B 1 — Thin-bedded to shaly, bluish and buff, ar- 
gillaceous sandstone to the Zanes- 
ville & Western Railway track level 13 3 

Five feet down stream from the above section the following partial 
section of the same wall was made. It includes only the Sharon and soil, 
and begins at the top of B 3 . 

Section (B) of the north wall of Cut No. 1. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 
(B) 7 — Soil 5 6 

Sharon member 16 7 

( B) 6 - — Coarse-grained sandstone to fine conglom- 
erate, friable, brownish, ferruginous, 
and exceedingly cross-bedded 13 5 

(B) 5 - — -Argillaceous shale 1 

(B) 4 - — -Inconstant, nodular layer of brown, fer- 
ruginous sandstone 4 

(B) 3 - — -Friable, coarsely arenaceous, brownish 

shale 2 3 

(B) 2 — Bluish-black clay or shale 3 

(B) 1 - — Bituminous, shaly coal 3 

Top of B 3 

A close comparison of these sections reveals some rather remarkable 
facts. Beneath the Sharon and above the track in Section B there are 
twenty- two feet and four inches of Logan, while in Section (B) there 
are only eighteen feet and three inches, and in Section A only eighteen 
feet. Although Section (B) is only five feet, and Section A but the 
width of the cut distant from Section B, the amount of Logan in the 
(B) and A sections is respectively four feet and one inch and four feet 
and four inches less than it is in Section B. In all sections the Logan 
beds are practically horizontal, and the upper line of contact of the 
formation cuts diagonally across layer after layer of sandstone and 
shale. Clearly then the Logan was raised above the sea, subjected to 
erosion, and then submerged some time between its deposition and the 
deposition of the Sharon. The line of contact between the Logan and 


Sharon is, therefore, one of disconfprmity, or, in other words, an un- 
conformity between parallel beds due to erosion. That this erosion 
which produced the surface within the Logan, and upon which the, 
Sharon was laid down, w T as post-Maxville will now be shown. 

About one hundred feet from these sections is the up stream end 
of the cut. Here, across the north wall of the cut, is a ditch in which 
numerous pieces of hard gray limestone were found. They contain Pro- 
ductus pileiformis and belong to the Maxville. From their shape they 
had evidently been subjected to erosion. Since they lie above the lowest 
part of the Sharon in the adjacent sections they must have been de- 
posited and then worn away before the Sharon was laid down. Hence 
the erosion plain upon which the Sharon was deposited was formed in 
post-Maxville time. 

Another important thing is the distribution of the thin zone of coal 
or carbonaceous matter at the base of the Sharon. This zone is prac- 
tically continuous, and extends from the bottom of the depressions to 
the top of the elevations. That the coal could be deposited alike over 
the minor elevations and depressions shows that the waters of the trans- 
gressing sea were at first still and practically free from currents. This 
tranquillity lasted but for a short period, for the highly cross-bedded 
sandstone and conglomerate which appear above the coal are the results 
of swift and changing currents. 

"Were the few fragments of Maxville limestone which were found 
in the ditch the only evidence of its deposition and subsequent erosion 
the statements concerning post-Maxville erosion would be made with 
more reservation. About one hundred yards up stream from Cut No. 1 
and below the Mt. Perry Iron Bridge, however, is a gully in which the 
Maxville is nicely exposed. For convenience the gully will be called the 
Bridge Gully, and a section of it will help corroborate the above con- 

Section of the Bridge Gaily. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Sharon member 5 1 

C 19 ^ — Large blocks of micaceous sandstone 
which are in position farther up. 

C 18 — -Blue, micaceous, arenaceous shale 4 

C 17 - — Gray arenaceous shale resembling fire clay 8 
C 16 — Red ferruginous layer with Productus ces- 

triensis ? 5 

Probable Disconformity. 
Maxville limestone « . . . - 17 11 

C 15 — More massive limestone, which weathers 

to a yellowish mass 4 6 

C 14 - — Massive bluish and buff limestone, which 

weathers to a shale 2 5 


Ft. In. Ft. In. 
C 13 — Massive layer of rather pure gray lime- 
stone Productus cestriensis Worthen 5 6 
C 12 — Layer of pure, compact, gray, fossiliferous 
limestone. Derby a crassa Meek and 

Worthen _. 1 9 

C 11 - — Thin nodular layer of bluish limestone 
alternating with shales. It contains: 
1 Zaphrentis cliffordana Milne- 
Edwards and Haime 

2. Naticopsis ziczac Whitfield 

3. Productus cestriensis Worthen 2 1 
C 10 - — Layer of bluish-gray pure limestone, con- 
taining : 

1. Productus cestriensis Worthen 

2. Seminula sub quadrat a Hall 1 1 

C 9 — Dark or black shale 2 

C 8 — Thin bluish limestone 1J 

C 7 - — Bluish impure limestone 4 

Logan formation 29 9 

C 6 - — Bluish, argillaceous shale, with calcareous 
partings, which resemble those of the 
Waverly. Probably the top of Logan, 
but it" cannot be stated definitely, 
since the rocks are covered for six 
feet below 8 

C 5 - — Covered, except for a few pieces of fossil- 
iferous limestone, which may be in 
position 6 

C 4 ' — Thin-bedded to shaly, argillaceous sand- 
sandstone 3 

C 3 — Bluish argillaceous shale, with some argil- 
laceous sandstone layers 2 2 

C 2 - — Slightly covered. Mostly thin-bedded to 

shaly, bluish argillaceous sandstone ..11 2 

C 1 - — Covered to the Zanesville and Western 
Railway track level, nine rail lengths 
(270 feet) from the previous sections 6 9 

The top of the Logan in the section just given is at least twenty- 
three feet and one inch and probably twenty-nine feet and nine inches 
above the track level. In either case it raises the base of the Maxville 
limestone above the base of the Sharon in Cut No. 1. It was impossible 
for the Maxville to have been deposited in higher places (i. e., in the 
gully and ditch where now found) without being deposited at the same 
time in the adjacent lower places (i. e., in Cut No. 1). The Maxville 
must, therefore, have been a continuous deposit, and it, with a part of 
the Logan, must have been subsequently removed from these basins in 
which the Sharon now rests upon the Logan. 

Since the red ferruginous layer, C 16 , in the Bridge Gully contains 
a fossil which is probably Productus cestriensis there is a strong in- 


clination to refer the layer to the Maxville. Careful study at other and 
better exposures shows, however, that it is a continuous deposit very 
similar in its relations and distribution to the thin coal of- the first sec- 
tion. It is, therefore, made the basal interval of the Sharon in this 

The limestone in this region dips to the east or to the south of east. 
The rate of dip, while not perceptible, is even greater than the gradient 
of the stream. This brings the base of "the Maxville nearer and nearer 
track and stream level as we progress in our study of the series of cuts. 
By the time Fultonham is reached the lower half of the limestone has 
passed beneath drainage. And, finally, at a point about two miles below 
"White Cottage the whole disappears below the waters of Jonathan Creek. 

About one-fourth of a mile below Cut No. 1 the railroad was com- 
pelled to cross another " point." This gives us Cut No. 2, in which quite 
an interval of the Maxville is exposed. 

Section of the north ivall of Cut No. 2. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Maxville limestone 8 8 

D 9 - — Top of exposure in ditch above cut. Poor- 
ly exposed, but apparently more mas- 
sive, bluish-gray limestone without 

shaly partings 3 4 

D 8 - — Irregular and wavy-bedded, bluish, com- 
pact limestone in medium layers, 
which alternate with wavy shale in- 
tervals. Contains: 

1. Dielasma turgida Hall 3 2 

D 7 - — -Nodular, bluish, fossiliferous limestone . . 2 2 

Undetermined zone 2 4 

D 6 - — Covered interval. It is not known wheth- 
er this belongs to the Maxville or to 
the Logan 

Logan formation 18 8 

D 5 - — Layer of blue, argillaceous sandstone, 
which, on weathering, breaks up into 
thin layers 9 

D 4 — Blue argillaceous shales with an occasional 

sandstone parting 3 9 

D 3 - — Thin-bedded, blue argillaceous sandstones 

alternating with shales 2 3 

D 2 — -Blue argillaceous shales 1 8 

D 1 — Thin to massive-bedded blue argillaceous 
sandstone, some of which are slightly 
cross-bedded To track level 10 3 

Below Cut No. 2, in turn, is Cut No. 3, and in this cut the Maxville 
is beautifully shown. 


Section of Cut No. 3. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 
E 14 -— Top of cut. Soil 3 

Sharon member 5 3 

. E 13 - — Shales and talus 5 

E 12 - — Iron ore, the position of which is not clear 3 

Maxville limestone 13 4 

E 11 - — Clay. About five feet away, however, is a 

five-inch block of limestone with iron 

ore clinging to its upper surface. The 

block occupies this horizon, but since 

it is slightly tilted, the top , of the 

Maxville is not quite certain 5 

E 10 - — -Massive bluish to pinkish limestone. Con- 
tains Productus cestriensis Worthen 4 
E 9 - — -Massive layer of bluish to pinkish fossil- 

iferous limestone 1 8 

E 8 - — Massive layer of blue and pink f ossiliferous 

limestone 2 

E 7 - — -Medium bedded to shaly limestone, which 

is argillaceous and varies in color 

from a pink to a buff. The fossils 

collected are: 

1. Zaphrentis cliffordana Milne- 

Edwards and Haime 

2. Productus cestriensis Worthen 

3. Dielasma turgida Hall 

4. Seminula subquadrata Hall 3 6 
E 6 - — -Shaly, argillaceous, non-fossiliferous lime- 
stone. It probably consists of worked 

over sand and clay which were in turn 
mixed with calcareous material, and 
is probably also the base of the Max- 
ville 1 9 

Logan formation 12 1 

E 5 - — bluish, impure limestone with a velvet- 
like luster, resembling calcareous 
layers of the Waverly farther south 1 4 

E 4 - — Buff, argillaceous shale 2 6 

E 3 — -Thin-bedded to shaly, argillaceous sand- 
stone 2 9 

E 2 - — -Buff, argillaceous shales, with thin, argil- 
laceous sandstone partings 2 

E 1 — Massive, buff, argillaceous sandstone, 
which is slightly cross-bedded and 
which breaks up into thin layers. To 
track level 3 6 

On account of the dip only one more cut shows the contact between 
the Logan and Maxville. This is Cut No. 4, which is located a fraction 
of a mile below the last one. 


Section of Cut No. 4. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 
F 8 — Soil and talus from the Sharon. The top 

of the Maxville is not exposed 11 

MaxvilJe limestone 15 7 

F 7 — Rather massive layer of limestone, the 
upper part of which has broken 
up into shale and all of which has 
weathered to a brownish buff. Among 
other fossils it contains: 

1. Productus cestriensis Worthen 5 6 
F 8 — Nodular layers of gray, compact limestone 
with thin shaly partings. The lime- 
stone shows the stylolites structure. 
It contains: 

1 . Productus pileif ormisMcChes- 


2. Productus cestriensis Worthen 

3. Spirifer keokuk Hall 

4. Cypricardella oblonga Hall 

5. Dentalium illinoiense Worthen 

6. Bulimorpha canaliculata Hall 

7. Bellerophon sublasvis Hall 

8. Strophostylus carleyana Hall 

9. Murchisona vermicula Hall 

10. Nautilus pauper ? Whitfield . . 11 
F 5 — Layer of bluish-gray limestone somewhat 
purer than that below. The fossils are : 

1 . Productus cestriensis Worthen 

2. Spirifer sp. 

3. Pelecypod shells 2 9 

F 4 - — -Blue limestone without apparent bedding 

planes, but which becomes shaly, buff 
and arenaceous-like on weathering. 
The fossils are: 

1. Zaphrentis sp. 

2. Productus cestriensis Worthen 

3. Seminula subquadrata Hall 

4. Allorisma maxvillensis Whit- 


5. Bellerophon sublsevis ? Hall. . 6 
F 3 - — 'Soft, bluish, argillaceous shale, which 

probably belongs to the base of the 
Maxville 5 

Logan formation 4 11 

F 2 — Layer of blue limestone with a velvet-like 
luster. It breaks up into pieces, and 
resembles similar layers of the Wa- 

verly , 7 

F 1 - — Blue, argillaceous, shaly sandstone, with 
thicker partings and with an incon- 
stant, nodular, calcareous layer near 
the top. To track level 4 4 


A. — A view of the Maxville limestone in Cut No. 4 between Mt. Perry and Ful- 
tonham, showing the impure lower portion and the basal contact on which 
Prof. Prosser stands. 

B. — An exposure of the Maxville limestone in Jonathan Creek opposite the Ful- 
tonham Depot, showing the conspicuous stratification of the upper half, due 
in part to solution along the bedding planes and in part to the removal of the 
shaly partings. 


In the eaiiy study of this exposure (Cut No. 4) a collection of fos- 
sils was made from the stratum as a whole, and includes the following: 

1. Bryozoan impression 

2. Productus cestriensis Wortheti 

3. Spirifer keokuk Hall 

4. Dielasma turgida ? Hall 

5. Seminula subquadrata Hall 

6. Bellerophon sublsevis Hall 

7. Orthonychia acutirostre Hall 

Special attention should be called to 

1. Cypricardella oblonga Hall 

2. Dentalium illinoiense Worthen 

3. Bulimorpha canaliculata Hall 

4. Strophostylus carle yana Hall 

5. Murchisona vermicula Hall 

6. Orthonychia acutirostre Hall 

which are new to the Maxville limestone. With the exception of Den- 
talium illinoiense this is a portion of the Spergen Hill (Salem limestone) 
fauna, which consists of a large number of mostly diminutive species of 
Gasteropoda, Pelecypoda and Brachiopoda and which reappears again 
in the Ste. Genevieve limestone and again in the Tribune limestone. Por- 
tions of these small Gasteropods, especially Murchisona vermicula, are 
very abundant in zone F 6 of this exposure. 

Specimens of Productus cestriensis Worthen are frequently slightly 
crushed. Nevertheless they are robust forms, and, in this latter respect, 
they resemble specimens of the same species found in the lower half 
of the stratum farther to the south. 

By referring to the last two sections, E and F of Cuts No. 3 and 
No. 4, it will be seen that the rocks at the top of the Logan rather blend 
into those at the base of the Maxville. The line of contact is not litho- 
logically distinct and neither were there any fossils found in the limit- 
ing interval. It must be admitted then that the line of contact has been 
somewhat arbitrarily drawn. Since the Maxville is a limestone and the 
Logan a sandstone there is a strong temptation to extend the lower 
limits of the Maxville down one interval, in each section, and include 
the blue, impure limestone with a velvet-like luster. Examination of a 
large number of sections farther south has shown, however, that there is 
frequently to be found in the upper part of the Waverly one or more 
layers of blue, impure limestone with the same velvet-like luster. ^ For 
this reason the impure limestone interval has been referred to the Logan. 

The clayey and sandy nature of the lower five or six feet of the 
Maxville limestone is very interesting. As understood today this is 
taken to indicate a combination of environments. It suggests a com- 


mingling of fairly deep and quiet sea conditions on the one hand and 
littoral or slightly off-shore on the other. To have such conditions pre- 
supposes a shore line migrating either landward or seaward. 

"Which of these movements we had in the case of the Maxville does 
not seem difficult to determine. Commencing at the base the Maxville be- 
comes successively purer and purer as we" ascend. This shows that the 
sea must have grown deeper and deeper and more and more quiet. Suc- 
cessively deeper and more quiet water is the product of a transgressing 
sea, of which the Maxville sea was a representative. The Maxville lime- 
stone and the Logan formation must, therefore, be considered as an illus- 
tration of transgressive overlap, as denned by G-rabau ( 1 ). 

From the few, only two or three, poor exposures of the Logan-Max- 
ville contact already described, it is not possible to determine positively 
that the Maxville rests disconformably upon the Logan, although it 
will be shown to do so in the exposures to the south. But when all the 
phases of the subject are considered, it seems more than probable that 
the Logan was deposited beneath the sea, then raised to a land surface 
and subjected to the agents of weathering and erosion, before the depo- 
sition of the Maxville. As the Logan was over-ridden by the trans- 
gressing Maxville sea the unconsolidated residual sediments forming 
the top of the Logan were slightly worked over and mixed with the cal- 
careous material forming the base of the Maxville. 

Thus far it has been impossible to correlate any layer in a section 
with the same layer in another section. The sequence of deposition of 
the lower part of the Maxville seems to have been slightly different for 
each of the sections studied. Correlation is possible, however, in- the 
sections which follow, at least those in this part of the Northern Area. 

Section of Gut No. 5. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Sharon member 13 3 

G 13 — Medium-bedded, coarse-grained sand- 
stone 4 9 

G 12 - — 'Irregular, shaly to thin-bedded, coarse- 
grained sandstone :, . 3 

G 11 - — -Black, arenaceous and carbonaceous 

shales, with iron ore nodules .... 5 

G 10 - — Iron ore 4 

G 9 — Gray shale 2 


Maxville limestone 23 7 

G 8 - — -Layer of dark bluish-gray limestone. Con- 
tains many Ga'sterpods at the top. 1 6 

'Grabau, Amadeus W. Types of Sedimentary Overlap. Bull. Geol. Soc. 
Am,, Vol. XVII, pp. 570, 571. 


Ft. In. Ft. In. 
fr 7 - — Shale-nodular zone. Nodular-like layers 
of limestone, alternating with shales. 
Both are very fossiliferous, contain- 

1. Productus cestriensis Worthen 

2. Dielasma turgida Hall 

3. Seminula subquadrata Hall 

4. Allorisma maxvillensis Whit- 


5. Straporollus similis Meek and 


6. Bulimorpha melanoides Whit- 

7 Naticopsis ziczac Whitfield. 
8. Bellerophon sublsevis Hall. ..3 3 
G 6 - — Reddish, argillaceous shales, with an oc- 
casional limestone parting 1 6 

G 5 ' — Layer of bluish-gray compact limestone 4 
G 4 — Massive layer of bluish, fossiliferous lime- 
stone, which weathers to a yellowish 
buff. On exposure the upper foot 
or foot and a half breaks into layers 8 4 
G 3 - — -Massive layer of bluish limestone with an 
uneven. base. The color changes to 
a buff when subjected to the elements. 
The fossils collected are* 

1. Productus cestriensis Worthen 

2. Spirifer sp 4 10 

G 2 - — Nodular layers of bluish, compact lime- 
stone, with thin, shaly partings. 
Stylolites structure developed. Prob- 
ably the equivalent of F 6 . Contains: 

1. Productus cestriensis Worthen 

2. Bellerophon sublasvis Hall 

3. Gasteropod shells, small 10 

G 1 — - Massive layer of bluish limestone which 

weathers to a buff color. The fossils 

1 . Productus cestriensis Worthen 

2. Dielasma turgida Hall. 

To one and one-half feet below track 

level , 3 

The nodular layers with thin shale partings which make up G 2 in 
Cut No. 5, are quite probably tfhe equivalents of those of F 6 in Cut No. 4. 
In Cut No. 5 the equivalents of F 3 and F 4 , then, would lie below track 
level. In other words, six feet and five inches of the base of the Max- 
ville are covered beneath the lowest exposed layer, G 1 , in Cut No. 5. If 
these two basal intervals be present in Cut No. 5, the total thickness of 
the Maxville, at this place, will then reach thirty feet, while the mas- 


sive " lower zone" lying below the " shale nodular zone," G 7 , will have 
a thickness of twenty-five feet and three inches. 

Section of the upper end of Cut No. 6. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 
Sharon member 11 6 

H 8 - — Dark, arenaceous shales 11 

H 7 - — Iron ore 4 

H 6 - — In part. The upper one or two inches of 
this layer contain much iron, but it is 
firmly cemented to the remainder of 
the layer . . , . 2 

Maxville limestone 15 9 

H 5 - — In part. Massive layer of bluish-gray fos- 
siiiferous limestone. It contains some 
rather small Gasteropod shells 1 1 

H 4 ' — Three to four medium and slightly wavy 
layers of fossiliferous limestone with 
thin partings of shale 1 10 

H 3 - — -Massive layer of dark, reddish-gray lime- 
stone. Gasteropods abundant 1 7 

H 2 - — Shale-nodular zone. Nodular-like layers 
of bluish limestone alternating with 
blue shale. The lowest layer of lime- 
stone is the thickest. Both the shales 
and the limestones are very fos- 
siliferous, and are the equivalent 
of those grouped under G 7 in the 
last section. Among other fossils are: 

1. Product us cestriensis Worthen 

2. Seminula subquadrata Hall 

3. Allorisma maxvillensis Whit- 


4. Naticopsis ziczac Whitfield 

5. Bellerophon sublasvis Hall 3 6 
H 1 - — Covered to track level 7 9 

That the nodular-like layers of bluish limestone which alternate 
with blue shales in G 7 (Cut No. 5) and H 2 (Cut No. 6) make up one and 
the same zone there seems to be no question. Both limestone and shale 
are exceedingly fossiliferous; far more so than any other horizon in the 
Maxville. Productus cestriensis, Seminula subquadrata and Strapa- 
rollus similis literally fill the mass in places. The shales easily disinte- 
grate, leaving the fossils free. After a rather large area of shales has 
been exposed for some time the fossils can actually be scooped up with 
a shovel. This fossiliferous zone is very striking when, it is recalled 
that much of the Maxville is very sparingly fossiliferous, and in places 
^practically barren. 


A view of the Maxville limestone and the Sharon member 
in Cut No. 5, between Mt. Perry and Fultonham, show 

ing most of the massive lower zone extending to the 
feet, the shale-nodular /one reaching to the hammer, 
ami the upper /one here consisting of but one layer. 


Since reference will be made repeatedly to the above zone, G 7 and 
H 2 , it will be called the shale-nodular zone for convenience. That por- 
tion below this zone will be called the lower zone. That above will be 
designated the upper zone. 

Attention has already been called to the iron ore superimposed 
upon the limestone. Because of its importance, however, it will be neces- 
sary to refer to it a number of times. Frequently at least a part of 
the ore seems to form a part of the uppermost layer of limestone, and 
was, accordingly, at first included in the Maxville. Further study 
showed, however, that where the Maxville was eroded to a shale zone 
the ore is a distinct layer in itself, but when the erosion stopped on a 
limestone layer the ore is more or less cemented to the weathered sur- 
face of the limestone. In many places the erosion of the Maxville was 
succeeded by a deposition of the iron ore and the ore is, therefore, placed 
in the Pennsylvanian series. 

-Tr^ T c^^ S S c=> < ^P :: -' TZ"~~ ) ^ ^P-SS-^—^g^-S 31 -^ Sr^g^-<I^L.Ss=r^5 : =g. 

Pig 1. — A diagram of the uneven upper surface of the Maxville limestone and 
the iron ore in the base of the Pennsylvanian. Where the ore rests upon a 
layer of limestone it seemingly forms the top of the Maxville, but where it 
rests upon a zone of shale it clearly constitutes a distinct layer. 

When the Section (G) of Cut No. 5 is compared with the Section 
(H) of the upper end of Cut No. 6 it will be seen that the Maxville has 
suffered more from erosion in the former than it has in the latter. The 
upper end of Cut No. 6 has two more intervals, H 4 and H 5 , of limestone 
above the shale-nodular zone than has Cut No. 5. The denuding agents 
therefore penetrated three feet deeper in the vicinity of Cut No. 5 than 
they did at the upper end of Cut No. 6. 

A nearer and therefore more striking example of unequal erosion 
is seen by passing down stream three rail lengths (90 feet) from where 
Section H was measured in the upper end of Cut No. 6. At this point 
the nineteen-ineh layer designated H 3 has- been reduced to eight inches 
in thickness. All of the superjacent layers have been swept away and 
the iron ore rests directly upon the layer which has been reduced to 
eight inches. 


By carefully tracing the upper layer down stream in this, the upper 
end of Cut No. 6, it can actually be seen to be worn thinner and thinner 
until it finally disappears. The next lower layer can also be traced until 
it also finally disappears in a like manner, and so with other succeeding 
layers. Better proofs of unconformity, due to erosion, between the Max- 
ville and the superjacent Pennsylvanian strata could not be desired 
and to the writer they are conclusive. 

A short distance down stream from the last section and still within 
the same cut the following section was made : 

Section of the middle of Cut No. 6. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Sharon member 20 6 

I 7 - — Black, soft, carbonaceous shale 1 ' 

I 6 - — Dark gray, arenaceous shale 18 6 

. I 5 ' — Ferruginous shales and red iron ore 1 

Maxville limestone 11 

I 4 — Shale-nodular zone. Nodular-like layers 
of blue, compact limestone alternat- 
ing with shales. The lowest layer is 
the thickest. Both limestones and 
shales are very fossiliferous. Among 
other fossils are: 

1. Productus cestriensis Worthen 

2. Seminula subquadrata Hall 1 7 
, I 3 - — Reddish, argillaceous shales with two 

rather thick layers, one of which is 

blue and calcareous and the other 

red and ferruginous 2 7 

I 2 - — Bluish-gray, compact limestone, which is 

sparingly fossiliferous 10 

I 1 - — Massive layer of light colored limestone, 

the whole of which weathers to a buff 

and the upper -part to thin layers. 

To one foot below track level 6 

Before this section was carefully studied and measured a collection 
of fossils was made from loose material in the face of the cut. It is 
probable that the majority, if not all of the specimens, came from the 
shale-nodular zone (I 4 ). The collection contains: 

1. Productus cestriensis Worthen 

2. Dielasma turgida Hall 

3. Seminula subquadrata Hall 

4. Allorisma andrewsi Whitfield 

5. Allorisma maxvillensis Whitfield 

5. Straparollus similis Meek and Worthen 


7. Bulimorpha melanoides Whitfield 

8. Sphaarodoma subcorpulenta Whitfield 

9. Naticopsis ziczac Whitfield 

10. Bellerophon sublasvis Hall 

11. Trilobite unidentified. 

This section, I, of the middle of Cut No. 6, is only twelve rail lengths 
(360 feet) down stream from the preceding section, H, of the upper end 
of Cut No. 6. The Maxville has suffered six feet and five inches more 
erosion here than at the preceding place. "When the last three sections 
(G, H and I) are compared, the line of disconformity is seen to be low 
in the Maxville scale in Cut No, 5, somewhat higher in the upper end, 
and low again in the middle of Cut No. 6. 

Just below Cut No. 6 a public highway crosses the Zanesville and 
Western Railway tracks and in turn Jonathan Creek by means of a high 
iron bridge. This bridge is known as the Wortman Bridge. Between it 
and the Mt. Perry Iron Bridge are to be found all of the sections so far 

Between the Wortman Bridge and Fultonham not only are the rail- 
road cuts insignificant or wanting, but the top of the Maxville has al- 
most passed below track level. Study of the Maxville has to be confined 
almost exclusively, therefore, to the banks of the stream, About half- 
way between the above points and about opposite Trestle No. 41 is 
Hough Hollow. It is on the opposite side of Jonathan Creek from the 
one on which the railroad is located. Along the banks of the main 'stream 
and up the branch, the Maxville is nicely exposed, and above it the 
Pottsville formation. The following section, taken at this point, shows 
the strata only a short distance above the Maxville. 

Section of the south bank of Jonathan Creek at the month of Hough 


Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Sharon member 4 6 

J 13 - — Irregular-bedded, dark, arenaceous shales 

and coarse sandstone 4 

J 12 — Iron ore 6 

Maxville limestone 17 5 

J 11 - — -Mostly covered, except a few inches of 
limestone at the top, and these are 
exposed farther up the run 1 7 

J 10 - — Layer of bluish-gray, fossiliferous lime- 
stone 1 6 

J 9 - — Layer of limestone with a pinkish tinge 2 2 

J 8 — -Weathered space, probably formerly occu- 
pied by shales 3 

J 7 ' — Layer of limestone of pinkish hue 1 

J 6 — Layers of irregular-bedded pink limestone 2 2 
8— G. B. 13—1,000. 


Ft. In. Ft. I... 
J* — Layer of dark bluish-gray, compact lime- 
stone 1 10 

]i — Shale-nodular zone. Nodular-like layers 
of blue, compact limestone alternat- 
ing with blue shale. The lowest 
layer of limestone is the thickest. 
Both limestone and shales are very 
fossiliferous. The following were 

1. Product us cestriensis Worthen 

2. Dielasma turgida Hall 

3. Seminula subquadrata Hall 

4. Straparollus similis Meek and 


5. Bellerophon sublaevis Hall 2 9 
J 3 — Pink argillaceous shales with two or three 

calcareous partings. The interval is 
slightly covered 1 5 

J 2 — Bluish, compact, pure limestone 9 

J 1 - — Covered, except for two or three inches of 
limestone at the top. To low water 
level in Jonathan Creek 1 6 

The point has now been reached where, by combining parts of sev- 
eral sections, the complete thickness of the Maxville can be, at least 
approximately, determined. By taking portions of the sections of Cuts 
No. 4 'and No. 5 we have, already, obtained twenty-five feet and three 
inches as a thickness for the lower zone of the formation. If to this 
be added that portion of the section of Hough Hollow forming the 
shale-nodular zone (J 4 ) of two feet and nine inches, and the upper 
zone (J 5 - J 11 ), of eleven feet, a total thickness of thirty-nine feet for 
the formation is the result. 

Enough sections have now been given to justify some generaliza- 
tions in regard to the character of the lower and upper zones of the 
limestone. If sections F to J of Cuts No. 4 to No. 6 and of Hough 
Hollow be carefully studied, the lower zone will be seen to be practically 
made up of massive layers of limestone. The bedding planes are not 
conspicuous, the stone weathers to a buff, and the bottom layers are 
clayey. The layers of the upper zone are ? on the other hand, thin to 
medium-bedded. In the face of a cliff the stratification is the con- 
spicuous feature. Solution along the bedding plane or removal of the 
thin partings of shale causes each layer to project independently. The 
layers are purer limestone than those belonging to the lower zone, and 
their color is usually a blue or bluish-gray rather than a buff. In other 
words, the lower and upper zones are very dissimilar and in this region 
should not be confused. 

In some places, the upper part is covered or has been removed by 


pre-Pottsville erosion, leaving only the lower part exposed. In other 
places, the upper part only is exposed, while in still others, parts of 
both halves are revealed. The dissimilarity of the two halves of the 
formation has just been discussed. When one part of the limestone at 
one place is compared with another part at another you should not, 
therefore, expect them to be similar, and yet it is this comparison of 
dissimilar parts that has caused some of the later writers to say that the 
Maxville shows wide differences in composition and stratification in 
short distances. 

In the Hough Hollow exposure, the shale-nodular zone was three 
feet and eight inches above water level. At the upper end of Fulton- 
ham are the Zanesville and Western Eailway coal chutes, where their 
locomotives are ' 'coaled," and on the opposite bank from the chutes 
the base of the shale-nodular zone is at low water mark. Down stream, 
before the next exposure is reached, the zone has dipped below water 
level. Just below Fultonham, Buckeye Fork enters Jonathan Creek 
from the south. About one-eighth of a mile below the confluence and 
on the opposite side of the stream is quite an exposure of Maxville. 
The shale-nodular zone has remained beneath drainage to this point, 
but here a small anticline or deeper erosion brings it up to low water 
mark. If we continue down stream from here to White Cottage the 
shale-nodular zone is not found above water level again. Going up 
Kents Run about one mile from White Cottage, however, a covered 
wooden bridge is reached where the zone again rises to water level. 

At the coal chutes, quite an area of the layer designated J 5 , the first 
one above the shale-nodular zone, is exposed. It is rather abundantly 
and conspicuously jointed. So also is the layer that forms the bed of 
the creek opposite the Fultonham depot, and the two are probably one 
and the same layer. At the latter place there are thirteen feet of lime- 
stone exposed. If the bottom layer be correctly identified, then one 
foot and ten inches added for its (J 5 ) thickness, would give fourteen 
feet and ten inches for the upper zone. If to this measurement be added 
two feet nine inches and twenty-five feet three, respectively, 
for the supposed shale-nodular zone and lower zone, a total thickness 
of forty-two feet ten inches for the Maxville is obtained. This thick- 
ness agrees very closely with the forty-five feet found by the Fultonham 
Brick Company in their drill holes. 1 

The Zanesville and Western Eailway crosses from the north to the 
south side of Jonathan Creek at the upper end of Fultonham. It 
maintains its course on the south side of the creek until a point beyond 
White Cottage is reached. Immediately below Fultonham it crosses 

^rton, Jr., Edward. The Composition of the Limestones of Ohio. Geol. 
Surv. Ohio, Bull. 4, p. 105. 


Buckeye Fork, just before this stream empties into Jonathan Creek, by 
means of a low iron bridge. 

From a point about one hundred yards above the upper bridge to 
a point a like distance below the lower bridge, the Maxville limestone 
makes up the floor and walls of the channel. The shale-nodular zone 
was seen to pass below water level just above the upper limit and re- 
main beneath until just below the lower limit. The limestone exposed 
within this stretch, therefore, belongs to the upper half of the formation. 
It is a gray, compact stone made up of conspicuous medium layers. 
This latter feature is nicely shown in the following section which was 
taken just below the mouth of Buckeye Fork where Jonathan Creek 
has excavated a rather deep channel. 

Section of the south hank of Jonathan Creek at the month of Buckeye 


Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Maxville limestone 13 9 

K 7 — Thin-bedded, gray, compact, fossiliferous 
limestone. Contains : 

1. Pentremites sp 6 6 

K 6 — Layer of gray, compact, fossiliferous lime- 
stone. Contains, besides numerous 
specimens of small Brachiopods: 

1. Zaphrentis cliff ordana ? Milne- 

Edwards and Haine 

2. Pentremites elegans Lyon ... 1 9 
K 5 ' — Layer of bluish-gray, compact limestone. 

Among other fossils are: 

1. Martinia contracta Meek and 

Worthen (a) 

2. Spirifer rocky montanus ?Mar- 


3. Corals 1 8 

K 4 ' — Layer of bluish-gray, compact limestone. 

Contains, among other fossils; 

1. Derbya crassa Meek and Wor- 
then 1 3 
K 3 ' — Layer of gray, compact, fossiliferous lime- 
stone 1 2 

K 2 - — Parting of soft shale 2 

K 1 - — Gray, compact, fossiliferous limestone 
layer, which forms a half of the bed 
of the stream. To water level 1 3 

A general collection from this place and from another exposure of 
the same zone still farther down stream, includes the following addi- 
tional forms: 

1. Cyathocrinus maxvillensis Whitfield , 

2. Asterozoan unidentified 


3. Bryozoan unidentified 

4. Productus pileiformis McChesney 

5. Straparollus similis Meek and Worthen 

6. Nautilus pauper ? Whitfield 

The shale-nodular zone rises above water just down stream from 
this place, and therefore the lowest interval of this section probably 
extends almost to this zone. How near the highest interval is to the 
top of the formation is not known since there is a soil covering. By 
passing up Buckeye Fork for a short distance, however, the top of 
the limestone is reached, and the formation then forms the floor of the 
channel for about a half mile farther. 

At the point, one-eighth of a mile below the confluence of Buckeye 
Fork and Jonathan Creek, where the shale-nodular zone is exposed, 
the upper zone of the Maxville reaches a thickness of twenty-one feet 
and six inches. This is the greatest thickness yet found for this di- 
vision of the limestone. The shale-nodular zone is present. Granting 
that the lower half is present also and that both have the usual thick- 
ness of two feet nine inches and twenty-five feet three inches, respec- 
tively, the total thickness of the Maxville reaches forty-nine feet six 
inches. Since the section- at this point was measured in detail, it brings 
out the stratification even more markedly than did the last section. 
Therefore it will be given. 

Section of the north bank of Jonathan Creek one-eighth of a mile below 
the month of Buckeye Fork. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Maxville limestone 22 8 

L 23 - — Thin-bedded, gray, fossiliferous limestone 

to top of exposure in a ditch 1 10 

L 22 - — Interval practically all covered 1 9 

L 21 - — Thin-bedded, gray, fossiliferous limestone 2 7 

L 20 - — .Layer of compact, gray limestone, form- 
ing the top of bank 9 

L 19 — Parting 4 

L 18 * — -Layer of compact gray limestone 10 

L 17 - — Two layers of compact gray limestone 

with shaly and nodular partings .... 1 3 

L 16 - — Layer of compact gray limestone which 

may separate into two 1 6 

L 15 - — Two thin layers of gray limestone with 

thin partings 9 

L 14 - — Layer of compact gray limestone 7 

L 13 — Shaly parting 1 

L 12 - — -Layer of compact, gray, fossiliferous lime- 
stone which may break into several 
layers. Contains: 

Bellerophon sublsevis Hall ..... 1 2 


Ft. In. Ft. In. 

L 11 — Shaly parting 1 

L 10 - — Layer of compact gray limestone 11 

L 9 - — Shaly parting 1 

L 8 - — Layer of compact gray limestone 1 3 

L 7 - — Shaly parting, wavy 5 

L 6 - — Layer of compact gray limestone 1 5 

L 5 - — Shaly zone, frequently with a layer of 

nodules at the center 6 

L 4 - — Layer of compact gray limestone 6 

L 3 * — Shaly parting, wavy 1 

L 2 " — Thick layer of compact gray limestone, 
which contains some calcite and some 
fossils. The upper surface often 
breaks up into one or two extra layers 2 10 
L 1 - — Shale-nodular zone. Nodular layers alter- 
nating with shale, to low water level 1 2 

Between the last exposure and "White Cottage the Maxville lime- 
stone is shown at only one or two places. Somewhat below the last ex- 
posure and on the opposite side of the stream is one of these, and some 
ten or fifteen feet are exposed. These belong to the upper part of the 
■ formation, and the disappearance of the shaly intervals allows the 
medium layers to project in the usual manner. 

By the time "White Cottage is reached the dip and pre-Pottsville 
erosion have been sufficient to bring the top of the stratum to almost 
water level. From the dam at the old Gladstone Mill to a point below 
the depot, these few upper feet of limestone form the bed of the stream. 
The upper contact is shown directly under the mill where the follow- 
ing section was* measured: 

Section at Gladstone Mill. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 
Pottsville formation 11 

M 6 - — Layer of micaceous, coarse-grained, brown- 
ish, iron-stained sandstone to the top 
of the exposure under the mill. Across 
the stream and above the Zanesville 
and Western Railway a number of 
feet of Pottsville shales are exposed 5 

M 5 - — 'Black, bituminous shale 4 

M 4 - — Iron ore, mostly adhering to the top of 

the limestone 2 

Maxville limestone 5 8 

M 3 -— Four rather irregular and thin layers of 
limestone with thin shaly partings 
which weather out, leaving the layers 
projecting. Besides numerous small 


Ft. In. Ft. In. 
Crinoid stems, it contains the follow- 
ing fossils: 

1. Productus cestriensis Worthen 

2. Martinia contracta Meek and 


3. Spirifer rockymontanus Mar- 


4. Derbya crassa ? Meek and 


5. Bulimorpha melanoides ? 

Whitfield 1 2 

M 2 - — -Compact, pure gray limestone which sep- 
arates into thin layers. Solution may 
take place along the bedding planes. 
Fossiliferous 3 3 

M 1 -^ Layer of compact gray limestone, the up- 
per three inches often separating into 
an extra layer. Base extending be- 
low water level 1 3 

A number of fossils were collected from a large, flat block of lime- 
stone at the mill. Although the block was loose it undoubtedly came 
from the upper five or six feet of the stratum as exposed at this place. 
The specimens came from a three-inch zone and include : 

1. Zaphrentis cliff ordana Milne-Edwards and Haime 

2. Pentre mites sp. 

3. Dielasma turgida Hall 

4. Spirifer rockymontanus Marcou 

5. Seminula subquadrata Hall 

6. Martinia contracta Meek and Worthen 

7. Straparollus similis Meek and Worthen 

A general collection from the upper five or six feet of the lime- 
stone as exposed between Gladstone Mill and the White Cottage Depot 
gave the following additional forms: 

1. Productus pileiformis McChesney 

2. Allorisma andrewsi Whitfield 

3. Bellerophon sublaevis Hall 

4. Trilobite unidentified 

In the fourth or fifth layer of limestone above the shale-nodular 
zone at Fultonham, Martinia contracta is rather abundant. At "White 
Cottage this same Brachiopod is rather common. These are the only; 
. places known where this fossil occurs in considerable numbers. 


At White Cottage Jonathan Creek receives the waters of Kents Bun 
irom the north. This stream rises in Muskingum County near the 
National Road, flows north, thence west, thence south across the road, and 
finally to the southeast. In the lower half of its course it is about parallel 


with Jonathan Creek. The upper half of its course is through glaciated 
country and the valley is rather open. The lower half, on the other 
hand, flows through a non-glaciated region and the valley becomes a 
gorge over two hundred feet deep and surpasses that of Jonathan Creek. 
Before the coming of the Rural Free Delivery and the passing of the 
cross-roads postoffice, Opera Postoffice was located at the head of the 
gorge. . 

As the Maxville limestone is exposed, as an inlier, more or less of the 
way along Jonathan Creek from Mi Perry Iron Bridge to "White Cottage, 
so also is the stratum exposed along Kents Eun from Opera to the same 
place. Corresponding exposures are also very similar in the two streams. 
Starting at Opera with only the lower zone, and this above drainage, 
the formation approaches nearer and nearer stream level and finally 
passes below the run before "White Cottage is reached. The upper zone 
has also been removed until a covered bridge one mile above White 
Cottage is reached. From this point to White Cottage the upper zone 
of the stratum is above drainage. Above Opera the limestone is poorly 
exposed at intervals for at least a mile. 

At Opera a covered bridge crosses Kents Run, and just below 'the 
bridge is a series of good exposures. A few sections of these will now 
be given in order to show the Maxville-Pottsville disconformity and the 
consequent variation in thickness of the limestone stratum. 

Section of the west bank of Kents Bun, one hundred yards below Opera 


Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Maxville limestone 5 -6 

A 8 - — Thick layer of buff argillaceous limestone 2 5 

A 7 - — 'Thin layer of limestone, usually with a 

shaly parting above and below 4 ± 

A 6 -— Layer of grayish or buff argillaceous lime- 
stone. Twelve feet downstream this 
layer was worn down to 10 inches, 
and three feet farther the whole of 
the limestone stratum was worn 
away, but reappears again . . 1 10 

A 5 - — Irregular, shaly parting. In places this 
becomes indurated, when the layer 
above and the one below are united 2 + 

A 4 - — Irregular layer of buff or gray argillaceous 

limestone 9 

Logan formation 2 4 

A 3 - — Black bituminous shale. The contact 
with the limestone above is slightly 

wavy 1 

A 2 — Blue shaly sandstone 3 

A 1 - — Soft, argillaceous blue shale to water level 2 



Section twelve feet down stream from the last. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Pottsville formation 5 3 

B 8 - — Cross-bedded, coarse-grained brown sand- 
stone to the top of the exposure .... 5 

B 7 — Iron ore 3 

Maxville limestone 1 9 

B 6 - — Layer of argillaceous buff limestone, the 
upper surface of which was eroded 
one foot in less than twelve feet .... 10 

B 5 — Shaly parting 2 ± 

B 4 - — Irregular layer of argillaceous buff lime- 
stone 9 

Logan formation 1 11 

B 3 — Black bituminous shale. Contact with 

the limestone above slightly wavy 1 

B 2 - — Blue shaly sandstone 3 

B 1 - — Soft, argillaceous blue shale to water level 

at the same place 1 7 

These two sections reveal a beautiful example of disconformity. 
They show a difference of pre-Pottsville erosion in the upper surface of 
the Maxville limestone of at least three feet nine inches in a. horizontal 
distance of twelve feet. The top layer of limestone (A 8 ) can actually 
be traced until it completely disappears, as can also the next lower in- 
terval (A 7 ). The third layer (A 6 ) of one foot ten inches is seen to 
diminish to a thickness of only ten inches in this same distance. 

About three feet farther down stream the whole of the formation 
was probably worn away. This is true of the layers of limestone. But 
since the Sharon sandstone does not quite reach the dark shale, A 3 and 
B 3 , of the Logan, but rests upon a f ew r inches of shale or clay, it is not 
quite clear whether this clay or shale belongs to the Sharon or not. It 
seems more than probable, however, that it does. 

A few feet farther down stream the limestone layers appear again, 

Fig. 2. — A "fossil" valley. A sketch of the south hank of Kents Eun at Opera, 
showing a pre-Pottsville valley in the Maxville limestone filled with Sharon 


and the base of the Sharon is seen to rise. This then is a natural cross 
section of the walls (limestone) and filling (sandstone) of an ancient 
pre-Pottsville valley. It shows that the thickness of the limestone in 
the center of the old valley is practically zero while at the sides, fifteen 
feet away, it is at least five and one-half feet. Fig. 2 probably shows 
these features more clearly. 

A few hundred yards below the Opera Covered Bridge an ex-- 
posure shows the top and bottom contacts of the Maxville limestone. 
The following section was measured at this place: 

Section of the west bank of Kents Bun a few hundred yards below Opera 


Ft. In. Ft. In. 
Pottsville formation 3 

C 9 - — Iron ore, clinging in places to the top of 
the limestone. Covered above. 

Maxville limestone 13 

C 8 - — Layer of harder and darker limestone .... 5 

C 7 - — Massive layer of buff, argillaceous lime- 
stone, which may break up into a 
number of layers and which shatters 
badly upon weathering 6 8 

C 6 - — Irregular shaly parting 1 + 

C 5 - — Irregular layer of buff, argillaceous lime- 
stone, which may break up into other 
layers 2 10 

C 4 — Irregular shaly parting 1 + 

C 3 — Layer of buff argillaceous limestone with 

an irregular upper bedding plane ... 2 11 

Logan formation 4 

C 2 - — Argillaceous to arenaceous, soft buff shales 1 
C 1 - — Interval covered to water level 3 3 

The Maxville limestone in this section is thirteen feet in thickness. 
At the forks of the highway, one or two hundred yards above the 
Opera Covered Bridge, is an exposure in which the lower contact is a 
few feet above the water, and in which the upper one is not shown, but is 
probably near the top of the exposure. The bank is sufficiently high, how- 
ever, to also expose thirteen feet of limestone, and these are the maxi- 
mum thicknesses measured in this vicinity. 

The limestone is exposed in the banks of the run almost continuous- 
ly for two miles below Opera Covered Bridge, but both contacts were 
not found below the last section. In the lower part of this distance 
the top contact reaches water level, and the water flows over the wavy 
iron stained top of the stratum. 

About four miles above "White Cottage and two miles below Opera 
Covered Bridge, is another covered bridge across Kents Run. At this 


point, a small tributary is received from the north, and about a quarter 
of a mile up this branch two wells have been drilled for oil by the 
Kents Eun and "White Cottage Gas and Oil Co. One of these is on the 
Sales property and the other is twelve hundred feet farther up stream 
on the farm of Mr. Ford. 

Mr. Dollinger of this company informs the writer that the well 
on the Sales property passed through fourteen to sixteen feet of Max- 
ville limestone at twenty feet from the mouth of the well. The Ford 
well, twelve hundred feet above, on the other hand, penetrated no lime. 
Since the latter well is situated up stream from the other and in a 
narrow valley, it does not seem possible that recent erosion has removed 
the Maxville limestone at this place. The drill seems to have repealed 
in the one a pre-Pottsville valley similar to the one just described at 
Opera, and in the other the Maxville limestone of about the same thick- 
ness as at Opera. 

About two miles above "White Cottage and opposite the home of 
W. T. Wilkins, is an outcrop of Maxville limestone. This exposure is 
also the lower half, and is a massive limestone four to six feet in thick- 
ness without a bedding plane. In color the stone is brownish and in 
texture somewhat crystalline. 

One mile above White Cottage is the third covered bridge across 

Kents Eun below Opera, or the first above White Cottage. At this 

point is the residence of Ed. Kroft, and the bridge will be called the 

Kroft Bridge. In front of the house the following instructive section 

was made: 

Section at the Kroft Residence. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 
Maxville limestone 6 11 

D 10 - — Layer of compact dove- colored limestone 

to -top of exposure 6 

D 9 - — Shaly parting 1 

D 8 - — Layer of compact, dove-colored, fossilif- 
erous limestone. This is probably 
the layer partly under water in the 
exposure at Mr. Thompson's 1 9 

D 7 — Shaly parting 1 

D 6 - — Probable top of the shale-nodular zone. 
Layer of compact, dove- colored, fos- 
siliferous limestone. Contains: 

1. Productus cestriensis Worthen 

2. Bellerophon sublaevis Hall ... 6 
D 5 — Calcareous shales alternating with thin 

nodular layers of limestone. Very 
fossilliferous, containing large num- 
bers of: 

1. Productus cestriensis Worthen 

2. Seminula sub qua drat a Hall 

3. Straparollus similis Meek and 

Worthen 1 3 


Ft. In. Ft. In. 

D 4 - — Probable base of the shale-nodular zone. 
Layer of bluish, crystalline, f ossif- 
erous limestone, nodular on top.... 10 

D 3 - — 'Soft, argillaceous and calcareous dark 

shale 7 

D 2 - — Hard, calcareous shale to thin-bedded lime- 
stone, the material of the subjacent 
interval replacing the shales to some 
extent 10 

D 1 - — 'Blue, fine conglomeratic limestone, or lime- 
stone with minute calcareous concre- 
tions. Base of exposure under water 6? 

The important thing in this section is the presence of the shale- 
nodular zone, since this is the first place it is found ; in descending 
Kents Bun. Being so near water level the zone passes beneath drain- 
age in a much less distance than it did in Jonathan Creek. 

Just below the Kroft Bridge is another exposure. In this the shale- 
nodular zone occurs at water level and is overlain with a few layers of 
the upper half of the Maxville. These layers have been quarried to a 
slight extent, exposing quite an area of the shale-nodular zone in the 
bed of the stream. During high waters the looser material is washed 
away, leaving large numbers of fossils exposed to view. They are so 
abundant that those of the softer material can actually be scooped up 
with a shovel. This is the best collecting place known in the Maxville 
stratum. The different species found . at this place are listed in the 
following section. 

Section at the Kroft Bridge. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Maxville limestone 4 10 

E 6 - — Layer of compact, fossiliferous blue lime- 
stone to the top of the exposure at 

flood plain level 6 

E 5 ' — Soft shaly interval, which weathers out, 
leaving a space between the sub- and 

superjacent layers 1 

E 4 ' — Massive, compact blue limestone Contains : 

1. Bellerophon sublaevis Hall. . 2 5 
E 3 ' — Soft shaly interval, which weathers away 2 
E 2 — Probable top of the shale-nodular zone. 
Layer of compact blue limestone. 
Contains : ~ 

1. Bellerophon sublaevis Hall. ..0 8 
E 1 — -Shales alternating with nodular layers of 
blue limestone. Very fossiliferous. 

1. Septopora rectistyla Whitfield 

2. Fenestella serratula Ulrich 

3. Productus cestriensis Worthen 


Ft. In. Ft. In. 

4. Dielasma turgida Hall 

5. Seminula subquadrata Hall 

6. Pinna maxvillensis Whitfield 

7. Straparollus similis Meek and 


8. Holopea newtonensis Whit- 


9. Bulimorpha melanoides Whit- 


10. Naticopsis ziczac Whitfield 

11. Bellerophon sublsevis Hall 

12. Orthocerasrandolphense Wor- 


13. Orthoceras okawense ? Wor- 


14. Trilobite unidentified. To 

water level 1 

"While the exposures are not continuous down stream, yet it is ap- 
parent that the shale-nodular zone has dipped below water level before 
the good exposure of the north bank opposite the home of Mr. R. G-. 
Thompson is reached. At this place a thick layer is seen under water 
and it seems more than probable that this is the first layer, D 8 , above 
the shale-nodular zone. If it be not this layer it cannot be one far 
above this zone. The section follows: 

Section at the Thompson Residence. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 
Maxville limestone 12 8 

F 11 - — Layer of gray limestone 1 6 

F 10 - — 'Layer of crystalline, fossiliferous reddish 
limestone. Contains: 

1. Bryozoan impression 

2. Productus pileiformis McChes- 


3. Productus cestriensis Worthen 

4. Martinia contracta Meek and 


5. Pinna maxvillensis Whitfield 

6. Allorisma andrewsi Whitfield 

7. Cephalopod unidentified 1 9 

F 9 — Layer of fossiliferous, bluish-gray lime- 
stone. Contains: 

1. Bryozoan reverse side 

2. Productus pileiformis McChes- 


3. Productus cestriensis Worthen 

4. Martinia contracta Meek and 


5. Spirifer rockymontanus Mar- 

cou 2 


Ft. In. Ft. In. 
F 8 — Layer of fossiliferous, cherty gray lime- 
stone. Contains: 

1. Martinia contracta Meek and 

Wort hen 

2. Dielasma turgida Hall 

3. Trilobite unidentified 10 

F' — Layer of compact, fossiliferous bluish-gray 

limestone. Contains: 

1 . Productus pileif ormis McChes- 


2. Productus cestriensis Worthen 

3. Martinia contracta Meek and 


4. Dielasma turgida Hall 

5. Seminula subquadrata Hall 

6. Derbya crassa ? Meek and 


7. Bellerophon sublasvis Hall 

8. Trilobite unidentified 1 

F ! — Layer of compact reddish-gray limestone 3 
F' — Layer of fossiliferous, compact bluish-gray 

limestone, Contains: 

1. Productus pileif ormis McChes- 

ney (A) 

2. Productus cestriensis Worthen 


3. Martinia contracta Meek and 


4. Bellerophon sublaevis Hall ... 1 
F 1 — Layer of compact bluish-gray limestone 

with an occasional fossil 1 9 

F 5 — Layer of fossiliferous, -hard, compact, 
crystalline limestone. Contains: 

1. Productus pileif ormis McChes- 


2. Productus cestriensis Worthen 

3. Pinna maxvillensis ? Whitfield 

4. Bellerophon sublsevis Hall ... 1 4 
F 2 — Layer of fossiliferous bluish limestone ... 6 
F 1 — Layer of bluish, slightly fossiliferous lime- 
stone to water level 9 

The above section will probably be slightly misleading since noth- 
ing is said about any shaly partings. Such partings occur, however, 
between most of the layers. But this exposure has long been subjected 
to the various agencies of weathering, and, situated as it is in the outer 
bend of the channel, the stream, at high water, has removed the disin- 
tegrated shale. The layers, therefore, project from the face of the 
bank, somewhat independently of each other. The exposure shows the 
limestone to be the typical upper zone of the stratum. 

Attention should also be called to the occurrence of Productus 


A. — An exposure of the Maxville limestone in Kents Hun opposite the Thomp- 
son Residence at White Cottage, showing the medium layers of the upper 

B.— A view of the Hendricks Quarry on the west bank of the stream at Max- 
ville. The Sharon conglomerate rests disconformanly upon the Maxville 


pileiformis in layer F 5 . It is only rarely that specimens of this fossil 
are found in the Maxville, but at this locality they are very abundant. 
Large and beautiful specimens can be had in great numbers. The 
shells are long and expand suddenly in a trunmpet-shaped manner at 
the anterior end, thus differing markedly from Whitfield's illustra- 

From Mr. Thompson's residence to "White Cottage the limestone is 
more or less exposed all of the way. It is the typical upper zone and 
is conspicuously stratified and rather fossiliferous. It is a ctfmpact, 
pure limestone of a bluish or bluish-gray color. 

In the stream at the east bluff, nearly half way between the Thomp- 
son residence and White Cottage, about sixteen inches of the limestone 
are exposed just beneath the soil. These sixteen inches constitute two 
layers which are rather fossiliferous and so exposed that collecting is 
facilitated. The following is a list of specimens from this place: 

1. Martinia contracta Meek and Worthen 

2. Productus pileiformis McChesney 

3. Dielasma turgida Hall 

4. Productus cestriensis Worthen 

5. Derbya crassa Meek and Worthen 

6. Allorisma maxvillensis Whitfield 

7. Schizodus chesterensis ? Meek and Worthen 

8. Bellerophon sublsevis Hall 

9. Bellerophon sp. 

10. Bulimorpha melanoides Whitfield 

11. Sphaerodoma sub corpulent us ? Whitfield 
12i Straparollus similis ? Meek and Worthen 

13. Naticopsis ziczac Whitfield 

14. Nautilus pauper ? Whitfield 

At White Cottage the formation has already been described in the 
Gladstone Mill section. In the town a few wells, which were drilled 
for water, however, penetrated the limestone. The records of two of 
these are very suggestive and probably ought, therefore, to be pre- 

Section of the drilled well at C. W. Stine's Home. 


Soil 8 

Compact blue limest one 16 +, 

Shaly rock 1| 

Hard blue sandstone, probably had some lime in it . . . 8 

Section of the drilled well at J. H. Boiling's Residence. 


Gravel or alluvium 20 

Compact blue limestone 16 

Little shale 

Blue sandstone 12 

White sandstone, white as marble 12 

Blue shale not passed through 46i 


The sixteen feet of compact limestone unquestionably belong to 
the Maxville and probably to the upper half. The subjacent shaly rock 
in either well — of one and a half feet in thickness in the Stine well — is 
probably the shale-nodular zone. Then arises the question— and it must 
always be admitted to be a difficult one to interpret weLl records other 
than those made by a core drill — to what formation to assign the next 
two intervals in the Dolling 's well? In the churning process the rocks 
are more or less pulverized. Granting that this is the sandy limestone 
of the* lower half of the Maxville, the little lime could easily be washed 
away, leaving only the sand. Hence it would be reported as sandstone. 
Futhermore the sandstone of the second twelve feet is reported as 
being as white as marble, and no such sandstone is known in the Wa- 
verly. The next forty-six and a half feet are blue shales. Both blue 
shales and blue shales with thin sandstones are found in the upper 
Waverly to which this interval undoubtedly belongs. The two inter- 
vals of twelve feet each are, for the reasons just mentioned, strongly 
suggestive of the lower half of the Maxville, and if referred to it would 
give a thickness of forty to forty-one and a half feet for the complete 
'formation. These measurements compare very closely with the thick- 
ness of the Maxville at Fultonham as determined by the computations 
in this paper, and by the well records. 


The, South Fork of Jonathan Creek rises in Perry County near New 
Lexington. It flows east and thence north to join Jonathan Creek proper 
about two miles below, east of, White Cottage. Beyond the junction of 
the two branches, the stream is known as Moxahala Creek. This name 
has, also, at times, been applied to the two branches. 

As already stated, South Fork in its lower course flows to the 
north. This portion of the stream is decidedly to the east of Jonathan 
Creek. The dip of the strata to the east is sufficient to bring the Max- 
ville limestone below drainage before the valley of the former stream 
is reached. The result is, there are no exposures of this stratum along 
South Fork. A number of oil wells penetrated the limestone, however, 
at Sayre, Crooksville and Eoseville which are located in this valley. 

Mr. 0. B. Thompson, of Crooksville, is interested in the gas and 
oil company of this region. He informed the writer that a well was 
drilled at Sayre and that it passed through about sixty feet of the Max- 
ville. He further states that there have been three wells drilled at 
Crooksville, and that the limestone was found in all of them, and varies 
in thickness from fifty to sixty feet. 

Mr. J. H. Been, of Eoseville, states that about sixteen wells have 
been drilled in and about Eoseville. The Maxville limestone was found 
in all of them, and varies from about twenty-eight to forty-seven feet 
in thickness. 



Rush Creek rises in Thorne, the northwestern township of Perry 
County, and after various wanderings flows south through Rushville 
to Bremen. At the latter point it crosses the preglacial valley, which 
extends from New Lexington to Lancaster, and receives Little Rush 
Creek from the east. From here it continues the southerly course 
for some miles and then a westerly one to the Hocking River at Sugar 

Little Rush Creek also rises in Perry County, at a point a few miles 
east of New Lexington. It flows practically due west to its confluence 
with Rush Creek at Bremen. Through the most of its course it me- 
anders lazily through the old glacial filled valley. The tributaries of 
this and the main branch and the hills at their headwaters furnish a 
number of exposures of Maxville limestone. 

The Zanesville-Maysville Pike extends southwest from Somerset 
to Rushville. A half mile south of the pike, and parallel with it for 
some five miles, is the "State Road." Three and a half miles east of 
Rushville Station, and at J. S. Shafer's residence, the "State Road" 
crosses Jockey Hollow. The Maxville limestone is found in the head- 
waters of three of its branches. Although these exposures are not the 
nearest to those of Jonathan Creek, by some three miles, they will be 
described first, as both contacts are shown here. 

Section of the east gully of Jockey Hollow at the Shafer Residence. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 
Pottsville shales shown farther up the gully. 

Maxville limestone 19 7 

A 6 - — Partly covered at base. Upper part poorly 
exposed. Impure yellowish or buff 
limestone, without conspicuous bed- 
ding planes. Badly shattered, due 
to weathering, and markedly different 
from A 5 and A 4 15 

A 5 ' — Medium to thin, even-bedded, grayish to 
yellowish sandstone with lime or im- 
pure limestone with sand. The rock 
is brecciated, and contains pieces of 
pure, compact, fossiliferous lime- 
stone. Some pieces reach the mag- 
nitude of 3 by 7 inches and ar3 fos- 
siliferous 3 10 

A 4 - — 'Layer of yellowish sandstone with some 
lime or impure limestone with sand, 
and with an even top and an uneven 
base. Brecciated with pieces of pure 
compact limestone of much darker 
color than the usual color of the Max- 
ville. Varies from one foot ten inches 
to 9 

9_G. B. 13—1,000. 


Probable Disconformity. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 
Rushville "group" 23 6 

A 3 - — Soft, argillaceous shale, bluish-gray to red 

in color. Some is slightly arenaceous 

and contains Taonurus. The upper 

surface is uneven and jointed. The 

joints are often filled with yellowish 

sandy material, forming "sandstone 

dykes" 17 

A 2 - — Mostly all covered, some soft, argillaceous 

blue shale 5 6 

A 1 * — Layer of reddish to brownish stone, which 

in places is a crystalline limestone 

with Crinoid stems, and in others is 

ferruginous with but little lime. To 

base of section at the confluence of 

the two branches 1 

Shales and fine-grained sand- 
stones containing Taonurus farther 

down stream. 

Section of the west gully of Jockey Hollow at the Shafer Residence. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 
Pottsville formation 6 3 

B 15 ' — Arenaceous, dark shales to top of ex- 
posure below the road 3 

B 14 — Coal horizon 2 

B 13 * — Impure fire-clay 2 10 

B 12 - — Covered. At one place there appears to 

be a layer of iron ore at this horizon . 3 

Maxville limestone total thickness 21 

B 11 - — Indistinctly-bedded, impure, argillaceous 
limestone. Weathers to a yellowish 
or buff color. Contains: 

1. Productus sp 8 

B 10 - — Soft, slightly arenaceous, yellowish 

shale 4 

B 9 — Indistinctly-bedded, impure, argilla- 
ceous limestone, weathers to a yel- 
lowish or buff color. 

1. Productus cestriensis Worthen 6 3 
(Robust forms like those from 
Cut No. 4, F.) 
B 8 — Medium-bedded, compact, bluish lime- 
stone. One Bellerophon ? observed. 2 1) 

B 7 — Soft, argillaceous, blue shale 4 

B 6 ~-Layer of pure, compact, bluish lime- 
stone with an occasional small, angu- 
lar piece of darker limestone. Weath- 
ers into nodular-like pieces 1 10 





2?* X.iVICjHL Vv %.3* 





Ft. In. Ft. In. 

B 5 — Soft, argillaceous blue shale 2 

B 4 - — Sandstone with some lime or impure lime- 
stone with sand. Brecciated, with 
some pieces of compact, dark lime- 
stone. Top even and shaly, re- 
maining portion thick with uneven 
base. In 8 feet it varies from 2 feet 
9 inches to 1 9 

Disconformity or contemporaneous erosion. 

Rushville "group" 23 8 

B 3 - — Soft, argillaceous blue shale with uneven 
top. Joints rilled with the same 
kind of material as B 4 and this ma- 
terial also extends from the joints 
along the bedding-planes for a short 
distance 1 • 8 

B 2 - — Mostly covered, some soft argillaceous 

shale . 21 

B 1 - — The same layer as described under A 1 . . . . 1 

More than the usual amount of interest attaches itself to these 
two sections, because of the excellent exposures of the basal contact 
of the Maxville limestone. In each one the subjacent shaly inter- 
val, A 3 or B 3 , as the case may be, has an uneven top. These shales 
are jointed, and the joints are filled with the same kind of material as 
that composing the basal intervals, A 4 and B 5 , of the Maxville. The 
same material was forced out from the joints and between the shales 
for a short distance, as illustrated in figure 3. 

•<6«" ".*.• ;^;':M^yiUe[U7h^to/if3. 

: <c>-y;:y:::,-:r>::' y':^' 

M •;■'•*?.• 

:>-&• ••«'/<•' 

Fig. 3. — A sketch of the Maxville limestone and Rushville shales in Jockey Hol- 
low. Note the uneven contact and that the joints and cracks of the Rushville 
are filled with the same material as that which makes up the sandy brec- 
ciated limestone of the superjacent Maxville. 

The basal layer of the Maxville, A 4 , in the first section varies from 
nine inches to one foot and ten inches within the limits of the exposure. 


In the second section, the basal layer, B 4 , varies from one foot and nine 
inches to two feet and nine inches within a horizontal distance of eight 
feet. In both cases the top is even; the variation in thickness being 
due to an uneven base. From the variations alone it is hard to decide 
whether this is a case of disconformity or contemporaneous erosion. 
The filled joints might suggest sun cracks and shallow water during 
the deposition of the shales, and hence contemporaneous erosion. The 
joints are not, however, of the usual sun crack variety. Furthermore, 
data will presently be presented, which further supports the discon- 
formity theory. 

When these exposures were first visited, the writer did not include 
the brecciated calcareous sandstone or sandy limestone, A 4 and A 5 and 
B 4 , in the Maxville limestone, since it differs so markedly from that 
found in the base of the stratum along Jonathan Creek. Andrews 
likewise excluded it from the Maxville. 1 More careful study has con- 
vinced the writer that it belongs to the Maxville and that its presence 
is of the utmost significance. Many of the angular pieces in the breccia 
are limestone. Lithologically they are extremely different from the im- 
pure limestone which makes up the mass of the breccia. They are 
pure, compact limestone and mostly of a color darker than that of the 
Maxville. Whence is the origin of these angular limestone pieces? 
Their source could not have been distant or they would have become 
rounded in transportation. If it were near, then Ohio must have had 
a Mississippian limestone, other than the Maxville, of which they alone 
are the representatives. The basal contact, then, is one of discon- 
formity like unto that at the top, rather than contemporaneous erosion. 

Aside from the brecciated limestone, B 4 , the stratum exposed in 
the second section is undoubtedly the lower half of the Maxville. On 
the whole it is a rather impure limestone without distinct bedding- 
planes. It contains a few badly distorted specimens of the rather ro- 
bust forms of Productus cestriensis. Otherwise it is practically barren. 
The presence of iron causes the three upper intervals, B 9 , B 10 , and B 11 , 
to take on a yellowish or buff tinge, after being subjected to the ele- 
ments. In this vicinity, and about Maxville, this is called the "buff 
stone" and that below, the "blue stone." 

The twenty-three to twenty-four feet of shales underlying the lime- 
stone are also new. Andrews applied the term Rushville group 2 to a 
stratum of shales occurring between the Logan and the Maxville some- 
where in the vicinity of Rushville without locating the type section. 
These shales in Jockey Hollow undoubtedly belong to the upper part 
of the group defined by Andrews. 

Andrews, E. B. Discovery of a New Group of Lower Carboniferous Rocks 
itl Southeastern Ohio. Am. Jour. Sci., Vol. XVIII, p. 137. 1879. 

2 Loc. cit. J 


Since an exposure of the Maxville limestone where it is due is the 
exception rather than the rule, it seems advisable to at least mention 
every place of known occurrence. In another branch of Jockey Hol- 
low about one-eighth of a mile west of the Shafer residence, is a third 
exposure, in the lower part of which the stone seems to be fragmental; 
and in the upper part, to be the "buff limestone. 7 ' Three miles east 
of Rushville Station, and a quarter of a mile west of the Shafer home, 
where a north and south road crosses the "State Road" at the Griffin 
residence, is a very poor exposure of the limestone. On either side of 
this north and south road where it unites with the Zanesville and Mays- 
ville Pike, at a point half a mile north of the last location, is an old 
quarry, but each one has so badly fallen in that only a foot or so of the 
limestone is exposed. 

On the Zanesville and Maysville Pike, two hundred yards east of 
the last place described, is a farm house belonging to G. W. Folk. A 
like distance north of the house is an old quarry of Maxville limestone. 
The limestone lies so near the surface that it is badly weathered and does 
not furnish a satisfactory section. It will, however, be given. 

Section of the G. W. Folk Quarry. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Sharon conglomerate 

C 3 - — At about the same horizon as the top of 
the ' ' Buff limestone ' ' in another part 
of the quarry are blocks of coarse- 
grained sandstone, resting upon re- 
sidual clay 

Maxville limestone 11 1 

C 2 - — Badly weathered and badly shattered 
"buff limestone." The weather- 
ing has given the stone a decided 
stratified appearance, but it is' prob- 
able that the stone was a massive 
layer as the "buff" was reported to . 
be at Maxville. To top of exposure, 
which is within three or four feet of 
the top of the hill 5 6 

C 1 - — Massive limestone; the lower part blue 
and with irregular bedding-planes, 
causing it to appear contorted; the 
upper part at least stained buff 
and at least weathered into layers. 

Base of quarry 5 7 

Two or three specimens of Produc- 
ius pileiformis were collected in this 

While the close proximity of the limestone to the surface has fa- 
cilitated the quarrying of the rock, it has also permitted the elements 


to work changes which are not desirable to the stratigrapher. The 
two greatest of these alterations are the shattering of the stone and 
the change in color. A casual observation of the quarry would leave 
the impression of abundant stratification, but a study of the same 
stratum at Maxville and the description of the fresh stone furnished by 
the owner of one of the quarries at that place, convince one that most 
of these apparent bedding-planes are due to weathering. 

The blocks of Sharon sandstone apparently rest upon residual 
clay— -the probable residue of the upper surface of the Maxville. The 
base of these blocks seem to be uneven — a condition we should expect 
to find. A better exposure would no doubt show that they rest discon- 
formably upon the limestone stratum. 

A small pit opening, in which are about two and a half feet of bluish- 
gray shattered limestone, may be seen high up on the east bank of 
Rush Creek, a half mile north of the Folk quarry, or, more definitely, 
a half mile north of the Otterbein United Brethren Church. Blocks 
of Maxville limestone appear in the highway just south of the .Ridge 
School, or about one and a half miles north of the Folk Quarry. These 
blocks may be from the drift, but their position seems to indicate that 
they had worked out from the stratum. The formation crosses the high- 
way near the home of Mrs. Alice Baker, which is two and a quarter 
miles east of Oakthorpe and about half a mile northwest of the Ridge 
School, but no measurements could be made at this place. 

About two miles east of Oakthorpe, and a half mile west of the 
Baker exposure, is a high hill, the Cover Hill, on which is located Charles 
Cover's residence. The Maxville limestone was formerly quarried, here 
for road metal, but the face of the quarry is badly covered at the pres- 
ent time. Only two or three feet of the limestone are exposed. The 
lower part is the "buff limestone." The upper part consists of two 
layers, the lower one eleven, and the upper one five inches in thickness. 
Between the two layers is an indistinct, irregular bedding-plane. The 
stone is badly shattered by weathering since it lies in the very top of 
the hill. When freshly broken the lower part is a crystalline, bluish- 
gray stone and the upper two layers are compact, dove-colored lime- 
stone resembling lithographic stone. 

Prof. G. F. Lamb, of Mt. Union College, examined this exposure 
before the writer did, and shortly after it had been opened. In his 
letter dated January 25, 1908, he says: "The whole section ob- 
tained was only a little over 7 feet and in 9 different layers of limestone 
varying in thickness from a fraction of an inch to 1 foot and 4 inches. 
Scarcely any two of them are alike, varying in purity, compactness, 

toughness, color The partings are sand clay and 

mixtures of these. It is an interesting exposure, as it shows the very 
changeable character of the Maxville/ ' 

It seems quite possible that some of the layers described by Pro- 


fessor Lamb were not natural ones, but were the result of weathering, 
and that the seven feet were not markedly different from the limestone 
exposed in the Folk Quarry. The changeable character, mentioned in 
the letter, has often been attributed to the Maxville. But much of 
this variability has been shown to be due to a comparison of the lime- 
stone in two sections in which the lower half was exposed in one and the 
upper half in the other, rather than to difference in the stratum itself. 

One mile northwest of Redington and in the highway opposite 
J. H. Gordon's is a poor exposure of Maxville limestone. In the lower 
part of the exposure the limestone is impure, sandy and brecciated. 
Some of the larger pieces in the breccia reach a length of three or four 
inches and are compact, pure, dark limestone. This lower portion is 
very similar to the lower part of the stratum in Jockey Hollow. Higher, 
the blocks are impure, bluish limestone, but most of the lime has been 
leached out, leaving a porous, sandy rock of a brownish color. Near 
the top, the limestone seems purer, at least it is free from the coarser 
sand, and weathers to a "buff." Several feet of black, bituminous 
Pottsville shale apparently rest disconformably upon the stratum. 
From the lowest limestone block to the upper contact of the Maxville 
is an interval of sixteen and a half feet. 

A number of the exposures mentioned above are worthless as far 
as sections are concerned. They do show, however, the distribution 
of the Maxville in this vicinity; an important thing for a formation so 
frequently "wanting." Isolated exposures appear over a north and 
south interval of about four miles and an east and west one of two miles 
—an isolated "hill of Maxville." 

The Junction City Clay Products Company's plant is located on 
the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, two miles west of the city after, which 
it was named. The company has two "clay banks," the lower one 
in the Logan, and the upper one in the Pottsville. The following in- 
structive section was measured in the lower quarry. 

Section of the Junction City Clay Products Company 's Lower Quarry. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 
Immediately above is residual subsoil, whereas 
15 or 20 feet above is the base of the 
upper quarry where fire-clay and 
shale of Pottsville age are used. 

Sharon conglomerate 2 6 

D 2 - — Layer of coarse-grained sandstone, the 
base of which is conglomeratic and 
uneven. Although the face of the 
quarry was badly plastered by the 
wash from above, yet this layer 
apparently rests disconformably upon 
the next interval. 


Ft. In. Ft. 
Logan formation "T 10 


D 1 - — -Medium to shaly-bedded, fine-grained 
buff sandstones to base of exposure, 
but not of the quarry. 

This exposure is located about three miles southeast of the nearest 
outcrops of the Maxville limestone, namely, those in Jockey Hollow. 
And in it the limestone was completely removed before the Sharon was 
deposited. The next exposures in which the Maxville is present are those 
of the Monday Creek drainage system, near Maxville, about seven miles 
still farther to the south. 


Little Monday Creek rises in Jackson Township, Perry County, at 
a point about three miles southeast of Junction City. It flows in a 
southwesterly direction to a point near Webb Summit, where it turns 
to the southeast and, at Kachelmacher, enters Monday Creek proper. 
The upper part of the main stream has a southerly course, but after 
the union of the two branches the resultant stream maintains the south- 
easterly course of the smaller one and empties into the Hocking River 
below Nelsonville. MM! 

The valley of Little Monday is well within the limits of the Penn- 
sylvanian series, but the stream has cut sufficiently deep, though, to 
penetrate the Logan sandstone and shale. Along the stream are a 
number of exposures of the Maxville limestone. These outcrops are 
in the vicinity of Maxville, the type locality. 

The first one of these exposures is in one of the tributaries of Little 
Monday, a mile north of Maxville. It occurs in the bed of the stream 
just below James StimmePs residence. Although only a few inches 
are exposed vertically, the areal extent is sufficient to show a very im- 
portant outcrop. 

Section of the small stream near the Stimmel Residence. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 
Pottsville formation 1 3 

A 3 — Massive irregular-bedded sandstone ex- 
posed 5 feet up stream from the lime- 
stone. Exact contact not shown 
since it is under water. 

Maxville limestone 1 3 

A 2 - — Shale-nodular zone. Layer of compact 
bluish-gray limestone which breaks 
up into rectangular blocks or nodular- 
like blocks on weathering. Fos- 
silif erous 6 


Ft. In. Ft. In. 
A 1 — Shale-nodular zone. Blue shale with nod- 
ules of limestone scattered through it. 
Fossiliferous. A harder layer ap- 
parently lies -below. To base of 
exposure 9 

The following fossils were collected in the two intervals, A 1 and A 2 , 
of the Maxville: 

1. Productus cestriensis Worthen 

2. Dielasma turgida Hall 

3. Seminula sub quadrat a Hall 

4. Allorisma maxvillensis Whitfield 

5. Allorisma andrewsi Whitfield 

6. Straparollus similis Meek and Worthen 

7. Bulimorpha melanoides Whitfield 

8. Bellerophon sublasvis Hall 

9. Cephalopod unidentified. 

As already stated, the limestone exists in the very bed of the stream 
and does not lend itself to easy measurement, but the figures given above 
are believed to be about correct. A rather large number of species 
and of individuals of certain species for the Maxville are found here, 
Bellerophon sublcevis being very abundant. The abundance of fossils 
and the appearance in general suggest the shale-nodular zone of the Jon- 
athan Creek and Kent Run sections. To this zone both intervals are 
referred, although it must be admitted that there is some uncertainty, 
due to the stratum being covered below. 

Lime Kiln Hollow is the name of the small tributary of Little Mon- 
day at Maxville. On either side of the stream for two or three hundred 
yards above the town, the Maxville limestone was formerly quarried 
for lime. The faces of these old quarries have long since been covered 
over with surface material. The only remaining exposure is along the 
bed and bank of the stream, where the following section was made. 

Section of Lime Kiln Hollow, 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 
Maxville limestone 6 1 

B 7 * — Compact dove-colored limestone apparent- 
ly composing a single layer 10 

B 6 - — Compact dove-colored limestone apparent- 
ly forming a single layer 1 

B 5 - — Compact dove-colored limestone 9 

B 4 - — Layer of compact pink or dove-colored 
limestone, resting upon and partak- 
ing of the form of the contorted 
layer below. The layer is badly 
shattered and the cracks are filled 


Ft. In. Ft. 1 . 
with calcite in the form of veins .... 4 +. 

B 3 — Peculiar, contorted layer of brownish- 
gray limestone. Contains quartz of 
fantastic shapes, not exactly angu- 
lar pieces, yet resembling them 9 +. 

B 2 - — Layer of brownish-gray crystalline lime- 
stone 1 2 

B 1 — Impure dark-brown limestone in hard, 
thin, wavy layers. To base of ex- 
posure under water 1 3 

The rather peculiar texture and structure of the stone and the ab- 
sence of both contacts make the correlation of the zones at this place a 
somewhat delicate task. The third layer, B 3 , is not only peculiarly con- 
torted, but contains quartz in fantastic shapes, and this quartz seems 
to be quartz of replacement rather than grains of quartz sand. The 
fourth layer, B 4 , partakes of the contorted form of the third layer, B 3 , 
upon which it rests, and is badly shattered, the cracks being filled with 
calcite veins. These are features which are usually absent in the Max- 
ville. Farther up stream, the limestone above the third layer seems 
to be purer and lighter in color and in one place to be thrown into a 
small anticlinal fold. This lighter portion is said to have been 
the part used for lime and to have measured ten feet in thickness be- 
fore it was partly covered. The absence of the contacts, as already 
stated, and also that of the fossils, except a few exceedingly poorly pre- 
served ones which are unidentifiable Bryozoans and Brachiopods, ren- 
der correlation so uncertain that it will not be attempted. 

Another small stream enters Little Monday Creek from the north, 
at the residence of Daniel Hendricks, a half mile below Maxville. The 
limestone has been quarried on both sides of this stream for quite a 
distance. The nearest quarry is on the eastern side about two or three 
hundred yards above the residence. This is also the most recently 
operated quarry and hence contains the best exposure. 

Section of the Hendricks Quarry on the east bank. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 
Sharon member 8 1 

C 13 - — Two or three layers of coarse-grained 

sandstone 1 4 

C 12 - — -Arenaceous blue shale; usually with iron 

ore at the base 6 1 

C 11 — "Graystone." Layer of calcereous sand- 
stone. The layer has an uneven base 
when C 10 and C 9 are present, but 
these are mostly absent, and then 
the layer has a regular base. In the 
latter case it appears to rest con- 
formably upon the Maxville. Varies 
from 1 foot 9 inches to S 


A. — A view of the Maxville limestone and the Sharon member in the Hendricks 
Quarry on the east bank of the valley at Maxville. The Sharon seemingly 
rests conformably upon the Maxville at every place in the quarry except this 
one where the base clearly rises to admit the small remnant of a limestone 

B. — Contact of the Maxville limestone and the Sharon member in the same Hen- 
dricks Quarry at Maxville. The same basal layer of the Sharon as the one 
in A. A most beautiful illustration of deceptive conformity. 



Ft. In. Ft. In. 
Maxville limestone K 14 8 

C 10 - — 'Shale, absent except at one place 2 

C 9 — Layer of compact blue ("buff") limestone, 
with slightly uneven base, absent 
except at one place 1 3 

C 8 - — Soft shale with a peculiar quartz layer in 
the base. This forms the top of the 
stratum throughout nearly all of the 
quarry. From 9 inches to 4 

C 7 - — "Buff stone." Compact blue limestone 
which weathers to a red or buff on ex- 
posure, due to the iron present in it. 
Shatters badly on exposure, but said 
to be a single layer 4 10 

C 6 - — "Blue stone." Compact blue limestone 
with a few irregular bedding-planes. 
All exposed except a few inches near 
the base. To base of quarry 4 ' 7 

C 5 ' — Zone, with the base of shale, the middle 
of peculiar quartz material like that 
in Lime Kiln Hollow, and the top of 
white limestone. All badly contorted 1 3 

C 4 — -Layer of gray limestone with contorted 

base 1 1 

C 3 - — Limestone, poorly exposed 1 2 

Undetermined 9 6 

C 2 - — Internal covered. 
Logan formation 12 3 

C 1 - — 'Medium to shaly bedded, fine-grained, 
buff sandstones. Ripple-marked. 

To base of exposure above the barn. 

Layer C u contains considerable lime— said to be twenty per cent.— 
and in all places in the quarry except one, and that at first was over- 
looked, has an even base and top. For these reasons it was at first in- 
cluded in the Maxville limestone. More careful study has revealed the 
presence at one place of a layer of limestone and a zone of shale, C 9 
and C 10 , in the top of the Maxville and the rise in the base of layer C 11 to 
admit them. Layer C 11 , therefore, has been made the basal member of 
the Sharon and undoubtedly rests disconformably upon the Maxville. 
These features, namely, the uneven base of layer C 11 and the presence 
of the intervals C 10 and C 9 in one place and layer C 11 resting in deceptive 
conformity upon the zone C 8 due to the absence of the intervals C 10 and C 9 
in another, are respectively shown in A and B of PL XL 

On the west bank of the stream, above the quarry just described, 
are a number of smaller and older quarries. In these the Sharon is 
not only a massive sandstone, but has a very irregular base. These 
changes are clearly brought out in the following section. 



Section of the Hendricks Quarry 

Sharon conglomerate 

D 4 - — Massive coarse-grained sandstone with 
plant markings. Twelve feet to, the 
east the base of the sandstone passes 
beneath cover within six inches of the 
base of the exposure 

Maxville limestone > 

D 3 - — Covered, but probably the base of the 
Sharon also sloped toward the face of 
the quarry, that is to the south, and 
rested directly upon this sloping sur- 
face 1 

'Buff stone." Blue limestone turning to 
red or buff when exposed, due to the 
presence of iron. Badly shattered, 
but said to be without bedding planes 3 
'Blue stone." Compact blue limestone 
with indistinct, irregular bedding- 
planes. To base of exposure 3 

the west bank . 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

8 6 


D 2 —" 

D 1 — " 

This exposure reveals a most beautiful case of disconformity and 
is nicely shown in PI. X, B. Where the section was made the Max- 
ville is eight and a half feet and the Sharon one foot and seven inches 
in thickness. Twelve feet to the east the base of the Sharon passes 
beneath the filling of the quarry and to within six inches of the base 
of the exposure, as illustrated in the following sketch (Fig. 4). 

Fig. 4. — The disconformity between the Maxville limestone and the Sharon con- 
glomerate in the Hendricks Quarry on the west bank at Maxville. A sketch 
of the same rocks as those shown in the photograph in Plate X, B. 


The Maxville has thus suffered at least eight feet of erosion in a hori- 
zontal distance of twelve feet. The exposure extends far enough to 
the east to show that the base of the Sharon begins to rise almost as 
abruptly as it descended. In the Maxville limestone during the pre- 
Pennsylvanian age, then, this was an old gully, the life of which was 
brought to a sudden close by the sediments of Sharon age. About 
twenty feet to the west the base of the Sharon descends to at least the 
top of the "blue stone. " Here then was another gully. Possibly 
the two were tributaries — brothers. What a story they might reveal 
if the Sharon were lifted bodily from them, since further erosion is 
slightly shown farther up stream. 

Passing down Little Monday Creek to a point three-fourths of a 
mile below Maxville or -a mile above the Hocking Valley Railway, one 
reaches a covered bridge. On the east side of the valley, below the 
bridge, the Maxville was formerly quarried along its crop. This is 
the old Howdeshell Quarry. 

Section of the Howdeshell Quarry. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Sharon conglomerate 3 11 

E 5 - — Layer of gray sandstone with dark stains. 

To top of exposure 1 10 

E 4 ~ Grayish-black shale with an occasional 

quartz pebble 1 4 

E 3 - — Two layers of iron bearing sandstone al- 
ternating with arenaceous shale 9 

Maxville limestone 4 8 

E 2 - — "Buff stone." Layer of grayish lime- 
stone which turns red or buff on ex- 
posure. A few inches of the top 
mixed with, and stained by, iron ore. 3 10 

E 1 - — Layer of compact, drab limestone 10 

On the west side of Little Monday Creek, a half mile north of 
the Hocking Valley Railway, is the Culver Lime Kiln. Here, 
in days gone by, the Maxville limestone was burned for lime. It is 
a later kiln than the one or ones at Maxville, but' in either case the lime 
was transported overland by wagons. The stack stands as a monument 
to a once rather widely disseminated industry — the death of which 
is but another tragedy of cheaper railroad transportation. 

The Maxville was quarried at the kiln, but the old quarries have 
filled in with mantle rock. A few hundred yards north or the kiln, 
about six feet of the limestone is exposed in a small gully, but neither 
contact is shown. In the upper part of the exposure the limestone is 
compact and blue and in the lower it is less compact and darker. A 
loose block showed that peculiar quartz structure already noted at 


Just east of Webb Summit a cut carries the Hocking Valley Rail- 
way from the drainage system of Little Monday Creek into that of 
the Hocking River. Although the eastern end of this cut is but half a 
mile south of the last exposure, that is, the one at the Culver Lime 
Kiln, yet the Maxville has been completely removed and the Sharon 
rests disconformably upon the Logan. These facts are clearly shown 
in the following section: 

Section of the Webb Summit Cut. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Sharon conglomerate 1 4 

F 3 - — Coarse-grained sandstone above and con- 
glomerate below. Contains quartz 
pebbles, the size of the finger tips. 
Base slightly uneven 


Logan formation 10 9 

F 2 — Medium-bedded to shaly, fine-grained, 

buff sandstone 8 6 

F 1 — Covered interval, to the Hocking Valley 

Railway track 2 3 


The next and last exposure of the Maxville limestone in the North- 
ern Area is in the valley of Three Mile Run. This stream rises in Falls 
Township, Hocking County, about a mile south of Webb Summit. It 
flows south and empties into Hocking River at a point three miles below 

The exposure is on the west bank of the run, just east of Smith 
Chapel, and is an old quarry where limestone was obtained for furnace 
flux for old Five Mile or Union Furnace, located five or six miles to the 
south. Unfortunately the quarry is in an old terrace covered with 
glacial outwash material and most, if not all, of the overlying Pennsyl- 
vanian rocks have been swept away. The face of the old quarry is, 
furthermore, badly covered, but in spite of this the following interest^ 
ing section was obtained. 

Section of Three Mile Run at Smith Chapel. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Maxville limestone 8 10 

Apparently shale above . . 
A 10 - — Layer of bluish-gray limestone. 
The fossils are: 

1. Productus cestriensis Worthen 

2. Straparollus similis Meek and • 


3. Bellerophon sublasvis Hall ... 5 
A 9 — Shaly parting 1 


Ft. In. Ft. In. 

A 8 — Layer of slightly argillaceous, bluish-gray 
limestone. Contains : 

1. Bellerophon sublaevis ? Hall 1 3 

A 7 — Shale-nodular zone. Bluish, argillaceous 
shales, which somewhat resemble fire- 
clay, alternating with nodular layers 
of limestone. Although not so strik- 
ingly fossiliferous as the shale-nodu- 
lar zone at other places yet it is prob- 
ably this horizon. The following 
fossils were collected: 

1. Productus cestriensis Worthen 

2. Dielasma turgida Hall 

3. Seminula subquadrata Hall 

4. Straparollus similis Meek and 


5. Bellerophon sublaevis Hall 2 7 

A 6 - — Irregular layer of compact, bluish-gray 

limestone 1 

A 5 - — Irregular and wavy zone of argillaceous, 

blue shale 2± 

A 4 - — Compact, bluish-gray limestone with a 

wavy top 9 

A 3 ' — Poorly exposed, but mostly shale with 

nodular layers of blue limestone .... 11 

A 2 — Compact bluish-gray limestone, the upper 
surface of which breaks up badly on 
exposure 1 

A 1 — Compact, bluish-gray limestone, with an 
uneven lower surface. The layer it- 
self may be due to a split from the 
superjacent layer. To base of old 
quarry 8 

Although not all that could be desired, yet this is a most interest- 
ing section. A complete exposure with top and bottom contacts shown 
would be more conclusive evidence in any question of statigraphy, still 
the section is suggestive. The blue shales alternating with nodular 
layers of limestone in A 7 resemble the shale-nodular zone to say the 
least. These shales are also rather fossiliferous, another point in favor 
of this identification. The medium layers of fossiliferous limestone, 
A 10 and A 8 , with a shaly parting, A 9 , all of which are found above this 
zone of shales and nodular limestone (A 7 ), are very much like those 
layers and partings of the upper zone of the Maxville as exposed along 
Jonathan Creek. The evidence seems to be all in favor of referring 
the interval A 7 to the .shale-nodular zone. 


The central area extends from Smith Chapel at Logan to Hamden. 
It includes the southern half of Hocking and the whole of Vinton counties. 


Days of search in this field failed to reveal any exposures of the Max- 
ville limestone. 

Southwest of Blackjack, a mile and a half to two miles, is the resi- 
dence of Charles Haggel. In front of his house a small run empties 
into one of the branches of Pine Creek. The upper Waverly and lower 
Pennsylvanian rocks are more or less exposed up this run. No Max- 
ville is found here between the Logan and Pottsville, although a very 
impure limestone exists in the upper part of the Logan. This at first 
was thought to be a possiple off-shore, sandy representative of the Max- 
ville limestone, for it was believed, by the author, that a stratum of 
isolated patches of limestone with so wide a distribution must once 
have been continuous. These patches, it was conceived, might be 
connected by arenaceous limestone or calcareous sandstone or even 
by sandstone. Later study has shown the isolated patches to be the 
result of pre-Pennsylvanian erosion and that these impure limestones 
in the Logan are in no way connected with the Maxville. 

South of the last named place, two and a half or three miles, North 
Fork of Queer Creek leaves a comparatively wide valley and enters a 
gorge of Black Hand conglomerate. The passage is over a precipitous 
face of conglomerate, sixty or eighty feet in height. This is Cedar 
Falls, and at the falls the creek receives a small tributary from the south. 
Along this the Logan and Pottsville are exposed, but no Maxville lime- 
stone is to be found. The Logan, however, contains some layers of 
impure sandy limestone. 

Ash Cave is a semi-circular or semi-conical cavern in the Black 
Hand, over which a small tributary of the South Fork of Queer Creek 
plunges for a sheer drop of ninety-three feet. The cave is located 
about two miles southwest of Cedar Falls. As one ascends South Fork 
from the cave the Black Hand and Logan formations are successively 
mounted and the Pottsville horizon reached at Hue Postoffice. The 
Maxville is wanting, and the Logan, as usual, contains a few layers of 
impure limestone or calcareous sandstone. 

In this vicinity, about twenty or thirty feet above the very thick 
conglomerate, appears another conglomerate a few feet in thickness. 
Mr. Hyde, who is studying the Waverly in this part of the state, claims 
that this second stratum belongs within the limits of the Logan forma- 
tion. Should it be the No. II conglomerate forming the top of the 
Black Hand, then some twenty or thirty feet must be taken from the 
base of the Logan and added to the top of the Black Hand. The 
result is a rather thin — as low as fifty or sixty feet — stratum of Logan. 
A reduced thickness for the Logan is, however, to be expected in 
this region, since the vigorous erosion, which removed all of the Max- 
ville, more than probably removed a considerable . amount of the top of 
the Logan. 


The headwaters of the Middle Fork of Salt Creek are located in 
Section 14, Jackson Township, Vinton County, about three miles south 
of those of the South Fork of Queer Creek. In passing down stream 
one descends the geological scale from the Pennsylvanian to the Wav- 
erly series. The rocks are mostly exposed, but the Maxville is not present. 

At the Mt. Olive covered bridge, a mile north of Allensville, the 
Middle Fork of Salt Creek receives a tributary from the east. The 
rocks are exposed at the confluence and more or less throughout the 
course of the smaller stream, and especially is this true of the upper 
half of the creek. The Sharon is here developed as a massive con- 
glomerate. Twenty-two feet are exposed at one place in a vertical 
section where neither contact is shown, whereas the barometer gave 
thirty-five to forty-five feet for its complete thickness. It rests dis- 
conformably upon the Logan without any remnants of the Maxville 

From the south another tributary enters Middle Fork at Allens- 
ville. The upper Waverly and Sharon are also exposed in this tribu- 
tary. While the exposure at the contact is not the most satisfactory 
it is sufficient to show the absence of the Maxville. 

Other places where the rocks of the Pennsylvanian series rest dis- 
conformably upon those of the Waverly could be cited within the Cen- 
tral Area. This scarcely seems necessary since it would only be a rep- 
etition of the conditions found in the exposures mentioned above. And 
furthermore, a point within seven miles of Hamden, which is located 
in the northern edge of the Southern Area, has now been reached. 


The Southern Area extends from Hamden on the north to the Ken- 
tucky side of the Ohio River on the south. It embraces the margin 
of Vinton and the whole of Jackson and Scioto counties. Within it 
are a few small and widely separated areas of the Maxville limestone. 


Little Raccoon Creek rises at a point about two miles west of Mc- 
Arthur. Its course is mostly a little east of south through Hamden 
and Wellston to its confluence with Raccoon Creek, south of Vinton. 
It lies wholly within the limits of the Pennsylvanian rocks, but it has 
cut sufficiently deep into the strata at Hamden to reach the Maxville 
limestone and the top of the Logan formation, and to thus give us an- 
other inlier of Maxville. Unfortunately an old high level stream, 
Albany River, which swept through here to the southwest in the ages of 
long ago, removed practically all of the Pennsylvanian rocks down to 
the Maxville, so that this contact is hard to find. In spite of this, 
however, a number of interesting and instructive sections were made. 
10— G. b. 13—1,000. 


Nearly a mile east of Hamden is a highway bridge across the pres- 
ent stream. Just above the bridge are the remains of old "Reed's 
Mill." Here, on the west bank, the first section was measured. 

Section at Reed's Mill. 

Ft. In. Ft. In, 

Pottsville formation 1 J9 

A 7 - — Massive, coarse-grained sandstone above, 
with some lime below, and with nod- 
ules of iron. Probably Pottsville . . . 

Undetermined 1 

A 6 - — Interval covered. 
Maxville limestone 18 5 

A 5 ' — Coarse-grained, sandy limestone, gray in 

color 5 

A 4 — Mostly covered, some arenaceous gray 

limestone 4 

A 3 - — Massive, coarse-grained, sandy limestone, 
grayish in color. It is without dis- 
tinct or any bedding-planes, except 
those cross-bedded ones which in 
some places occur near the base of 
the interval. At places this inter- 
val is separated from the subja- 
cent one by a softer zone only, while 
at other places the two are not sep- 
arable, and then they form but a 
single massive layer. The sand con- 
sists of pure white grains of quartz. 
In places the limestone is brecciated 6 6 

A 2 - — Massive limestone, without definite bed- 
ding-planes, but in places it tends 
to split up and appears slightly 
cross-bedded. The limestone is gray 
in color and sandy, the grains being 
of white quartz. It is also brecciated. 
the angular pieces in many places 
consisting of compact, pure limestone 
of different colors and markedly dif- 
ferent from the mass of the stratum. 
The lower part contains small, irreg- 
ular nodules of chert 7 6 

Undetermined 2 

A 1 * — Interval covered to water level. 

Banks of Maxville limestone are found first on the one and then 
on the other side of this meandering stream, as one ascends it for a few 
hundred yards. They are of about the same height as the one in the 
section and do not show either contact. At a point about four hundred 


yards above the site of the old mill, seventeen feet of the Sharon sud- 
denly descend to water level and cut out the Maxville. A few hun- 
dred feet still farther up stream the Maxville again appears in the same 
bank in about its normal thickness. This is conclusive evidence that 
the upper surface of the Maxville suffered erosion in Paleozoic time 
and that the Sharon was deposited disconformably upon the limestone. 
About four hundred yards below Reed's Mill, Little Raccoon 
Creek is crossed, in turn, by the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Rail- 
road.* A hundred yards above the railroad bridge and on the east 
bank of the stream is an exposure of the Maxville limestone. Here 
the following section was made, but the water level in this section is 
slightly higher than it was given in the Reed's Mill section because a 
small dam has been built at the railroad bridge since the mill section 
was measured. 

Section above the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Railroad Bridge. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Pottsville formation 7 

B 7 - — Coarse-grained, brown sandstone with 
much iron ore, to top of exposure . . 

Undetermined 5 

B 6 — Interval covered 
Maxville limestone 12 

B 5 — Coarse sandstone with some calcite, some 
lime and much iron. This is probably 
one of the breccia horizons 1 9 

B 4 — Massive, coarse-grained, sandy limestone, 
without any distinct bedding-planes, 
but with some irregular pockets of 
shale. If the section were more ac- , 
cessible, it might show that it was 
brecciated 8 

B 3 - — Arenaceous gray limestone,, cross-bedded, 
like that at Limeville and Carter 
Caves, Kentucky 1 9 

B 2 - — Very impure, sandy limestone of a bluish- 
gray color. It is more indurated than 
the overlying interval. Contained 
one Pelecypod shell 6 

Undetermined 1 

B 1 - — Interval covered to water level. 

As previously stated, the last exposure is only one hundred yards 
above the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Railroad bridge. At the 
east abutment of this bridge, recent excavation has exposed a few feet 
of the strata. Here the following important section was measured. 


Section at the east abutment of the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern 

Railroad Bridge. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Pottsville formation : 2 7 

C 6 - — •Black, bituminous shale with coarse are- 
naceous and ferruginous material at 
the base. Undoubtedly Pottsville 
formation. To top of exposure. 

Undetermined 3 2 

C 5 — Practically covered, but probably shale. 

Logan formation 6 1 

C 4 — Layer of fine-grained buff sandstone, 

which may be part of layer C 2 6 

C 3 - — Soft, argillaceous white shale, which may 

only occur in pockets 1 

C 2 - — Massive layer of fine-grained buff sand- 
stone, which may break up into thin 
layers 3 

C 1 - — Thin-bedded, fine-grained buff sandstone, 
with a nodular lentil of iron ore. To 
present water level, which is two or 
three feet below the top of the dam 2 6 

Here, then, are two sections within a hundred yards of each other. In 
the one there are twelve feet of the Maxville exposed and there is a pos- 
sibility of five or six feet being added to the thickness of the formation. 
In the other one there is no Maxville exposed and the probabilities are 
that the covered interval, C 5 , of three feet and two inches, belongs to 
the Pottsville shale, rather than to the Maxville. In short, the Max- 
ville has been either practically or completely removed in the lower 
section, whereas there are at least twelve feet in the upper one. 

The Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern has somewhat recently 
built a new bridge at this place, and the new abutments and arch ap- 
proaches are concrete structures. The blocks of the old stone abut- 
ments were pushed aside and among them are a number of limestone 
ones which were quarried from the Maxville. These blocks of limestone 
are much more accessible for study than is the formation along the banks 
of the stream, and in them the limestone is mostly sandy and impure, 
and is commonly brecciated. The sand is a white quartz, the grains 
of which are rounded. The angular pieces, forming the breccia, are 
mostly limestone of a different color and of a much purer composition 
than the matrix of the stratum, and many of them reach a length of 
one or two inches. Scattered among the other material of the breccia 
are patches of calcite crystals. In some of the blocks there are irreg- 
ular pieces of chert similar to those in the Mississippian limestone at 
Carter's Caves, Kentucky. 


When first studied these exposures were rather perplexing, the 
limestone being so different from the pure upper half or, for that matter, 
from the argillaceous lower half of the formation as exposed along Jon- 
athan Creek. For this reason the exposures at Hamden were first 
thought to represent a slightly younger formation. It was conceived 
that the Maxville had been completely shattered and worked over and 
into this a new sandy, brecciated limestone stratum of Sharon or pre- 
Sharon age. Neither were there any fossils to aid in the determination 
of its age. Later studies of the Mississippian limestone farther to the 
south show, however, that this is also of Mississippian age, and that 
the stratum becomes more and more sandy for an ever increasing thick- 
ness. The limestone, too, in many places is cross-bedded — a feature that 
shows more plainly when the stone is subjected to the elements. This 
cross-bedding is nicely shown at Carter and strikingly at Carter 's Caves, 

The angular pieces of limestone in the brecciated portions of the 
formation at Hamden are worthy of special consideration. As pre- 
viously stated, these and those in the Jockey Hollow exposures are 
angular and not water worn. Hence their origin must have been a 
point close at hand. If close at hand, then they must have been de- 
rived from another and earlier limestone stratum or from the breaking 
up of the Maxville 's own stratum. If the latter condition were not 
the actual one, and it probably was not, then Ohio must have had a 
Mississippian limestone of age younger than the Logan and older than 
the Maxville. 


The headwater streams comprising the Little Scioto River drain- 
age system have their origin in the southern part of Jackson and Pike 
counties. After, their union the river maintains a southerly course. 
It discharges into the Ohio River at Scioto ville. 

One of these tributaries rises just beyond the eastern border of 
Hamilton Township, Jackson County, and "flows southwest and thence 
west across the township. In Section 24, at the home of Amos (Son of 
Enoch) Canter, the stream has penetrated the Maxville. At this place 
the limestone was formerly quarried to a considerable extent for fur- 
nace flux and for road metal, but the quarry has recently been converted 
into a fish pond by means of a dam. Although the water covers most 
of the stratum, still enough is exposed to give the following important 

Section of the Canter Quarry. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Pottsville formation 7 2 

A 5 - — Bluish, arenaceous shales and shaly sand- 
stone, to top of quarry 3 


Ft. In. Ft. In. 

A 4 — Coarse-grained, micaceous sandstone with 
a trace of iron. In places there are 
two inches of iron ore above and in 
places a like amount below the sand- 
stone 8 + 

A 3 - — Green, flint fire-clay, the upper part white 2 6 

A 2 — Irregular layer of iron ore, which in some 
places is nearly all displaced by chert. 
The ore passes into fire-clay above 
and into chert below. The chert ad- 
heres to the limestone. The top of 
the iron ore is wavy, and is 9 in- 
ches lower in one place than it is at 
another, three of four feet away. The 
contact of the chert with the lime- 
stone below could not be examined 
on ^account of the water. Varies from 
1 ft. 4 in. to 1 

Maxville limestone 2 

A 1 - — Compact, bluish-gray limestone. Some 
parts with angular pieces of chert. 
Water level of the fish pond in the 
old quarry. 

About two hundred yards below the quarry and at the Canter 
residence a scarp exposes a little more of the Maxville. The limestone, 
as shown here, is three feet in thickness and without a bedding plane. 
It is of a bluish-gray color and contains some chert in its upper surface. 
Since no fossils are present and since the lower contact is. not shown 
in either the quarry or the scarp, the exact horizon of the stratum can- 
not be determined, but the massive character and the absence of fossils 
are suggestive of the St. Louis, as brought out in the correlation portion 
of this paper. 

The well at the Canter residence is only a few feet from the lime- 
stone scarp, and the mouth* of the well is six or eight feet above the 
top of the limestone. In digging the well some soil was first encoun- 
tered and then about ten feet of red clay or fire-clay. The well was 
continued to a total depth of twenty-three feet without striking 
any limestone. Since the bottom of the well is at least fifteen feet 
below the top of the limestone in the scarp, this number must 
represent the minimum difference in pre-Pottsville erosion at the two 

The area of this remnant of Maxville is, like many of the others, 
very small indeed. Down stream it is seen for a few hundred yards. Up 
stream it soon passes beneath drainage, and from our knowledge of 
the formation it is not reasonable to suspect that it extends far beneath 
drainage in this direction. 


Frederick Creek rises near South Webster and flows west through 
Bloom Township, Scioto County, to join the Little Scioto River, just 
beyond the western border of the township. Its valley is sufficiently 
deep to expose Mississippian strata for quite a distance within the more 
general limits of the Pennsylvania]! series. The extreme point is a 
small bank where the highway crosses the clay switch of the Baltimore 
& Ohio Southwestern Railroad, about opposite the Harbison & Walker 
Refractories Company's grinding mill. Here the rocks of the follow- 
ing section are exposed: 

Section at the Harbison & Walker Mill. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Sharon conglomerate 3 

A 3 — Very coarse conglomerate, apparently with 

an irregular base 2 6 

A 2 - — -Soft, argillaceous blue and yellow shale 

with some sand . . 6 

Logan formation 2 6 

A 1 — Medium to thin-bedded, fine-grained white 
and buff sandstone, with peculiar long 
conical depressions. 

In this section the Maxville limestone was completely removed 
by pre-Pottsville erosion. The last exposure in which it was seen, 
namely, the Canter Quarry, is located about eight miles to the north. 
The next place where the limestone is found is on Niner Ridge, which 
lies about eight of nine miles to the west. 

Three miles and a half north of Sciotoville, the Swager Run high- 
way crosses a high hill, known as the Niner Hill. This hill is, in fact, 
a very narrow east and west ridge — a divide between those tributaries 
of the Little Scioto River which flow to the northeast, and those which 
flow to the southeast. Along the very crest of the ridge is a coarse 
sandstone, and beneath this sandstone in Section 24, Harrison Town- 
ship, Scioto County, not only was a fire-clay formerly worked, but 
also the Maxville limestone. This is on the land of the old Harrison 
Furnace Company, and they used the limestone as a flux in their fur- 
nace. Both the fire-clay and limestone banks have pretty badly fallen 
in, but through the kindness of Mr. J. A. Shump, who aided in locating 
these old mines and who furnished much useful information, the writer 
is able to present the two following sections located near each other. 
In the first exposure a little of the limestone escaped pre-Pottsville 
erosion, whereas in the second all of it was removed. 

West Section of Niner Ridge. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 
B 6 —Soil to top of ridge 2 

Pottsville formation 15 11 

B 5 - — Massive, coarse-grained gray sandstone . . 13 2 


Ft. In. Ft. In. 
B 4 - — Green, argillaceous clay. At another ex- 
posure 20 feet away a foot of white 
clay with one or two sandstone part- 
ings appears at the top 2 

B 3 — Interval in which iron ore nodules occur 5 

B 2 — Interval of irregular pieces of white chert . 4 

Maxville limestone 

B 1 — Light- colored limestone, exposed by dig- 
ging down to it. Mr. Shump worked 
in this mine in 1867 or 1868. He 
says, all told, 2J to 3 feet of compact 
bluish-gray limestone was mined for 
furnace flux, but the stratum was not 
constant and thinned out in places. 

East Section of Niner Ridge. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 
C 6 — Soil to top of the ridge 3 

' Pottsville formation 13 

C 5 - — Massive coarse-grained sandstone . 10 

C 4 - — -Green argillaceous shale 5 

C 3 - — Black argillaceous and carbonaceous shale 1 6 

C 2 ^-Coal 1 

C 1 - — Massive, green, flint fire-clay, "bastard 

fire-clay." Mr. Shump says that, 

further in, the fire-clay is of a good 

quality and 2\ to 3 feet thick, and 

that it occurs at the same vertical 

(not geological) horizon that the 

Maxville did in the previous mine. 

This is the Sharon fire-clay 1 


Pine Creek rises somewhere in the southern part of Decatur Town- 
ship, Lawrence County, and flows to the north and thence to the west, 
leaving the township near its northwest corner. It enters Scioto County 
at the southeast corner of Bloom Township. After many wanderings 
in this county, in Lawrence again, and finally again in Scioto, it dis- 
charges into the Ohio River near Wheelersburg. 

Its lower or northwesterly course is within Mississippian strata, 
whereas the remainder of its course, on the other hand, is a long way 
within the limits of the Pennsylvanian series. A number of well borings 
and a shaft in two of its head water tributaries have, however, pene- 
trated the Maxville horizon. A careful location of the wells and shaft, 
before the records are given, is important. 

A mile southwest of Olive Furnace, the tributary, flowing south- 
west through the village, enters Pine Creek. At the side of this tribu- 


tary just below town, a well was drilled on the land of McGugin & Co. 
At this same confluence another tributary enters Pine Creek from the 
northwest. About two miles above the mouth of the second tributary 
a well was drilled on the farm of Adam Brandt. A mile and a half 
above its confluence or a half mile below the Brandt well are the shaft 
and three wells known as the Harper Shaft and wells. 

Mr. Wilber Stout and Mr. C. Ellison McQuigg, former students, 
very kindly furnished copies of the driller's log of the Brandt and Mc- 
Gugin wells, respectively. Mr. J. L. Harper kindly sent a section of 
the first well up stream from the shaft. The writer desired to give the 
records of the shaft and the other two wells belonging to Mr. Harper, 
in order to bring out the upper disconformity, but did not succeed in 
obtaining these three records. The sites of all of the wells were located 
by Mr. John Stout of South Webster, to whom the writer is under 
special obligation. 

Section of the Adam Brandt Well. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

[Pennsylvanian] - 187 6 

Surface 2 

Sand rock 7 

Slate 1 6 

Sand rock 3 3 

Slate 40 10 

Fire clay 4 

Slate 5 6 

Sand rock 29 

Slate 3 

Sand rock 2 6 

Slate 24 10 

Coal 4 

Fire Clay •. 2 6 

Sandy slate 3 6 

Sand sl^te .- . 22 2 

Fire clay (good flint) 2 10 

Soft, red mottled fire clay 26 

Talc[?] 2 6 

White rock 4 3 

Waverly 46 8 

Blue sandy shale 46 8 

This section is an exact copy of the driller 's log with the exception 
of those portions which appear between the brackets [ ],and which have 
been supplied by the writer. Since no true slates are found in the 
state, it is, of course, understood that the driller's slate is nothing more 
or less than the ordinary shale. 

Judging from the section as a whole, and especially from the pres- 
ence of the flint and red fire-clays, it seems more than probable that the 


drillers have drawn the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian contact at about 
the proper horizon. This point of division is also strengthened by the 
two following sections. The absence of the Maxville is also to be noted, 
although the well is located within a half mile of the Harper wells where 
the limestone is rather thick. 

Section of the Harper Well just above the shaft. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

[Pennsylvanian] 164 5 

Surface 10 

Sand rock 10 

Black slate 1 

Coal 4 

Black slate 1 6 

Grayish blue slate . . . . 12 

Sand rock 1 

Fire clay 6 9 

Black slate 1 6 

Gray slate 1 6 

Fire clay 2 

Black slate 1 

Gray slate 2 

Black slate 1 6 

Diamion [?] coal 1 

Sand rock 1 

Sand rock 8 

Black slate. : 4 

Sand rock- 31 

Blue sand rock 4 

Black slate 16 

Coal No. 2 1 

Bed rock '. 6 6 

Conglomerate rock 1 6 

Bone shale 36 

Green clay 1 6 

Iron ore 1 4 

[Maxville limestone] 42 2 

Limestone 3 

Green clay 1 

Limestone 5 

Dark sandy clay 3 6 

Limestone 4 

Clay 6 

Limestone 15 

Clay 8 

Limestone 8 

Clay 6 

Dark limestone 1 

Drill stopped. 


In this section, as in the last one, the zones marked slate are in- 
tervals of shale, and the portions within the brackets have likewise 
been supplied. Otherwise the section has not been changed. 

There are a number of reasons for referring the limestone to the 
Mississippian series and hence drawing the Pennsylvanian-Mississippian 
line of contact at the place indicated. A green fire-clay, similar to 
the one in the well, is found just above the Maxville and in the basal 
portion of the Sharon in quite widely distributed areas in this portion of 
the state. Then, too, the iron ore lying directly upon the limestone recalls 
a like condition of the Maxville at so many places throughout its area of 
outcrop. And last, but not least, is the fauna itself which is of un- 
doubted Mississippian age. 

A careful search was made in the material of the shaft dump for 
organic remains. The limestone layers themselves seemed to be very 
poor in fossils, but the soft argillaceous shales between yielded quite a 
number. Although some force had distorted practically all of these, 
yet the following forms were identified, of which Rhombopora armata, 
Eumetria marcyi, and Cleiothyris hirsuta have been found only at this 

1. Blastoid unidentified 

2. Crinoids unidentified 

3. Septopora re ctistyla Whitfield 

4. Fenestella serratula Ulrich 

5. Rhombopora armata Ulrich 

6. Derbya crassa Meek and Worthen 

7. Productus cestriensis ? Worthen (badly crushed) 

8. Spirifer keokuk Hall 

9. Seminula subquadrata ? Hall (badly crushed) 

10. Eumetria marcyi Shumard 

11. Cleiothyris hirsuta Hall 

12. Allorisma maxvillensis ? Whitfield (badly crushed) 

13. Bellerophon sp. 

Another important feature is the structure of the stratum itself. 
If the well record be correct, or approximately so, it will be seen that 
the lower half is rather massive, whereas the upper half is more thinly 
bedded with clayey or shaly partings. Furthermore, the presence of 
the shale-nodular zone is strongly suggested by the rather large num- 
ber of fossils found in the clayey shales of the shaft dump. The pos- 
itive identification of this zone would definitely reveal the develop- 
ment of the lower and upper zones of the formation in this, the southern, 
as well as in the Northern Area. Since a study of the shaft itself is im- 
possible because it is filled with water, the determination of these points 
is not possible, and the lack of this shaft section is the more regrettable. 

Mr. H. L. Harper worked in this shaft, and although he did not 
keep any records yet he was able to give considerable information from 
memory. The shaft penetrated the limestone for seventeen feet, and 


the whole of this interval was made up of layers, varying from eighteen 
to thirty-six inches in thickness, with shaly partings, varying in turn 
from one to three inches. The layers were horizontal and even, except 
the top one. The lower surface of this one was even, but the upper 
surface was wavy. The iron ore varied from fourteen to twenty-four 
inches. It was wavy also and conformed to the upper surface of the 
limestone. Furthermore, the shaft was sunken twenty feet lower than 
was calculated from the nearest well, the first below the shaft, before 
the limestone was reached. This information further strengthens our 
belief in the development of the lower and upper zones and in the dis-^ 
conformity at the top, the latter feature of which is so universally present. 

Section of the McGugin & Co. Well. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

[Pennsylvanian] 157 

Surface 14 6 

Slate 7 6 

Sand rock 3 6 

Slate (sandy) 3 6 

Slate 2 

Sand rock 1 

Slate 10 6 

Coal 4 

Fire clay 2 

Sandy slate 12" 8 

Slate , 2 

Sand rock 36 6 

Slate 25 

Fire clay 4 

Sandy slate 1 6 

Slate 7 6 

Goal 2 

Fire clay 1 

Slate 3 4 

Sandy slate 17 6 

% Clay 1 

[Maxville limestone] 43 

Marble 3 2 - 

Clay 6 

Marble 5 11 

Clay 3 5 

Marble 3 9 

Clay 8 

Marble 15 4 

Clay 1 8 

Marble 8 7 

In this well, as in the others, the driller's slate is not slate at all, 
but shale. The marble is, undoubtedly, the limestone of the Harper 
well. Pieces of the limestone which came from the shaft, it will be 


recalled, showed some evidence of slight changes, but not sufficiently 
great to produce a marble. The geologic divisions, on the other hand, 
may be charged against the writer. 

Attention is especially called to the great similarity of the layers 
of limestone in this well and in the Harper well. As in that well, the 
lower half is apparently a very thick bedded limestone. The upper 
half, on the other hand, consists of thinner beds and more intervals 
of shale. 

! Professor Orton, in his description of the limestones of Lawrence 
County, says: 'This limestone (Lower Mercer), or the Maxville, was 
encountered at Olive Furnace in a bore hole, two hundred feet beneath 
the surface. The core removed was almost white, exceedingly dense, 
and a very pure carbonate of lime. The thickness was reported about 
twelve feet." 1 It seems more than probable that the limestone to 
which Professor Orton referred is the Maxville, although the well is not 
definitely located. Neither does the depth nor the thickness agree with 
the limestone in the McGugin or Harper wells. On the other hand, the 
color, texture, and purity agree very closely with the Maxville, and, on 
the whole, the evidence points toward the Maxville. 


By referring to the geologic maps of Ohio and Kentucky, the Mis- 
sissippian-Pennsylvanian line is seen to extend along both sides of the 
Ohio River valley for a number of miles above Portsmouth. Formerly 
the river washed the base of a number of high hills in this vicinity and 
removed the talus to such an extent that the rocks are frequently ex- 
posed practically to their tops. These hills are excellent places for the 
study of the strata both above and below the line of contact and a 
number of them have been examined. 

At the base of such a hill, between Sciotoville and Portsmouth, is 
the plant and quarry of the Peebles Paving Brick Company. The 
Cuyahoga shales are utilized to a height of over one hundred feet, and 
some 260 feet above the top of the quarry is the upper limit of the Wa- 
verly series. The Maxville limestone is wanting, and the Pottsville 
rests directly upon the Logan. 

Another similar hill just west of Sciotoville contains a number of 
good exposures. According to the barometer, the base of the Pennsyl- 
vanian is 200 to 240 feet above the river. The following partial section 
at the line of contact was made at a point about opposite the Norfolk 
and Western Railway depot. The section shows the Maxville to be 
absent at this place also. 

^rton, Edward Jr. The Limestone Resources and the Lime Industry 
in Ohio, Geol. Surv. Ohio, Bull. 4, p. 85, 1906. 


Section of the hill at the lower end of Sciotoville. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Sharon conglomerate 1 3 

A 4 — Coarse-grained gray sandstone, with plant 
remains. Although the exposure is 
only 10 feet long the lower surface is 
seen to be wavy. In this same mem- 
ber is developed a valuable flint fire- 
clay, which has been extensively 
worked in this vicinity. 


Logan formation 12 6 

A 3 — Thin-bedded to shaly, fine-grained, light 
buff sandstone. The layers are about 
uniform in thickness and horizontal . 2 6 

A 2 - — Interval covered 3 

A 1 — -Medium to thin-bedded, fine-grained 

sandstone with Taonurus at the top . 7 

It has just been shown that the Mississippian limestone is absent 
in those Ohio River hills at and below Sciotoville. Furthermore, it 
is not known to be present in any of them on the Ohio side of the valley. 
The limestone has escaped complete removal by pre-Pottsville erosion,, 
however, on the Kentucky side farther up the river, in the vicinity of 
Limeville (Tongs P. O.). 

Opposite the depot is the residence of John H. Merrill. Back of 
the residence is a very steep and high hill, in which the' Maxville is ex- 
posed near the summit. Here the following important section was made. 

Section of the John H. Merrill Hill. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Undetermined 37 6 

B 18 - — Interval covered 9 6 

B 17 - — Horizon from which iron ore was dug. 
B 16 - — Interval covered except a few feet of ar- 
enaceous shale at the base 28 

Sharon member 19 6 

B 15 - — Coarse-grained, medium- to thin-bedded, 
* gray sandstones with zones of iron 

ore and of soft arenaceous shales. 

The shales weather back and form 

shelves of the sandstones. Plant 

remains 2 4 

B 14 — A zone of soft, arenaceous shale, which 

weathers back leaving plant remains 

suspended from the sandstone layer 

above 6 

B 13 - — Massive layer of medium-grained, gray 

sandstone, containing plant remains. 7 5 


Ft. In. Ft. In. 

B 12 — Light gray sandstone with some lime in it. 1 0_+ 

B 11 — Sandstone in which iron ore and chert 

nodules occur 9 

B 10 — .Green, flint fire-clay which is filled with 
small concretions of iron ore and 
which also contains larger nodules of 
the same material. Decidedly cal- 
calcareous in places. The contact 
with the sandstone above and the 
brecciated layer below is wavy. Va- 
ries from 5 % feet to 8 feet 5 6 

B 9 — Loosely consolidated breccia in which 
the majority of the pieces are lime- 
stone and small. Here and there 
the breccia contains some iron ore at 
the top. In some places there is a 
trace of a green, argillaceous or cal- 
careous shale or fire-clay in a wavy 
zone at the base. In other places 
the fire-clay breaks up into branch- 
ing beds. The whole zone varies 
from 2 feet to practically zero. It 
was first placed in the Maxville, but 
it is probably the Maxville lime- 
stone worked over and deposited 
along with the green fire-clay. If the 
contact be either at the base or at 
the top of this zone, it is neverthe- 
less one of disconformity. Because 
of the cementing of this zone to the 
top of the layer (B 8 ) beneath and the 
gradual transition into the fire-clay 
(B 10 ) above, the contact is not sharp- 
ly defined. However, where this 
zone is practically wanting the green 
fire-clay rests disconformably and 
sharply upon the hard subjacent 
layer or upon 2 or 3 inches of less 
completely consolidated nodular 
limestone which in turn rests upon 
the said subjacent layer (B 8 ). In 
these cases (i.e., where B 9 is wanting) 
the upper surface of the subjacent 
layer (B 8 ) is very wavy and has 
nearly vertical grooves, resembling 
slicken-sides. From about to ... . 2 


The Maxville limestone, total thickness 45 9 

B 8 — Layer of gray or dove-colored, compact, 
hard, pure limestone with calcite 
scattered throughout. It is slightly 
brecciated at the top, the angular ' 


Ft. In. Ft. In. 

pieces being of a medium size and 
calcareous. Near the up stream end 
of the exposure pre- Potts ville ero- 
sion completely removed the layer 
so that in places it has no thickness, 
whereas in others it reaches 2 9 

B 7 - — Zone of shales alternating with limestone 
nodules or layers of limestone nod- 
ules. In places the zone is finely 
brecciated. Especially is this true 
at the base, where the pieces in many 
places adhere to the top of the under- 
lying layer. Th? unevenness of the 
base of the superjacent layer is also 
partly due to this tendency on the 
part of the angular piece's to adhere. 
The zone as a whole is not so firmly 
consolidated and weathers back more 
rapidly than the rest of the stratum. 
The erosion which in places removed 
the superjacent layer (B 8 ) also exten- 
ded into the upper part of this one, 
thus giving from 2 feet and 9 inches 
to 3 feet of erosion in a horizontal 
distance of 6 feet. The zone, there- 
fore, varies from 2 feet to . 6 

B 6 - — Practically all massive, pure, gray or dove- 
colored limestone with calcite crys- 
tals scattered through it. However, 
in some places, there is a slightly de- 
veloped zone of shales and nodular 
layers at the top and also more of a 
tendency to split into layers. Fur- 
thermore, the top is finely brecciated 
in places, and a portion near the top, 
in others 16 

B 5 - — Massive limestone without definite bed-, 
ding-planes. There are, however, ir- 
regular horizons along which the 
limestone may separate more readily, 
and a part of it when subjected to 
weathering tends to split up in a man- 
ner suggesting cross-bedding. It is 
mostly an impure, sandy-gray lime- 
stone. The sand is composed of small 
white quartz grains. The stone also 
apparently contains a few small 
grains of limestone and some calcite 
crystals. The very base is shown for 
a horizontal distance of only six in- 
ches, so that it cannot be determined 
whether or not it rests disconf ormably 
upon the Waverly 26 t> 


Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Waverly series, * 241 2 

B 4 - — Soft, argillaceous blue shale 5 

B 3 — Layer of sandstone in which, nodules of 

impure limestone occur 9 

B 2 — Massive to thin-bedded, fine-grained buff 

sandstone. Slightly covered in places 153 

B 1 - — Covered to the level of the Chesapeake & 

Ohio Railway tracks below the 

depot 87 

In the section just given, attention should be called to the mas- 
siveness of the stone and to the uncommon and poorly developed bed- 
ding-planes. These features, of course, suggest the lower half of the 
Maxville. However, no fossils are found to assist in this correlation. 
On the other hand, the cross-bedded appearance, which a portion of 
the stratum assumes when subjected to weathering, and the presence 
of sand are features very much like those of the limestone as exposed at 
Carter, and especially at Carter's Caves, Kentucky. These latter 
conditions make the stone quite different from the lower zone of the 
Northern Area and renders correlation with it decidedly uncertain. 

The limestone was formerly quarried on the Josiah G. Merrill (now 
V. E. Thompson) property, about half a mile below Limeville. These 
quarries are located a short distance up one of the small tributary val- 
leys. Although the quarries have filled up to a considerable extent 
the following section is still available. 

Section of the Josiah G. Merrill Quarry. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Pottsville formation 3 1 

C 13 - — Green fire-clay, somewhat calcareous ... 1 6 
C 12 — Nodular-like pieces of limestone, breccia, 
and green fire-clay, all of which grad- 
ually pass into the green fire-clay 
above. Probably Maxville limestone 
worked over and deposited with the 
green fire-clay 1 7 +. 

Maxville limestone 15 3 

C 11 - — More indurated limestone, which in the 
lower end of the quarry becomes more 
compact and pure 9 

C 10 - — Shales alternating with nodular and brec- 

ciated limestone 1 +. 

C 9 - — Layer of compact, pure, dove-colored 
limestone; the nodular and brecciated 
mass clinging to its upper and lower 
surfaces gives it an uneven appear- 
ance 1 10 

11— G. B. 13—1,000. 


Ft. In. Ft. In 

C 8 - — Shales alternating with thin nodular lay- 
ers of limestone, some of which are 
brecciated. The shales in the upper 
part are dark 4 

C 7 - — Layer of compact, pure, dove.-colored lime- 
stone, which may break up into a 
number of thin layers. The upper 
surface is brecciated 1 7 

C 6 — Shaly parting 1± 

C 5 - — Layer of compact, pure, dove-colored lime- 
stone, which may break up into two 
layers 9 

C 4 — Shales, nodular shales and thin-bedded 
limestone, the latter of which is finely 
brecciated. In places the lower foot 
is hard and forms a part of the next 
lower layer 1 3+. 

C 3 ' — Massive layer of compact, dove-colored 
limestone with a little calcite. Bed- 
ding-plane between this and the next 
lower layer is not conspicuous 2 

C ? — Massive layer of compact, dove-colored 
limestone with a little calcite. Slight- 
ly brecciated in places at the top ... 2 

Undetermined 7 4 

C 1 - — Covered to the present base of the quarry. 
Below are massive blocks of coarse, 
sandy and brecciated limestone. Still 
farther down, the buff, fine-grained, 
Logan sandstones with Taonurus are 
seen for a long distance 

The limestone of this section differs from the last in that the strat- 
ification is more conspicuous. The layers are thin or medium in thick- 
ness and more or less interstratified with shales. These, therefore, 
suggest the upper half of the Maxville limestone. Notwithstanding 
Professor Andrews's report to the contrary 1 , no fossils have been found 
in this or any of the other exposures about Limeville. The question 
of correlation is, therefore, still an open one. 


The Maxville limestone was found in a number of oil or gas wells 
far within its zone of outcrop. This region was previously defined 
as the "Area Beneath the Surface" and includes, primarily, portions 
of Monroe and Washington counties. The area was quite fully dis- 
cussed by Dr. Bownocker in his "Bulletin on Oil and Gas," which has 

Andrews, E B. Supplemental Report on Perry County and Portions of 
Hocking and Athens Counties. Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. Ill, pp. 817, 818. 1878. 


already been abstracted, and since no more work has been done in this 
field further discussion is unnecessary. 


The. study of the basal conglomerate in Licking County and in 
the Cuyahoga Gorge and at Boston Ledges in Summit County revealed 
the presence of fossiliferous blocks. The blocks are flat and some- 
what angular, and differ markedly from the rounded quartz pebbles, 
which constitute the mass of the stratum. If they were originally 
limestone — and they probably were — the lime has been replaced by 
silica in nearly every case. Unfortunately the fossils are in the form 
of either internal or external molds and very poorly preserved, so that 
specific identification is practically impossible. The Bryozoa and a 
species of Productus could be Maxville forms. On the other hand, a 
specimen of a Brachiopod and one of a Pelecypod differ from any .of 
the Maxville fossils. The imperfect preservation of these fossils, then, 
does not permit of a definite determination of the horizon whence these 
blocks came. 


The plane of contact between the Sharon conglomerate and the 
Maxville limestone cuts across layer after layer of the limestone in many 
places throughout the whole area of outcrops whereas in many other 
nearby ones the Sharon rests directly upon the Logan formation. The 
upper surface of the limestone is thus very uneven, and is the' result of 
erosion to which the stratum was subjected after it had been raised 
above the waters of the sea and before it was again submerged to re- 
ceive the deposits of the Sharon. This line of contact, therefore, rep- 
resents a long period of time — a gap or hiatus — during which there was 
not only a lack of deposition, but also a very slow removal of consider- 
able material by erosion as well as the slow movements of elevation and 
-depression. This structure is called a disconformity or, in other words, 
an unconformity between parallel beds, due to erosion. 

This erosion (pre-Pottsville) removed all "of the Maxville stratum 
in many places, whereas in many other adjacent ones a greater or less 
amount of the limestone escaped complete destruction, so that the 
stratum is now found principally in isolated patches. This condition 
has at times been attributed to deposition originally in isolated basins, 
but which in fact is due to pre-Pottsville erosion. The Maxville lime- 
stone was at first, undoubtedly a continuous deposit, and was later sep- 
arated into patches by erosion before the deposition of the Sharon. 

Along the belt of outcrops extending from a point near Zanesville 
to the Ohio River near Wheelersburg, and also along the line of inliers 
just to the east of this belt, these patches of limestone are relatively 


large and abundant from the place near Zanesville to Logan, com- 
pletely wanting from the latter to Hamden, and exceedingly small .and 
widely separated from the latter in turn to the Ohio River. This gives 
us three natural divisions, or areas, which have for convenience been 
designated, respectively, the Northern Area, the Central Area and the 
Southern Area. 

In the Northern Area, along Jonathan Creek and Kents Run, th 
Maxville limestone is divided into a lower and an upper half by a thin 
zone near the middle of the stratum. This thin zone, the shale-nodular 
zone of the report, is made up of small nodules or nodular-like layers of 
limestone, which alternate with shales, and both of which are very fos- 
siliferous. The lower zone consists of a massive, clayey limestone, the 
bedding planes of which are irregular and very indistinct. In the upper 
zone the stratification is the conspicuous feature, because the shaly 
partings found between the thin or medium layers of limestone are com- 
monly weathered away, thus permitting each layer to project apparently 
independently from the face of the cliff. This zone in many places is 
fairly fossiliferous, whereas the lower one is generally but sparingly so. 

At nearly every place in the Northern Area where the lower contact 
of the Maxville is exposed, pre-Pottsville erosion has removed all or 
nearly all of the upper zone, so that the complete thickness of the forma- 
tion is difficult to obtain. The shale-nodular zone enables one, however, 
to trace other zones from place to place, and by combining the meas- 
urements of these the thickness of the lower and upper halves is secured. 
The thickness of the lower half was found to be a little greater than 
twenty-five feet, and that of the shale-nodular zone to average about 
three feet. The maximum thicknesses of the upper zone is at a point 
opposite the Fultonham depot and at one nearly a mile below, where 
this half is, respectively, about fifteen and twenty-two feet. This gives 
us a thickness of nearly forty-three and fifty feet for the stratum — the 
maximum thickness in the Northern Area, and one which agrees very 
closely with that of records of nearby wells. But it must not be under- 
stood that this is necessarily the thickness of the complete original for- 
mation at either of these places, because in each one the limestone was 
overlain by soil; and furthermore, if either of these be the upper contact, 
it is more than probable that at least some of the limestone has been 
swept away by pre-Pottsville erosion. 

Collections of fossils from the limestone at Cut No. 4 and at the 
Kroft Bridge in the Northern Area and at the Harper Shaft in the 
Southern Area have raised the number of species of the Maxville fauna 
from twenty-four to thirty-six. The new forms are: 

1. Fenestella serratula Ulrich 

2. Rhombopora armata Ulrich 

3. Eunietria marcyi Shumard 

4. Cleiothyris hirsuta Hall 


5. Cypricardella oblonga Hall 

6. Dentalium illinoiense Worthen 

7. Bulimorpha canaliculata Hall 

8. Orthonychia acutirostre Hall 

9. Strophostylus carleyana Hall 

10. Murchisonia vermicula Hall 

11. Orthoceras randolphense Worthen 

12. Orthoceras okawense ? Worthen 

Of these the 1st, 3d, 4th, 5th, 7th, 8th, 9th and 10th belong to the 
Spergen Hill (Salem) fauna, which recurs in the Ste. Genevieve limestone 
and again in the Tribune limestone. 

The lower contact of the Maxville limestone is not shown at nearly 
so many places as is the upper one, but wherever exposed it furnishes 
an interesting problem for study. Since the lower part of the limestone 
is decidedly argillaceous in Cuts No. 3 and No. 4, and since there is seem- 
ingly no break between this impure limestone on the one hand and the 
sandstones and shales of the Logan on the other, the line of contact 
has to be somewhat arbitrarily drawn. It seems probable that the clay 
and fine sand which were derived from the Logan were more or less 
worked over and into the basal layers of the Maxville. At Opera Bridge, 
on Kents Run, the line of contact is much sharper and is slightly wavy. 
The upper surface of the subjacent shales is decidedly uneven in the 
Jockey Hollow exposures, and furthermore the joints in the tipper part 
of these shales are filled with the same kind of material as that which 
forms the coarse arenaceous limestone of the basal layer of the Maxville. 
At the last place, then, it is quite obvious that the uneven surface upon 
which the Maxville rests represents at least a plain of contemporaneous 
erosion, and when the lower layers of the limestone are studied it seems 
more than probable that the structure is a disconformity. 

A thin zone in the basal portion of the Maxville at Jockey Hollow 
and near Redington in the Northern Area, and more or less of the entire 
formation at Hamden (and certain zones at Limeville) in the Southern 
Area, are decidedly brecciated. Many of the angular pieces are lime- 
stone, much purer, harder and darker than the coarse, sandy material 
which constitutes the mass of the breccia, and, for that matter, darker 
than any of the Maxville. The origin of these angular limestone pieces 
could not have been distant, or they would have become rounded in 
transportation, and if near, then Ohio must have had a Mississippian 
limestone other than and older than the Maxville, of which they alone 
are the representatives. 

The Sharon conglomerate in Licking and Summit counties contains 
a few rather large and somewhat flat and angular blocks, which are fos- 
siliferous, and which were supposed to have their origin in the Maxville 
limestone, although the composition of practically all of them is silica 
rather than .calcium carbonate. This may have been their origin, but it 
cannot be definitely so stated, since the fossils are so poorly preserved 
that specific identification is practically impossible. 





A number of things contribute to the difficulty of the problem of 
Maxville correlation. With the exception of a single Pelecypod mold 
which was found in the section above the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern 
Eailroad bridge at Hamden, and the fauna which was collected in the 
Harper Shaft, no fossils were found in the stratum in the Southern 
Area. In other words, with the exception of the two places just men- 
tioned, no fossils were found south of Smith Chapel at Logan, the 
southernmost point of the Northern Area, so that the fossiliferous lime- 
stone of the latter area is separated from the fossiliferous limestone of 
northern Kentucky not only by the wide gap of the Central Area, where 
no limestone is preserved at all, but also by the practically barren lime- 
stone of the Southern Area. Of the fossils that are found along the 
zone of the outcrop (i. e., in the. Northern Area) a part of the abundant 
ones belong to the Salem (Spergen Hill) fauna, which recurs in the Ste. 
Genevieve limestone and again in the Tribune limestone, and the remain- 
ing part of the abundant ones belong to the Ste. Genevieve and Tribune 
limestones. The abundant fossils are, in themselves, therefore, not com- 
pletely diagnostic. The stratigraphic correlation is further retarded 
by the absence of good exposures to the south. The outcrops of Missis- 
sippian limestone of East-Central Kentucky seldom show both the lower 
and upper contacts in the same section. Furthermore, the conspicuous 
zones are so frequently covered that the tracing of a zone or of zones 
from place to place is not always satisfactorily accomplished. But the 
chief factor in this difficult problem is the lack of detailed information 
of the typical Mississippi area itself. The horizon from which the 
described fossils came has not always been correctly differentiated, but, 
on the other hand, has in some cases been referred to a lower formation 
and in other cases to a higher one. With these difficulties ever in mind 
a few statements will be made about correlation. 



In working out the Mississippian stratigraphy of East-Central Ken- 
tucky, under the auspices of the Kentucky Geological Survey, and 
in company with Dr. Foerste, it soon became evident that the 
Waverly terrane, especially the lower half, became thinner and thinner 


toward the south.. In other words, the apex of the thinning formations 
of the Waverly lies to the south of the state of Ohio. On the other hand, 
outcrops of Mississippian limestones seemed to be thick in some places 
and not so thick in others, but on the whole, they seemed to thicken to 
the south. As there had been an apex to the thinning formations of the 
Waverly terrane and probably also to the declining number of its forma- 
tions, so also it was inferred was there a like apex to the limestones. But 
in the latter case the apex was toward the north, the Ohio area. 

That the St. Louis sea at least approached the Ohio area is shown 
by a number of outcrops of limestone of this age in East-Central Ken- 
tucky. The stratum appears in the exposure at Old Landing, below 
Beattyville, in Lee County, as revealed by the presence of Lithostrotionf 
canadense. The lower half of St. Louis is found in the highway one 
mile north of Eothwell in Menefee County, as determined by Lithostro- 
tionf canadense and Lithostrotionf proliferum appearing together near 
the middle of an exposure of seventy feet of limestone. Lithostrotionf 
canadense shows the presence of the stratum at the "Y" one mile below 
Blackwater in Morgan County. The most northern place where the 
coral. reveals the presence of the St. Louis is at the Pumping Station at 
Olive Hill in Carter County. About fifteen feet above the unconform- 
able base, at this place, are small chert nodules which contain fragments 
of Lithostrotionf canadense. 

A green or red clay, which resembles a fire-clay, appears in a num- 
ber of sections. In the Blackwater section, about fifteen feet above the 
horizon of Lithostrotion, are two feet and seven inches of green clay. In 
the Highland Stone Company's Quarry, a half-mile east of the Pump- 
ing Station at Olive Hill, some fifty feet above the base of the limestone, 
are three inches of green clay with angular pieces of limestone. A nine- 
inch horizon of red clay, which turns green on weathering, is found 
about six feet above the base of the limestone at Carter in Carter Coun- 
ty. At the very base of the limestone in Deep Cut on the Lewis-Carter 
county line are nearly ten feet of red clay. Whether or not the clay 
which appears at these places is one and the same stratum is not known. 
If it be the same, then the lower portion of the limestone series disap- 
pears at Deep Cut, and, furthermore, this portion represents either the 
whole or a portion of the St. Louis limestone. 

On the other hand, there are certain features which suggest St. Louis 
age for the whole of the Mississippian limestone as exposed at certain 
places in the Southern Area and for a small portion of the base of the 
limestone as exposed in a few places in the Northern Area. The St. 
Louis limestone is brecciated at Eothwell and at Olive Hill, Kentucky, 
and, according to Weller, brecciated beds are very characteristic of the 
St. Louis in Illinois. Furthermore, according to the same author, fossils 
are usually rare in the St. Louis, and occasionally arenaceous material 


is met with in the stratum. In the Fluorspar district of Western Ken- 
tucky and Southern Illinois the formation is highly arenaceous, accord- 
ing to Ulrich. At Limeville (John H. Merrill Hill), Kentucky, and at 
Hamden, Ohio, the two limits of the Southern Area, the limestone is 
more or less brecciated, is barren of fossils, and contains much arena- 
ceous material. Furthermore, upon exposure to the elements, it pre- 
sents a cross-bedded appearance. A thin zone at the base of the forma- 
tion near Rushville (Jockey Hollow) and near Redington in the North- 
ern Area is also decidedly arenaceous and brecciated, and differs mark- 
edly from the rest of the stratum in this area. Of course, these features 
are in no wise conclusive of the St. Louis age of the whole stratum at 
these places in the Southern Area or of the thin lower portion of the 
limestone at the two places in the Northern Area, but since the St. 
Louis is known to be developed as far north as Olive Hill, Kentucky, 
the suggestion of this age should ever be borne in mind. 

"Whether the line of outcrop of the St. Louis limestone does or does 
not enter the state of Ohio is not definitely known, but the approach of 
this line toward the state, as proven by the presence of Lithostrotion? 
canadense, has, nevertheless, a very important bearing on the question 
of Maxville correlation. The St. Louis was shown to be developed at 
least as far north as Olive Hill, and furthermore, the stratum appears 
at the very base of the limestone series. Therefore, it seems more than 
probable that the Maxville limestone is no older than St. Louis in age, 
and this conclusion, in turn, tends to eliminate the possibility of a Salem 
(Spergen Hill) age of the Maxville fauna, and to suggest instead either 
Ste. Genevieve or Tribune age, since the Salem (Spergen Hill) fauna 
recurs in these limestones. 


The correlation of the Maxville limestone of Ohio, or, more strictly 
speaking, the correlation of the Maxville of the Northern Area of the 
state, with the formations of the West (i. e., the Central West) must, in 
the main, be made on paleontologic evidence. How unsatisfactory these 
results will be may be judged from the rather chaotic condition of the 
literature on stratigraphy and especially of that on the geologic distri- 
bution of the fossils of that region. However, the refined work of Weller 
and Ulrich has made something possible along this line. 

Before going farther into the subject of correlation it becomes neces- 
sary to adopt a table of formations as a basis. The following one is 
by Ulrich and is copied from page 24 of Professional Paper No. 36 of 
the United States Geological Survey for this purpose, even though Wel- 
ler states that "it must be somewhat modified to represent the true re- 
lations of Mississippian beds of Illinois. ' n 

1 Weller, Stuart. The Geological Map of Illinois. III. State Geol. Sum., 
Bull. 6, p. 23. 1907. 










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In order to bring out more clearly the fossil evidence of the age 
of the Maxville limestone the geologic distribution of the species is 
shown, as far as possible, in the following table. Since the stratigraphy 
of the Harper Shaft is not known in detail and since this is the only 
place in the Southern Area where fossils have been collected from the 
limestone, the three species, Bhombopora armata, Eumetria marcyi and. 
Cleiothyris hirsuta, which are found only at this place, are eliminated 
from the following discussion and have hence been placed in brackets 
[ ]. The species have been arranged in a number of columns, those 
which are found only in the Maxville have been placed in one. Those 
species the geologic range of which has actually been determined by 
Ulrich have been placed in one or more of the five columns used by him. 
Those species which the older literature refers to either the Chester 
(Kaskaskia) or St. Louis have been placed in their respective columns, 
whereas those species, the geological range of which is very great or the 
horizons of which are not carefully designated, have been placed in a 
single column, called the indeterminate. 



List of Species. 


After Ulrich 





































Zaphrentis cliff ordana 



Pentremites elegans 



Cyathocrinus maxvillensis . . 



Septopora rectistyla 


Fenestella serratula 

Rhombopora armata 









Derbya crassa 



Productus pileiformis ..... 



Productus cestriensis 

Martinia contracta 






Spirifer keokuk 



Dielasma turgida 








Seminula sub quadrat a 

Eumetria marcyi 




Cleiothyris hirsuta 





Schizodus chesterensis 



Pinna maxvillensis 



Allorisma andrewsi 


Allorisma maxvillensis 


Cypricardella oblonga 

Dentalium illinoiense 







Strap arollus similis 



Holopea newtonensis 



Bulimorpha melanoides . . . . 


Bulimorpha canaliculata . . . 



Sphserodoma subcorpulenta. 
Naticopsis ? ziczac 




Bellerophon alternodosus . . . 


Bellerophon sublsevis 

Orthonychia acutirostre . . . 
Strop hostylus carleyana .... 









Murchisonia vermicula 


Endolobus spectabilis 



Nautilus pauper 



Orthoceras randolphense . . . 



Orthoceras okawense ? .... 











From the above table it will be seen that after deducting the three 
species which are found only in the Southern Area (Harper Shaft), 
thirty-three remain for the Northern Area. Of these thirty-three eleven 
are from the Maxville alone and five are indeterminate. Of the ten the 


geologic position of which has been fixed by the older literature, six 
are of Chester age and four of St. Louis, but of the four St. Louis ones, 
the three marked with an asterisk # were originally described from 
Salem (Spergen Hill) material and hence may have the range of the 
other species of this fauna. Of the seven the geologic distribution of 
which has been definitely fixed by Ulrich, two range without interrup- 
tion from the Salem (Spergen) or earlier to the Tribune-Birdsville ; 
three belong to the recurring fauna of the Salem (Spergen), Fredonia, 
and Tribune ; one appears first in the Fredonia and one appears first in 
the Ohara. 

In forming a just estimate, however, of the faunal evidence it is 
necessary to take into consideration the relative abundance of the species 
as well as the relative number of the species. The two most abundant 
species, Productus cestriensis and Seminula subquadrata, range upward 
from the Ohara and Fredonia respectively. Of the two next most abun- 
dant, Bellerophon sublaevis belongs to the recurring fauna of the Salem 
(Spergen), Fredonia and Tribune, whereas Straparollus similis is con- 
fined to the "St. Louis," but this old "St. Louis" may have included 
anything from the base of the Warsaw to the top of the Fredonia or 

The paleontologic evidence as to the age of the Maxville limestone 
of the Northern Area seems to be about equally divided between the 
Fredonia and Ohara members of the Ste. Genevieve formation, with the 
odds in favor of the Ohara. 1 

If the sections of the Ste. Genevieve limestone published by Ulrich 
on pages 41 to 43 of Professional Paper No. 36 be carefully studied it 
will be seen that the Maxville limestone of the Northern Area agrees 
more closely with the Ohara than with any of the other members of this 
formation. The fossiliferous shale-nodular zone of the Maxville com- 
pares very favorably with the fossiliferous shales and thin seams of 
limestone in zone 5 of Ulrich 's section of the Ohara. The beds above 
zone 5 consist chiefly of thin-bedded limestone and interbedded shales, 
whereas those beneath are, as a rule, more massive, thus agreeing re- 
spectively with the upper and lower zones of the Maxville. Then, too, 
Productus cestriensis is one of the most abundant fossils. 

With the paleontologic and stratigraphic suggestions pointing as 
just indicated and with the unconformity between the Warsaw and 

*In communications to the writer, Dr. Weller has expressed his belief in 
the Ste. Genevieve age of the Maxville, and Dr. Foerste in the Ohara member 
of the Ste. Genevieve formation. 

For the benefit of those who have not read the bibliographic portion of 
this paper, and hence also in justice to the earlier workers, it should be stated 
that Andrews (1870) from the first suspected the Maxville Of being Chester in 
age, that Meek, in a letter to Andrews (1871) expressed his belief of Chester 
and possibly also of St. Louis age of the fossils from the Maxville, and that 
Whitfield (1882), in his descriptions of the fossils frbm the Maxville, stated 
that the stratum was the equivalent of the Chester or of the Chester and St. 



Salem (Spergen) and the one between the Ste. Genevieve and Cypress 
(Weller) in mind the conditions of deposition of the Mississippian 
strata may be represented graphically as in the following figure (5). 


Fig. 5. — A diagrammatic sketch to illustrate the thinning out of a number of Mis- 
sissippian formations in the Kentucky-Ohio area. 

It may be necessary to draw the apex of the St. Louis at Olive Hill, Ken- 
tucky, instead of at the place indicated, but, on the whole, the general 
relationship as represented is probably about correct. 


The Mississippian series of Southern Pennsylvania and adjacent 
territory is usually divided, in ascending order, into the Pocono, Green- 
brier and Mauch Chunk formations. In the bibliographic portion of this 
paper, however, it was shown that Stevenson (1903) divided the Green- 
brier limestone of the United States and Maryland reports into two 
divisions, a lower, siliceous, non-fossiliferous limestone, and an upper, 
purer, fossiliferous limestone. Because Weller pronounced the fossils, 
which Stevenson sent to him from the upper portion of the limestone 
of Fayette County, Pennsylvania, as practically identical with the Max- 
ville fauna of Ohio, as described by Whitfield in Volume VII of the Ohio 
reports, Stevenson adopted the term Maxville for this upper division. 
For the lower portion and for the underlying shales which constitute the 
lower of the three divisions (according to Stevenson) of the original 
Mauch Chunk he used the term Tuscumbia. These changes are more 
clearly shown in the following table : : 


Usual Divisions. 


Mauch Chunk 




fpure .... 
Greenbrier. . A 


shales . . . . , 



The lower portion of the Greenbrier limestone, which, according to 
Stevenson, is siliceous, non-fossiliferous and cross-bedded, is suggestive 
of the whole of the limestone series as exposed at Limeville (John H. 
Merrill Hill), Kentucky, and at Hamden, Ohio, and of the lower portion 
of the limestone as exposed near Eushville and near Bedington, Ohio. 
Collections of fossils of the Greenbrier limestone, from a number 
of localities in Garrett County in "Western Maryland, have, in the pres- 
ent study, been examined and compared with similar ones from the Max- 
ville of Ohio. The Maryland specimens were collected by Professor Pros- 
ser and Dr. Eichard B. Eowe, under the auspices of the Maryland 
Geological Survey, at a number of places from Oakland to the Penn- 
sylvania-Maryland state line beyond Friendsville. The following list 
includes specimens from all of these localities : 

1. Archimedes sp. 

2. Derbya crassa Meek and Worthen 

3. Product us pileiformis Hall 

4. Productus cestriensis Worthen 

5. Productus sp. 

6. Martinia contracta Meek and Worthen 

7. Spirifer keokuk Hall 

8. Dielasma turgida Hall 

9. Seminula subquadrata Hall 

10. Eumetria marcyi Shumard 

11. Cleiothyris hirsuta Hall 

12. Allorisma maxvillensis Whitfield 

13. Strap ar oil us similis ? Meek and Worthen 

14. Bellerophon sublaevis Hall 

15. Bellerophon textilis ? Hall 

16. Bellerophon sp. 

17. Trilobite pygidium 

A glance at the above list reveals a Maxville fauna. The four abun- 
dant forms, Productus cestriensis, Seminula subquadrata, Bellerophon 
sublcevis and Straparollus similis, of the Maxville are represented in 
this list. Seminula subquadrata is also abundant in the Greenbrier and 


Productus cestrieiisis is common. Some of the species vary slightly 
from the same ones of the Maxville, but not sufficiently so for varietal 
designation. From a f aunal study it is clearly seen that the Greenbrier 
is the Appalachian equivalent of the Maxville limestone of at least the 
Northern Area of Ohio. 



hi the past the Maxville limestone has been used for a number of 
different purposes. Before the days of cheap transportation it was 
burned for lime for local consumption at rather a large number of places, 
and when the Pennsylvanian iron ores of the southeastern portion of 
the state were utilized the limestone was used as a flux in the then 
widely distributed charcoal furnaces. It has also been used to some 
considerable extent for road metal and to a lesser degree for a building ■ 



Of these uses and others yet to be, mentioned, it seems to the writer 
that that of road metal is by far the most important. If the geological 
map of Ohio be consulted it will be seen that the line separating the 
Devonian shales on the one hand from the Devonian limestones and 
older rocks on the other, passes north and south through Columbus and 
divides the state roughly into two halves. The rocks of the western half 
are dominantly limestones, whereas those of the eastern half are domi- 
nantly sandstones and shales. Passing east from this dividing Kne 
across the wide belts of Devonian shales and Waverly sandstones and 
shales, one finds no limestone until the Maxville is reached, as a scarp at 
the border line of, or as an inlier just within the limits of, the Pennsyl- 
vanian series. Beyond this only here and there is a limestone stratum, 
found and each one of these is, as a rule, very thin and unimportant. 
The Maxville is thus seen to constitute about the only limestone of much 
development within this eastern half of the state. 

The superiority of limestone over sandstone and shales in highway 
or pike construction is too well known to elicit much discussion. Sand- 
stones may be harder and more resistant to the wear of vehicles, but 
they lack the power of cementation so valuable in the limestones, by 
means of which the road metal becomes a solid block of concrete, thus 
making an excellent road. 

In thus setting forth the economic importance of the Maxville as a 
source of road material, it is not to be understood that a great local de- 
velopment in a comparatively few places is urged. This would neces- 


sitate other than local consumption and bring the limestone into com- 
petition with other railway transported limestones, a result that mighl 
prove disastrous financially. On the other hand, it is the firm belief of 
the writer that the limestone should be quarried at practically every 
place where its isolated exposures show it to be, and the stone so quar- 
ried should b^ used in the immediate vicinity to construct better roads. 
The roads would not only be wonderfully improved, but the value of the 
adjacent lands would be greatly enhanced. The beneficial results would 
thus be more important and far-reaching than in the case of a great 
local development of one quarry or of a number of them. 

In order to further emphasize the importance of this limestone for 
local consumption in road making it becomes necessary to briefly review 
the places of occurrence, and this can probably best be done by counties. 


This county is one of the richest so far as distribution of the Max- 
ville limestone is concerned. The limestone is exposed for a number of 
miles from White Cottage up both Kents Run and Jonathan Creek, and 
could be quarried at a large number of places along both of these 
streams. At some places it is somewhat more easily accessible and hence 
some of these should be mentioned. 

At the first covered bridge across Kents Eun, above "White Cottage, 
and also on the farm of R. G-. Thompson the upper part of the MaxviJle 
is exposed along the banks of the stream. A little stone has been taken 
out and a considerable amount could be quarried with the removal of 
only a small amount of overburden. Both exposures are also very con- 
venient to the highway. 

Within the village of White Cottage itself the limestone is exposed 
in the bed of both streams. Some stone has been removed here and more 
is readily accessible. A little prospecting would probably reveal a place 
where considerable could be quarried with the removal of only a small 
amount of waste. 

Near and within the town of Fultonham (Axline P. 0.) the upper 
portion of the Maxville forms the banks of the streams. The stone was 
formerly quarried to a considerable extent at the depot. This is one 
of the best places for the development of quite a large quarry, because 
the stratum forms a terrace ten or fifteen feet above the stream and is 
covered with only a small amount of material. 


Numerous railway cuts in Jonathan Creek gorge above Fultonham 
expose the Maxville in Muskingum as well as in Perry County. Large 
amounts of stone could be quarried with some difficulty at these places. 

12— G. B. 13—1,000. 


It is, also, not so readily accessible for local consumption as a^ road « 
metal, since the principal highways do not enter the gorge and the two 
roads which do cross the stream ascend very steep hills on either side. 
These locations seem better for development along a different line. 

In the highway leading northwest from Redington opposite the 
residence of J. H. Gordon is an exposure of sixteen feet of Maxville. 
The exposure is rather poor and the stone does not occur under very 
favorable quarrying conditions, but it may be possible that enough could 
be obtained for the roads of the immediate vicinity. The limestone out- 
crops in the road two and a quarter miles east of Oakthorpe, near the 
home of Mrs. Alice Baker, and a quarter of a mile southwest it occurs 
at the very top of the Cover Hill just within Fairfield County. At the 
latter place seven feet were opened up for road material, and a con- 
siderable amount of stone could be quarried here with practically no 

Near the Zanesville and Maysville Pike and the Otterbein United 
Brethren Church, one mile east of the Fairfield-Perry county line, is 
the G. W. Folk quarry. A rather large amount of stone has been taken 
from this place for road metal and the quarry is still open. The stratum 
occurs so near the summit of the hill that very little overburden needs 
to be removed, and, furthermore, the areal extent at this point may be 
considerable. Its occurrence at the top of the hill and its close prox- 
imity to the highway make this an important quarry. 

One mile south of the Otterbein United Brethren Church, the state 
road crosses Jockey Hollow at J. S. Shafer's residence, and just below 
the road some twenty feet of the Maxville are exposed. A little of the 
limestone was quarried here for road metal. The thickness of the 
stratum is sufficient to make this one of the important outcrops where a 
considerable amount of stone could be quarried. 

The next exposures of the stratum take us to the type locality, 
namely Maxville, in the extreme southern portion of the county. The 
limestone is exposed at various places along Little Monday Creek ; a 
half mile above Maxville, within the village itself, on both sides of the 
stream a half or three-quarters of a mile below town, and on the west 
side a mile and a half below. In Lime Kiln Hollow, within the village, 
it was at an early date quite extensively quarried and burned for lime, 
and was also used to some extent for furnace flux. On the Hendricks 
and Howdeshell properties, a half or three-quarters of a mile below town, 
it was wrought to quite a considerable extent for both flux and lime. A 
mile and a half below the village it was quarried for lime, and here may 
be seen the old kiln still standing and the old log store house in a good 
state of preservation. The stone could be quarried at any of these 
places, and especially on the Hendricks and Howdeshell properties, 
with a very reasonable amount of stripping. The limited north and 
south in connection with the small east and west distribution should 


make the preservation of the limestone at this place one of utmost im- 
portance. The stone should experience a growing demand as a road 


So far as known, the exposures of the Maxville are limited to one 
locality in Hocking County. These occur just east of Smith Chapel or 
about two miles east of Logan. The limestone was formerly quarried 
here and hauled overland to the old furnace located seven or eight 
miles to the south at Union Furnace. The stone could be quarried with 
the removal of a reasonable amount of overburden and is readily accessi- 
ble to the principal thoroughfares of travel. 


Like those of the preceding county, the outcrops are limited to one 
vicinity and this is in the extreme southern portion of the county. 
Twelve to eighteen feet of limestone are exposed along the banks of 
Little Raccoon Creek just east of Hamden. The top of the exposures 
forms a terrace so that the amount of stripping would be very small 
indeed. These exposures constitute another isolated patch of limestone 
and this preservation of only a limited area should again add to the 
value of the stone as a source of road metal. 


The limestone is also limited to one locality in this county, and this 
is in Section 24 in Hamilton Township in the southwestern part of the 
county. It occurs principally on the land of Amos (son of Enoch) 
Canter. Long ago it was quarried to a considerable extent for furnace 
flux and more recently for road metal. The isolation of this small area 
should also add to its value and it should be eagerly sought after as a 
road metal. 


The limestone occurs in two or three places in Section 24, Harrison 
Township. It has been worked for furnace flux along the narrow 
Niner Eidge, but the areas are too small to be important sources of 
road metal. 



Railroads are coming more and more to use crushed stone as a bal- 
last, and especially is this true of limestone. A considerable percentage 
of the enormous amount of Devonian limestones quarried just west of 
Columbus is used by the Pennsylvania Railroad for ballast. Large quar- 


ries in limestone of Mississippian age at Carter and Olive Hill, Carter 
County, Kentucky, supply the Chesapeake & Ohio Railway with train- 
load after trainload of ballast. Likewise a quarry in the same horizon 
just west of Natural Bridge, Kentucky, furnishes a considerable amount 
to the Lexington & Eastern Railway. 

There is no good reason why in Ohio the Maxville limestone, which 
is of similar age, should not be used for this same purpose. Especially 
is this the case at the places now to be mentioned. Of course the item 
of transportation is not so important as it was in the case of the road 
metal since the railroads handle their own freight, and yet the extra, 
mileage is a factor which should not be overlooked. 


Various exposures of Maxville along Jonathan Creek are exceed- 
ingly convenient to the Zanesville & Western Railway. Especially is 
this true of those in the village of Fultonham, and, to a less degree, in 
the cuts above town. The Maxville forms the wide structural terraces 
opposite the depot in Fultonham, and hence the amount of superjacent 
waste to be removed would be very small. No more favorable site for 
a quarry of considerable extent could be desired. Since the Maxville 
is frequently wanting, due to pre-Pottsville erosion, careful drill tests 
should precede the expenditure of any considerable amount of money 
for equipment. The cuts above Fultonham offer similar advantages, 
and they are even more , convenient to the railroad; but a considerable 
amount of stripping would have to be done at these places. 


The exposures along Little Raccoon Creek just east of Hamden are 
adjacent to the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Railroad. From twelve 
to eighteen feet of limestone are exposed along the banks of the stream 
above water level. Since the stratum forms the structural terrace, al- 
ready mentioned, the amount of .overburden to be removed is small. In 
all cases where an expenditure of much money is necessary for station- 
ary crushers and other equipment, the areal extent of the stratum should 
be positively ascertained by drilling. 


If the writer may be pardoned for crossing the river, the political 
boundary in this discussion, something will be said about the exposures 
at Limeville (Tongs P. 0.) Kentucky. It was necessary to do this in the 
stratigraphic study and it seems to fall within the economic province. 
The stratum occurs near the summit of the hills, about 250 feet above 
the Chesapeake & Ohio Railway, and is about fifty feet in thickness. 


Formerly it was quarried to a considerable extent and burned for lime. 
From the quarries on the hill the rough stone could be dropped through 
chutes to a crusher near the base and from this the crushed product 
could be loaded by gravity into the car and thus reduce the cost of pro- 



In speaking of Dolomite, (Ca, Mg) CO 3 , Bleininger says: "As a 
cement material it is not promising, since it gives rise to two silicates 
(of lime and magnesia) which have different rates of hydration and 
which hence interfere with each other in the hardening process, unless 
the burning took place at a low temperature not over 1000° C." 1 

Orton and Peppel state that: "Limestone, or mixtures of limestone 
and shale within the following limits of composition, will be found to 
be very close to the composition desired in a Portland Cement mixture : 

Per cents. 

Silica 15-16 

Alumina and ferric oxide 6—7 

Calcium carbonate : 74—76 

Magnesium carbonate 0- 4.5 

"The ingredient which we must watch with greatest care is mag- 
nesium carbonate. It must not go beyond 4.5 per cent., and the lower 
it is the better. If the silica and alumina are too high, we can correct 
this by throwing out a little clay or shale or adding a little high calcium 
limestone. ' ' 2 

The ban thus placed upon magnesian limestones for cement pur- 
poses greatly restricts the area of possible production. About three- 
fourths of the western half — the limestone half — of the state is under- 
lain with Silurian and Devonian limestones, but these are almost ex- 
clusively magnesian. Of the limestones of the remaining one-fourth, 
Ortori and Peppel's analyses show that nearly all of the Ordovician 
limestone is chemically available for cement purposes, that the •composi- 
tion of the thin Clinton (Silurian) is often favorable, and that a small 
lentil — the Dayton limestone (Silurian) — which lies just above the 
Clinton is at some places chemically desirable. All three of these, how- 
ever, outcrop only in the southwestern part of the state, in the Ordovician 
area, and in a very narrow belt in the Silurian, adjacent to the former. 
Their location away from the coal fields is an unfavorable factor, and 
their manner of outcropping is not always the most desirable. The De- 

1 Bleininger, Albert V. The Manufacture of Hydraulic Cements. Geol. 
Surv. Ohio, Bull. 3, p. 38. 1904. 

2 Op. cit. p. 88. 

*13— G. B. 13—1,000. 1 , 


vonian limestones, on the average, are not chemically adaptable to ce- 
ment manufacture, the most favorable place being Columbus, and the 
desirability of the stone at this place has been questioned. The great 
restrictions thus placed upon the otherwise large limestone areas of the 
western half of the state by their chemical composition and the location 
of those chemically desirable beyond the coal fields enhance the value of 
the limestones of Mississippian and Pennsylvanian age. The location 
of the Maxville adjacent to, and mostly within, the area of coal bearing 
rocks is thus seen to be a very important factor. 


An analysis was made of samples of the Maxville limestone from a 
number of different places. The most important of these analyses are of 
the limestone from Fultonham and White Cottage, since the samples in- 
clude stone from a number of consecutive feet at the top of the stratum. 
These two analyses will now be given. 

Analysis of the upper twelve feet of the Maxville limestone at Ful- 

Silica 2.80 

Alumina 1.16 

Ferric oxide 

Carbonate of calcium 92.80 

Carbonate of magnesium. 2.13 

Total 98.89 

Analysis of the top nine feet of the Maxville limestone at "White 

Silica ; 3.04 

Alumina 1.54 

Ferric oxide 0.40 

Carbonate of calcium 92.92 

Carbonate of magnesium. . . 1.21 

Total 99. II 1 

Both of these analyses show a limestone admirably suited to the 
manufacture of hydraulic cement. Attention has already been called to 
the conditions of the exposure at these places and especially at Fulton- 
ham, where the limestone forms the structural terrace opposite the depot 
and .where the amount of stripping necessary to quarry the stone would 
be small. Then, too, the field lies within the area of the Coal Measures, 
and although coal is not mined right at Fultonham it is mined at a 
number of places only a short distance away, and Fultonham is the 
shipping point where the trains of coal are made up. Furthermore, it 

^p. cit. pp. 100, 101. 


has been shown in the stratigraphic part of this paper that the upper 
half of the stratum is fourteen feet and ten inches in thickness opposite 
the depot and that this division reaches a maximum thickness of twenty- 
one and a half feet a mile farther down stream. This additional three 
to ten feet would make the stone just that much more valuable if its 
chemical composition remains the same, and it probably does. The great 
variation in lithology and composition which this stratum has been said 
to undergo from place to place is somewhat misleading. The fact is 
the upper part has been unintentionally compared with the lower part 
(as divided in this paper) or vice versa, and since the upper and lower 
halves are decidedly dissimilar, the supposed variation resulted. Atten- 
tion must again be called to the pre-Pottsville erosion of the upper sur- 
face of the stratum and the resultant variation in thickness of the 
stratum, and hence the necessity of careful tests. The cross section on 
the next page (Fig. 6) will help illustrate these various points. 


Mr. McQuigg furnished an analysis of the limestone which was 
taken from the McGugin well. Since it is a very pure stone it probably 
should also be given, although the number of feet included within the 
analysis is not known. The analysis follows : 

Si0 2 1.10 

A1 2 3 0.23 

Fe 2 3 0.17 

CaC0 3 98.20 

MgC0 3 0.13 

Phos 0.039 

Total 99.869 

The analysis reveals a pure limestone well suited to the manufacture of 
cement, although, as already stated, the amount of limestone included 
in the sample analyzed ,is not known. The thickness of tlfe stratum 
seems to warrant further investigation, even though the limestone would 
have to be mined by shafting. 


The Maxville limestone was formerly quarried at a number of places 
and used at a still larger number for furnace flux. The stone was 
worked at Maxville and vicinity in Perry County, at Smith Chapel in 
Hocking County, at Canter's in Jackson County, and on Niner Ridge in 
Scioto County. The limestone was used in furnaces at Shawnee and at 
(New) Straitsville in Perry County, in Winona and Union furnaces in 
Hocking County, in Washington and Jackson furnaces in Jackson Coun- 
ty, in Harrison Furnace in Scioto County, and probably in other fur- 




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These were the old charcoal furnaces, and they obtained their iron 
ores from the Coal Measure strata of the adjacent hills. But these ores 
have been practically completely supplanted by the iron ores of the Lake 
Superior region. The furnaces which they raised and nourished have 
nearly all passed away with the iron ore industry, and in most cases 
only piles of rock ruin or heaps of slag remain as monuments to the 
once widely disseminated industry. 

If the Lake Superior District is waning, or in the future should 
do so, then perhaps the iron ore industry of the Coal Measure hills of 
Ohio is only slumbering. If slumbering, then perhaps at the awakening 
the Maxville limestone will again be used as a flux. But this is, at the 
present, rather too remote a date to warrant further speculation. 

There is, however, one kind of furnace flux for which the chemical 
analyses seem to show the Maxville especially adapted, and that is the 
flux used by the basic hearth furnaces. These furnaces require a flux 
as free as possible from silica, Si0 2 , and to obtain the desired flux it is 
often necessary to ship the stone for long distances. One of the Colum- 
bus iirms, for example, is obtaining limestone at St. Louis, Mo. The 
analyses already given show the upper twelve feet of the Maxville at 
Fultonham and the upper nine feet at White Cottage to be low in silica, 
and the stone from the McGugin well to be very low, and hence at all 
these places the stone is probably well suited for this use. 


If the Maxville was rather widely wrought for furnace flux, it was 
probably even more generally quarried and burned for lime, since the 
less exacting chemical composition of stone for this purpose wonderfully 
increased the area of production over that of flux. The Maxville was 
burned at White Cottage, at Fultonham, rather largely at Maxville, at 
Canter's in Jackson County, rather extensively at Limeville (Ky.), and 
probably at many other places. Strata with better natural advantages 
and better shipping facilities have reduced the competitive price to the 
critical point, and the Maxville has gone down probably never to rise 
again in this industry. 


The Maxville limestone has been quarried, burned and used as a fer- 
tilizer upon the farms where it occurs. It will, probably, be so used 
again in the future, but such usage can never be pther than local. 


The limestone has also been used as a building stone, the court house 
at Zanesville being constructed of stone from this horizon, quarried at 
White Cottage. Some of the stone quarried at Fultonham has also been 


used for building purposes. At both places the stone is taken from the 
upper half of the formation, where it is always in definite layers. Since 
the upper half of the stratum is found to any considerable extent only 
at these two places, the area of building stone production is very limited. 
Furthermore, it does not seem probable that it will ever compete with 
the Berea grit of Ohio or with the Salem (Bedford) oolitic limestone of 





November, mi 



Historical or Areal Geology by Clinton R. Stauffer. 



Introduction 201 

Sedimentary Record - . 205 

Outcropping Formations 207 

Monroe Limestone . 207 

Columbus Limestone 209 

Delaware Limestone 212 

Olentangy Shale 214 

Ohio Shale 215 

Bedford Shale 218 

Berea Grit 222 

Sunbury Shale 223 

Cuyahoga Formation 224 

Black Hand Formation 225 

Life Record 226 

Explanation of Plates 230 

Monroe Limestone Fossils 230 

Columbus Limestone Fossils 230 

Delaware Limestone Fossils 238 

Waverlyan Fossils 240 


Physiography or Surficial Geology by George D. Hubbard. 



Location 241 

General Description of Topography 241 

The Drainage Pattern 241 

Minor Lateral Valleys 242 

The Moraine Pattern 243 

Glacio-Fluviatile .Features 243 

v Rainfall and Runoff 243 



CONTENTS— Continued, 



Physiographic History — Pre- Wisconsin Work 245 

Preglacial Topography 245 

Evidence in the Field 246 

Gentle Slopes 246 

Steeper Buried Slopes 246 

Evidence from more Distant Topography 247 

The Early Continental Glacier as a Physiographic Agent 248 

Effects on Plants and Animals '. 248 

Effects on Streams 249 

Effects on Mantle 250 

Effects on Rock Topography 251 

Undecayed Rock Fragments 251 

Striations ,. . . 251 

Solution Cavities in Rock 252 

Sinkholes , 254 

Conclusion 254 

Effects by Deposition 255 

Erosion in an Interglacial Stage 255 

Plant Occupation and Soil Formation 256 

Second Advance of the Glacier 257 

Illustrations of Ice Shove 258 

Possibly Several Ice Invasions 258 



Physiographic History — The Last, or Wisconsin Ice Sheet 259 

Lake Deposits 259 

Outwash 259 

Compacting Old Drift 260 

Carving Rock Surfaces 260 

Withdrawal of the Last Ice Sheet , 260 

Marcy Moraine 260 

Lithopolis Moraine 261 

A Marginal Lake •. 261 

Phenomena Due to Melting of Stagnant Ice 262 

The Shade ville- New Albany Moraine 264 

Associated Phenomena 265 

Features between the Shade ville- New Albany Moraine and the 

Lithopolis Moraine 265 

Hibernia Esker 266 

Gahanna Esker 266 

Galloway Esker 266 

Abandoned Channels 266 

Karnes 267 

Baker 267 

Spangler 267 

Tumuli and Knolls 268 

Outwash 268 

The Till Plain . ; 268 

The Westerville Moraine 269 

Associated Features 270 

The Powell Moraine 272 

Phenomena Accompanying the Moraine 273 

Subsequent Glacial History 275 





Physiographic History — Postglacial 276 

Beginnings of Valleys 276 

The Courses of Major Streams 276 

Beginnings of Laterals 278 

Alluvial Terraces 278 

Rock Terraces 279 

Growth of Lateral Valleys 281 

By Springs 282 

By Head ward Erosion 282 

Effects on Till Plain 282 

Varying Width of Valleys 282 

Landslides 285 

Waterfalls and Rapids 286 

Flood Plains * 287 

Meandering and Abandoned Channels 287 

Sandbars 288 

Alluvial Fans . 289 

Succession of Events 289 

Changes on the Till Plain 291 

Peculiar Valleys 291 

Rocky Fork above Gahanna 291 

Lewis Center 293 

Solution Work 295 

Valleys and Deforestation , 296 

Relation of Present Scioto and Olentangy to Preglacial Valleys . . . 296 

Present Scioto and Olentangy Valleys Postglacial 299 

Forecast , 300 


Economic Geology by J. A . Bownocker. 



Stone 303 

The Columbus Limestone 303 

Composition 304 

Building Stone 304 

In Making Pig Iron 305 

Other Uses 306 

The Delaware Limestone 306 

The Berea Grit , 306 

The Cuyahoga Formation 306 

Clays 307 

Ohio Shales : 308 

Bedford Shales 309 

Glacial Drift 309 

Sand and Gravel 309 

Search for Oil and Gas 310 

Underground Waters 4 . . 312 

Wells 313 

Artesian Wells 314 

Springs - 314 

Soils 315 

Sources . 315 

Varieties . * 316 

Fertility 317 

Agriculture 319 



Facing page. 

XII. The Columbus limestone in the quarry of the Columbus, 

Stone Company 210 

XIII. The shaly base of the Delaware overhanging the massive 

Columbus limestone 212 

XIV. "High Banks," showing the clay-like constituency of the Olen- 

tangy shale and the< firmer overhanging Ohio shale 214 

XV. The Ohio shale, with concretions in place 216 

XVI. The contorted condition of the, Bedford shale, and the basal 

layers of the Berea grit 2L8 

XVII. View of the lower portion of the Cuyahoga formation at 

Lithopolis 224 

XVIII. A section of the bed rock along a line drawn across the 

quadrangle from west to east, through Columbus 226 

XIX. Monroe and Columbus limestone fossils 230 

XX. Columbus limestone fossils 232 

XXI. Columbus limestone fossils 234 

XXII. Columbus limestone fossils 236 

XXIII. Delaware limestone fossils 238 

XXIV. Waverlyan fossils 240 

XXV. Moraines of the Scioto lobe (after Leverett) 242 

XXVI. Rock topography beneath the drift 246 

XXVII. A— Rock, drift and buried talus in bluff of Rocky Fork 

B — Hayden Falls, ten miles northwest of Columbus 260 

XXVIII. Spangler Hill kames, looking south 276 

XXIX. A — Spangler Hill kames, looking southwest 

B — Lake bed near Spangler Hill, 268 

XXX. A — East wall of an abandoned channel between Galena and 

B — Alluvial terraces at Harrisburg 274 

XXXI. A — Rock defense of alluvial terrace, Orient. 

B— Rock terrace, Marble Cliff 278 

XXXII. A — Two branches of a little valley developed by headward 

B — A view farther up one of the branches 282 

XXXIII. A — Effects of headward erosion on road 

B — Absence of dissection on till plain 284 

XXXIV. A— Flood plain deposits 

B— Alluvial fan, Grandview 288 

XXXV. Section of Columbus limestone at Marble Cliff 304 

XXXVI. A— Brick yard at Taylor's 

B — Artesian well at Harrisburg 308 

XXXVII. Section of the Kilbourne and Jacob's well 310 

XXXVIIIMap of deep wells, in search of oil or gas 312 

XXXIX. The University spring 314 






7. ^A small anticline in the Delaware limestone along the east bank of 

the Olentangy River, below Stratford . . 205 

8. The Olentangy shale, showing its basal portion and the uneven 

contact with the Delaware limestone 214 

9. Concretions weathered out of the Ohio shale 216 

10. The peculiar concretionary structure common in the Berea grit .... 222 

11.. Section across a buried valley near Amlin 247 

12. Tumbled rock due to preglacial weathering 252 

13. Crevice in limestone containing residual chert and silicified corals, 

but no drift 253 

14. Columbus esker 271 

15. Topography and rock outcrops in the vicinity of Gahanna and 

Rocky Fork 284 

16. Birdseye view in block diagram of a group of terraces, fans, etc. 290 

17. Sketch map of salient features of Rocky Fork . . . 292 

18. Hachure map of region in north branch of Lewis Center 293 

19. Map illustrating one method of stream capture 294 

20. Map illustrating second type of stream capture 295 

21. Partial view of sink-hole in limestone 295 

22. Why depth of wells varies on flat surface 314 


Topography : 1 

Historical or Areal Geology __ (• In pocket. 

Physiography or Surficial Geology J- 


Geological surveys have usually had for their prime object the 
description of natural resources of a geological nature with reference 
to their utilization by man. This has often made necessary descriptions 
of fundamental facts, not of direct economic value, such as stratigraphy 
or rock succession, paleontology or former life, and physiography or 
surface features, so that the publications have had commonly a wide 

Thus far but little has been done by surveys for direct use in 
colleges and high schools. Illustrations and descriptions in text-books 
are usually from distant points, with the result that scant information 
is available to instructors and students of the geology of their own com- 

This bulletin is intended to meet such wants. It is designed for 
students in colleges who are taking their first course in geology and for 
teachers in high schools. It is hoped that it will be of service also to 
those citizens who desire information in concise form of the rocks around 
them, but who cannot readily follow the usual geological publications. 
Effort has been made to free this bulletin from technicalities, but in 
doing this accuracy has not been sacrificed. 

The maps which form so valuable a part of the bulletin were pre- 
pared by Professors Stauffer and Hubbard, the former the one showing 
the Areal Geology and the latter the Physiography. The engraving and 
printing were by the United States Geological Survey. 





Geology is merely a history of the Earth. In other words, it is the 
study of Nature in its broadest sense. Since we are all a part of 
Nature and are subject to its laws on every hand, the science of Geology 
touches our very existence from its beginning to its end. More than 
that, it reaches far back into the past and grapples with the question of 
the origin of the Solar System, but more especially of the Earth, long 
before the germ of life had been brought into existence, and turns to 
the future with the same determination to wrest from it the secrets of 
that which lies in store for our planet. It is the broadest of the sciences 
and is the foundation on which many of our industrial pursuits are built. 
A lack of knowledge of even the most obvious principles of Geology, 
and a wanton neglect of those which we really do know, have cost man- 
kind a very considerable amount of money and many lives. We are 
thus brought to a realization of the importance of the subject before us. 
It is hardly to be expected that many people have or will acquire 
an intimate knowledge of Geology. Yet it seems eminently desirable 
that everyone should know something about the history of the material, 
which composes the more enduring part of our State, and have a more 
particular knowledge of the lakes, rivers, soil and rocks of his immedi- 
ate surroundings. Certainly no science is easier to acquire and few will 
give more pleasure than the ability to read from the solid rock the his- 
tory of the material which so often passes unnoticed under our feet. 

Rocks of all kinds which are exposed to the action of the atmos- 
phere, its varying temperature and humidity, gradually disintegrate. 
The bare rock surface heats rapidly under the action of the sun's rays. 
This heating causes an expansion of the outer portion or shell. Since 
rock is a poor conductor of heat, the change in temperature penetrates 
but slowly and the outer portion, expanding more rapidly than the inner, 
is fractured or broken loose from the cooler part within. When the 
rocks are once thoroughly heated and then rather suddenly cooled at 
the surface a process, which is the reverse of that just outlined, sets in 

1 The portion pertaining to the southern half of the Columbus quadrangle 
is based on work done by Dr. Prosser and Dr. Cumings ; however, in many 
instances the writer has drawn on his own knowledge of the field. 



and again the result is fracturing of the rock. If the cracks in the 
rocks are rilled with water and the change in temperature cools it below 
32° F., then the water freezes and the expansion (about one-tenth) re- 
sulting therefrom disrupts the rock. Also oxygen, carbon dioxide and 
water penetrate the crevices and pores of the rock and become a part 
of its chemical composition. This addition of material means an in- 
crease of volume (in granites as high as 80%) and consequently a .dis- 
ruption of the mass^for not all parts are equally affected. Some of 
these new chemical compounds are soluble in water, especially if it con- 
tains organic acids, and hence may be leached out and carried away 
by ground water. In cases of sandstone, the mineral matter which 
binds the sand grains together is often soluble and, if dissolved out by 
ground water, leaves only a bed of sand. 

These disintegrating processes are at work not only in the rocks 
which are actually at the surface, but also in those at some distance 
below, for the loose outer portion of the surface material is penetrated 
by the atmosphere while ground water may carry the active chemical 
agents to a considerable depth and there work changes similar to those 
which take place at the surface. 

So the bed rock, which happens to be near the surface of a land 
area, is gradually changing into the loose material which we are accus- 
tomed to see everywhere. This loose earth, composed of the disin- 
tegrated bed rock, is called the mantle rock because it forms a mantle 
which covers the bed rock more or less completely. Normally the man- 
tle rock, when penetrated from the surface downward, contains larger 
and larger fragments of rock until finally it grades into the bed rock 
below. In regions which have been recently glaciated, however, the 
upper surface of the bed rock is smoothed and striated and the con- 
tact between it and the mantle rock is sharp. Such is the case in the 
Columbus region and will be discussed in Part II. 

But if the bed rock is gradually changing to mantle rock why, we 
may ask, is not the latter much thicker than we find it? To answer 
this- question it is but necessary to recall the natural processes which 
are working so constantly and quietly about us. Every shower leaves 
its impression on the' surface of the land. A portion, small though it 
may be, of the loose earth, the mantle rock, is moved down the hillside 
and into the river below. Once in the river it is swept on with the 
current until finally it comes to rest as sediment in some great body of 
quiet water, such as a lake or the sea. If now one shower can move a 
little of the mantle rock from the hillside, what must be the effect of 
millions of showers? 

But it is with the history of this material after it has come to rest 
on the bottom of the sea that we have to deal at present. These mate- 
rials, such as clay, sand, gravel, etc., carried down to the sea by the 
rivers and deposited there, are called clastic sediments because they are 


made up of broken fragments of rock. It is easily seen that not all 
streams are depositing the same kinds of sediment. Mountain torrents 
on steep coasts are likely to sweep down very coarse gravel, while on 
gentle plains the rivers will be sluggish and carry only the finest parti- 
cles (silt) to the sea. At some localities the change from one kind of 
sediment to the other is gradual and one may trace the successive steps 
in the process with a fair degree of accuracy; at other places, however, 
*the change is so abrupt that it forms a striking feature in the sedimentary 
series. Such differences have led to the division of the rocks into for- 
mations. While one kind of material is being deposited, that is, until 
some decided break occurs in this process of sedimentation, there is 
naturally a similarity of the material above and below any given point. 
So long as this continues, we usually call it a single formation. But 
after the change, whether it comes suddenly or not, a different kind of 
sediment is found where it did not formerly exist, that is, a new forma- 
tion has begun. It has thus happened that thousands of feet of vary- 
ing sediments have accumulated on the sea bottom and the process is 
still going on. 

It is a well known fact that most river water contains lime dis- 
solved from the soil or underlying rock. This is abundantly proved by 
the coating (boiler-cake) which is often so troublesome in the boilers of 
engines, and likewise in tea kettles. The continual transfer of this ma- 
terial from the land to the sea must eventually contribute a large amount 
of lime to the waters of that body. The penetration of the sediments 
by this lime-laden water, together with the pressure of the overlying 
material, often cements them into solid rock. Iron and silica some- 
times perform the same function. Still other portions of the lime in 
ocean waters are extracted by marine organisms, such as corals and 
clams, whose shells or hard parts are made up largely of Calcium car- 
bonate — merely a different form of lime. When these animals die their 
skeletons are deposited on the ocean bottom and form beds which be- 
come cemented into limestone. Some limestones are thought to have 
originated in other ways, probably by chemical means, but the great 
body of the limestone deposits is doubtless of organic origin. 

Sediments, whatever their origin, frequently contain the remains or 
traces of organisms, which lived during the time that the deposits were 
being formed. These remains are usually shells, bones, teeth, tracks, 
trails or burrows, the impressions of leaves, bark, fruits, etc., but in 
exceptional cases the entire organism is preserved. All of these remains 
or traces, which give us some knowledge of the organisms that have 
existed in past ages, are known as fossils. 

On the modern sea shore a certain association of animals (a fauna) 
is found living on the sandy bottom while a very different fauna may 
be living on the muds of another part of the shallow waters. Since 
some forms of sea life are better adapted to the colder waters than 


others, faunas vary with the latitude. Moreover it is known that cer- 
tain species, once abundant, are dying out (becoming extinct) while 
others are becoming more numerous. The remains of extinct species 
usually show more primitive characters than are common in living 
species. This is still more likely to be the case when fossils from the 
earlier sediments are compared with those of sediments more recently 
deposited. Hence we may say that fossils vary with the kind of sedi- 
ment being deposited and with the progress of time. Thus we have 
the means of classifying the sedimentary formations according to a 
time scale based on the contained fossils. 

It has often been observed that the land and sea are not maintain- 
ing definite relations to each other. Thus, some coasts are slowly rising 
while others are sinking. Bladensburg and Dumfries, in the neighbor- 
hood of Washington, D. C, could be reached by sea-going ships in Co- 
lonial days, but now are decidedly above tide level. 1 A portion of the 
coast of Greenland has been sinking for the past four centuries. "Old 
buildings and islands have been submerged; and the inhabitants have 
had to put down new poles for their boats, the old ones standings — 
'as silent witnesses of the change'." 2 Hence great portions of the 
Earth's surface, which were once beneath the sea, may have been ele- 
vated to form a portion of the dry land, while others, which once were 
a part of the continent, may now be covered by the sea. 

If we imagine the present North American land surface to sink, or 
the sea to rise, so that the waters of the Gulf of Mexico should extend 
northward and those of the Hudson Bay southward until they would 
meet at some point in Ohio, then conditions, somewhat similar to those 
which prevailed in this region while the limestones and shales were be- 
ing formed, would be restored. Around the higher portions of the land, 
which would form islands or shoals in this sea, coral reefs would prob- 
ably be built. Colonies of crinoids might flourish at other points, while 
the greater portion of the bottom of this shallow or epicontinental sea 
would probably swarm with clams, snails, crabs, lobsters and every 
other form of marine life which is now found along the Atlantic coast. 
When these animals would die their calcareous remains might form 
deposits of limestone. Such an abundance of life would furnish a most 
excellent feeding ground for fishes and it is probable that great schools 
of them would inhabit the region and ultimately contribute their skel- 
etons to the deposit. At another time conditions might be so changed 
that so much mud would be brought down by running water that the 
shells of animals would contribute but a small amount to the total 
deposit, and a fossiliferous shale would result. 

It may thus be seen that the bed rock, underneath the thin cover- 
ing of glacial drift, was once deposited as sediment beneath the sea. 

~ J Scott ? W. B.', Introduction to Geol. 1902, p. 67. 

2 Dana, J. D., Manual of Geol., 4th Ed., 1895, pp. 349-350. 



The shales are nothing more than the cemented beds of silt or mud, 
the sandstone and conglomerates cemented sands and gravels, while 
the limestone mainly comes of organic origin. When we remember 
that these sediments have been washed down from ancient hills and 
carried to the sea or other lodgment basin, just as material is now being 
transported to the ocean, and that in this process of wear and recon- 
struction perhaps whole continents have been involved, we must feel a 
keen interest in these forces and their results. 


The mantle of drift, spread over the Columbus quadrangle, is quite 
irregular in thickness. In the northern part of the city, shale lies 

Fig. 7 — A small anticline in the Delaware limestone along the east bank of 
the Olentangy River, below Stratford. 

within a few inches of the surface while three miles west of Dublin 
well-drillers report two hundred feet of glacial drift. Over the greater 
part of the area, however, bed rock lies so near the surface that it 
outcrops along even the minor streams. 

The outcrops of the various formations, which constitute the rock 
floor of the section under consideration, are essentially parallel and 
extend in a northerly and southerly direction. The dip inclination 
from the horizontal) of these formations is to the eastward and runs 


from twenty to about thirty feet per mile. Such a slight variation 
from the horizontal is observable only when the elevations of distant 
outcrops of the same bed are compared. However the strata are fre- 
quently so affected by small folds that the dip is temporarily reversed. 
Some of these little folds may be found along the Olentangy River, 
south of Stratford, where the Delaware limestone is folded into well 
developed anticlines and synclines with axes extending nearly east and 
west (see Figure 7). Other disturbed strata may be seen in the Bedford 
shale along Rocky Fork northeast of Gahanna (see Plate XVI), 

In composition the formations, in stratigraphic succession from 
west to east, bear an interesting relation to each other. Every grada- 
tion from the pure limestone to the quartz conglomerate is to be found 
within the short space of twenty miles. Just what this means is per- 
haps a greater problem than may at first appear. Such clastic sedi- 
ments as mud, sand, gravel, etc., following each other in orderly succes- 
sion (see Plate XVIII) after the deposition of calcareous material, seems 
to indicate a shallowing of the basin within which they were formed; 
but even if this be the chief cause, it is not clear from whence the material 
came. Moreover it is not strictly true that the shales, or even the 
sandstones and conglomerates, were necessarily formed in shallower 
water than that which prevailed during the deposition of the calcareous 
sediments. Such limestone as results from the accumulation of the 
hard parts of lime-secreting organisms is not always or even usually a 
deep sea deposit. Crinoids, corals, brachiopods, mollusks, etc., flourish 
in our modern seas at slight depths and often near the land. It seems 
probable, therefore, that factors other than change of depth were also 
operative. Perhaps one of these was the closing of channels by which 
the inland sea had maintained its communication with the open ocean. 
Such a change, resulting from an upward movement of the land (diastro- 
phism), would render the waters temporarily brackish and therefore 
less favorable for the existence of lime-secreting organisms. More 
than that, any low lying tracts of land, which may have existed and 
which were deeply covered with weathered material due to the long 
period when there was relatively little erosion, would thus be brought 
into a position favorable for the removal of this weathered mantle by 
the action of running water and consequently the formation of shale 
would probably be initiated. While the black shale (Ohio) was being 
deposited, the sea must have been reduced to the condition of a swamp 
approaching that of the coal forming period. In fact many of the plant 
fragments found in this formation are highly carbonaceous, really an 
impure coal, and the formation itself is characteristically bituminous. 

With the advent of the sandy sediments, other changes more pro- 
found must have occurred, but what they were is perhaps highly specu- 
lative. It is certain, however, that some effective means of shifting 
sand must have been operative, since the only plausible source of such 



material was the disintegration of quartz bearing rocks in the high- 
lands of the old land masses to the north — a long distance from its 
ultimate resting place. 

These various sediments, including the glacial deposits, which come 
to the surface in the Columbus region, may be grouped together in the 
following classification: 1 

Cenozoic ^ Quaternary (Drift) 


Mississippian Waverlyan 




Devonian . 


Silurian Cayugan .... 


Black Hand form. 
Cuyahoga form. 
Sunbury shale 
Berea grit 
Bedford shale 

Ohio shale 

f Olentangy shale 

[ Delaware limestone 
Columbus limestone 

Monroe form. 

The presence of underlying sedimentary deposits, other than those 
outcropping, is known from the records of deep wells drilled in this 
vicinity. The most important of these are the State House well 2 and 
the well drilled on the bank of the Olentangy River in 1889. These 
wells penetrated between two and three thousand feet of strata and give 
us a section, of more or less value, extending down into the Ordovician. 


A formation is usually considered as outcropping if it is the one 
immediately underlying the mantle rock. 

Monroe Formation*— As indicated in the above table, the lowest 
of the outcropping formations within this area' is the Monroe formation. 
In the central part of the State, the Monroe is a fine grained compact 
drab limestone or dolomite which is rather thin bedded and has a distinct- 
ly banded structure. Sometimes the freshly fractured surface of the 
rock has a strong petroleum odor, but that is likely to be the case with 
any of the limestones of the region. It is not a very fossiliferous forma- 
tion in any locality and here it is exceptionally poor in animal remains. 

1 Prosser, C. S., Geol. Surv. Ohio, 4th Ser., Bull. No. 7, 1905, p. 3. 

2 Newberry, J. S., Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. I, pt. 1, 1873, pp. 113, 114. 
Also Vol. VI, 1888, pp. 107, 108; 281, 282. 

1000— G. B. 14. 

208 coLuMBtrs quadrangle 

Occasionally, however, Leperditia alia and* more rarely Spirifer vanuxemi 
have been found. In the northern part of the state, in Michigan and 
in Canada, the formation contains a considerable fauna. Many of the 
species found in those localities resemble so closely certain Devonian, 
rather than Silurian, forms that the exact age of the upper part of the 
limestone is more or less in doubt. The formation is limited in its sur- 
face outcrop to a rather indefinite portion of the west side of the quad- 
rangle. Meager outcrops occur along Mill Creek as well as, along Big 
and Little Darby Creeks, where usually about six or eight feet of rock 
are to be seen — a mere fraction of the total thickness of the formation. 

North of Harrisburg about three miles, and just above the bend 
of the Big Darby, the contact , between the Columbus and underlying 
Monroe comes to the surface. The outcrops, however, are poor and of 
little importance other than for the interesting boundary line which 
they show. Northward from here for the next two miles these lime- 
stones may frequently be seen, but never more than a small section is 

The best and most accessible places for seeing the Monroe forma- 
tion, as well as the Silurian-Devonian contact, are near Georgesville. 
On the south bank of Little Darby Creek, one mile west of its junction 
with the Big Darby and on land owned by Mr. E. N. Coberly, there is a 
very good limestone cliff where the following section was measured by 
Dr. Cumings: 

Columbus limestone. Thickness. 

7. Soft crystalline brown limestone, with pockets of calcite. 
This rock weathers irregularly, which thus produces ^ a 
conspicuous honey-combed surface. The residual soil, 
resulting from its decomposition, has a red color. (The 
best exposures of this portion of the formation are in a 
small run in the hillside just a little east of where the 
creek turns east. These layers are still better shown 

about 100 feet farther to the east) 7' 0" 

6. Drab or yellowish limestone blotched with darker spots; 
often flaky and somewhat crystalline. It occurs in a 
single layer with a surface uneven, but not honey- 
combed 2' 0" 

Monroe formation. 

5. Thin bedded, uneven, very impure, drab limestone. The 
upper part contains some seams of calcite, is hackle- 
toothed, contorted, and weathers with a honey-combed 
surface 3' 8" 

4. More evenly bedded, very light colored, fine grained compact 
limestone, in three conspicuous layers, and having a 
clean vertical fracture 4' 0" 

3. Massive, but weathering into thin irregular layers; bedding 
planes uneven and wavy. The lower layers are compact 
and very fine grained 4' 0" 

2. Thin bedded, ash colored, banded limestone, which breaks 

with a clean vertical fracture ^ 1' 0" 

1. Massive, impure, argillaceous, magnesian limestone, with the 
color of ashes, and a tinge of yellow. This part of the 
section is usually covered with talus, but is exposed at 
intervals to low- water level 5' 0" 


The transition from the Silurian to the Devonian here lacks one of 
its usual characteristics— the basal conglomerate. This consists of 
pebbles of the compact banded drab limestone (Monroe) imbedded in a 
matrix of brown Columbus limestone and forming the basal layer of 
the latter formation. These pebbles are well rounded and vary in size 
from a fraction of an inch to three or four inches in diameter. Occa- 
sionally there is some quartz sand intermingled with the pebbles and at 
places this is so abundant that it has been called a sandstone. The 
thickness of this conglomerate is usually about six inches and it rarely 
exceeds two feet. It is almost universally present where this contact 
comes to the surface in the central part of the state. One of the best 
places for observing the conglomeratic phase of this horizon is along 
the Big Darby Creek, about two miles above Georges ville. Here on 
the west bank the Messrs. Eckles have opened a small quarry to supply 
a neighborhood lime-kiln, and have thus laid bare a small section of 
rock with an excellent exposure of the conglomerate. The occurrence 
of such a conglomerate shows that the sediments of the Monroe forma- 
tion had already been consolidated into a limestone and had been sub- 
jected to erosion before the deposition of the Columbus limestone took 
place. The meaning of this is probably that the sea in which the Monroe 
formation was deposited had withdrawn and the area in question was 
thus converted into dry land. Later the sea returned, from an easterly 
direction, and the pebbles, mixed with the basal sediments of the lower 
part of the Columbus limestone, were formed by wave action on the 
rocky formations of the coast. How much sediment was removed by 
erosion, or how many of the intervening formations of other localities 
were never deposited here, is uncertain; but a very considerable portion 
of the upper part of the Silurian and somewhat more than the entire 
lower Devonian, is now wanting. Hence the Columbus limestone is 
said to rest unconformably on the Monroe formation. 

Columbus Limestone* 1 — Succeeding the Monroe formation, as 
above stated, are about 105 feet of calcareous and magnesian deposits 
which have received the name, Columbus limestone (see Plate XII). Of 
this formation, the lower 40 feet consist of a brown magnesian limestone 
containing much bituminous matter. It has a slightly banded struc- 
ture, which is not nearly so pronounced as that of the formation just 
considered, and is more or less wavy. The beds or layers are massive, 
irregular, and rather indistinctly separated. Small masses of chert 
occur at more or less irregular intervals and occasionally pockets of 
calcite crystals are found. Although these layers usually show little 
sign of crystallization, sometimes blocks may be found which glisten 
with cleavage faces of calcite. Fossils are rare in this portion of the 
formation and those that have been found usually occur as moulds and 

1 For a more detailed account of the Middle Devonian formations, see 
Stauffer, C. R., Geol. Surv. Ohio, 4th Ser. Bull. No. 10, 1909. 


casts which are poorly preserved. The barrenness of organic remains 
is probably not due to a poverty of its fauna during the time of the 
deposition of the original sediment, but to subsequent changes that 
have affected these layers. Chemically they approach a true dolomite 1 
and like all other metamorphic processes, dolomitization frequently 
proves fatal to the preservation of fossils. 

The upper 65 feet of the formation consist of highly calcareous 
crystalline gray limestone, which is very fossiliferous. Although the 
layers are usually even bedded, the bedding planes are sometimes uneven. 
This is due at times to stylolitic (hackle-tooth) structure and again to 
ripple-marks. It is the portion of the formation so extensively quarried 
at Marble Cliff and the familiar crushed rock used as a base in paving 
the city streets. 

The Columbus limestone is doubtless the approximate equivalent 
of the Onondaga of New York, the Dundee of Michigan, the Corniferous 
of Ontario, and the Jeffersonville, including the Geneva, of Indiana and 
Kentucky. This is clearly demonstrated by the abundant fauna, many 
species of which are common to the various localities mentioned. 

There are several features of special interest, exhibited by the 
upper portion of this formation, which deserve mention here. About 
nine feet below the top of the formation the "smooth rock" occurs. 2 
This smooth plane or layer, as it is sometimes called, resembles a per- 
fectly developed slickensides analogous to that frequently seen along 
a fault plane. Fossils occurring in it are planed off as smoothly as on a 
glaciated surface. Possibly it is a plane along which motion, between 
two portions of rock, has taken place — a shear plane — but the presence 
of wave-marks on some portions of the smooth surface renders this 
explanation doubtful. It has its most perfect development at Marble 
Cliff and State Quarries, but may be traced northward at least as far as 
Dublin. Sometimes, as at Casparis quarry, the shearing, if such it be, 
occurred along two parallel planes separated by an interval of about 
a foot; usually, however only one is to be seen. 

The upper six or eight inches of the formation are frequently filled 
with the plates and teeth of fishes, and thus constitute the "bone-bed". 3 
"Here we have the assemblage of millions on millions of generally 
imperfect but mostly recognizable organs or fragments of the bony 
structure of the forms of fish life most characteristic of the Devonian 
age". 4 These bones and teeth are in an excellant state of preservation, 
retaining even their original luster. The "bone-bed" is co-extensive 
with the outcrops of the central part of the state and is even well enough 
defined at Sandusky to be recognizable. An excellent place to see this 
layer is in the small run that enters the Scioto River from the east at 

1 Orton, Edward, Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. 3, 1878, pp. 615, 616. 

2 Orton, Edward, Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. 3, 1878, p. 610. 

3 Orton, Edward, Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. 3, 1878, "pp. 610, 611. 

4 Newberry, J. S., Mono. U. S. Geol. Surv., Vol. 16, 1889, p. 30 


Fishinger's bridge. The occurrence of such a persistent "bone-bed" in 
the upper few inches of the formation leads to the suggestion that 
perhaps this portion of the Devonian sea, teeming with its myriads of 
small organisms, was an exceptional feeding ground for those fishes 
whose remains contributed to its formation. Another possible reason 
for so remarkable an increase in the number of fish remains, 1 and es- 
pecially at the top, may have been the wholesale destruction of these 
animals by some sudden change in the condition of the sea or by some 
agency of unknown cause. Notable modern instances of this are the 
destruction of the tile fishes along the Atlantic coast of North America 
in 1882 when it was estimated that a layer of fish several feet thick was 
formed over the entire sea-bottom of the region affected; or again along 
the Indian coast in 1897, when the Sumesar River was dammed by 
fish killed during the earthquake. 2 

Another feature to be mentioned is the chert beds. The occur- 
rence of chert in limestones is a common phenomenon of many horizons 
and of almost every locality where they outcrop. In central Ohio it is 
more plentiful in the Delaware than in the Columbus limestone; however, 
in the latter there are several well defined zones. The more important 
of these is the zone located about 55 or 60 feet below the "bone-bed." 
This zone thins out to the north, but at the Storage Dam it measures 
about 9 feet. The chert is mainly in concretionary masses, the silica 
of which "was probably deposited in the form of the siliceous, shells and 
spicules of plants and animals, and was disseminated through the sedi- 
ments as originally formed." Subsequently it has been "aggregated 
into nodules of chert" 3 and, by the process of replacement, changed 
calcareous to siliceous fossils. 

Excellent outcrops of the Columbus limestone may be found along 
the Scioto River from Columbus northward beyond the limits of the 
area under discussion. The quarries at Marble Cliff (see Plate XII) give 
a section which may be considered as typical of the upper part and a 
small portion of the lower may be seen just below the Columbus Stor- 
age Dam, while the entire thickness of this massive brown portion may 
be seen along the river near Bellepoint. 

The following is a section measured near the north end of the Cas- 
paris quarry east of the Scioto River: 

Delaware limestone. Thickness. 

12. Rather thin bedded bluish brown limestone containing some 

chert in the upper part, and all much weathered. . . . . 5' 0" 
11. Thin bedded bluish limestone, containing great quantities 

of black chert in definite layers 5' 10" 

1 Geikie, Archibald, Textbook of GeoL, 4th Ed., 1903, p. 375. 

2 Oldham, R. D., Mem. Geol. Surv. of India. Report on the Indian 
Earthquake of June 12, 1897, p. 80. 

3 Chamberlin, T. C, and Salisbury, R. D., Textbook of Geol., Vol. 1, 
1905, p. 438. 


Delaware limestone — Concluded. Thickness. 
10. Massive bluish limestone, with much black chert inter- 
mixed. The upper part is contorted, or more or less con- 
cretionary in appearance 3' 8" 

9. Shale and some rather thick layers of bluish brown lime- 
stone, also containing a considerable quantity of black 

chert . 5' 0" 

8. Soft thin bedded grayish brown shale, with some chert .... 0' 6" 

Columbus limestone. 

7. Well defined "bone-bed" t — — 

6. Massive bluish gray sub-crystalline limestone/ containing 
some gray white chert. Spirijer acuminatus and Pla- 
tyceras dumosum are characteristic fossils 9' 4" 

5. Smooth layer — — 

4. Very fossiliferous and fairly massive gray limestone. The 

weathered surfaces of this rock show numerous corals . . 8' 0" 

3. Massive fossiliferous gray limestone. These layers show 
some prominent joints running approximately north 
and south. Characterized by the presence of such large 
cephalopods as Gyroceras cyclops 13' 0" 

2. A layer of massive gray limestone exceedingly full of Spirifer 

gregarius 3' 6 " 

1. Massive fossiliferous gray limestone, extending to the bottom 

of the quarry .- 2' 6" 

The quarries farther south are perhaps better for purposes of collect- 
ing fossils. The banks of the river, and especially the west bank, from 
Casparis south to the old State Quarries are simply shattered either by 
active quarries or abandoned pits. Among these the collector may find 
a wealth of fossils which is scarcely exceeded at any other locality. 

Delaware Limestone. — The abrupt change from the pure organic 
sediments of the Columbus limestone to the argillaceous cherty blue 
limestones and calcareous brown shales of the Delaware is most strik- 
ingly illustrated in the sections of central Ohio. The five or six feet 
immediately succeeding the "bone-bed" consist of brown shale (see 
Plate XIII) in which Whitfield discovered a fauna which led 'him to cor- 
relate it with the horizon of the Marcellus shale of New York. 1 - These 
fossils are mainly of species belonging to such genera as frequent the 
seas when black shale conditions prevail and may be found in nearly 
every outcrop of this horizon. The fauna of the Delaware limestone 
as a whole is intimately related to that of the Traverse group of Mich- 
igan and the Hamilton beds of New- York, although it still retains, here 
in central Ohio, certain forms which are also of Onondaga age. These 
latter, however, are such as are usually common to the two formations 
mentioned, and hence it may be safely said that none of the character- 
istically Onondaga (Columbus) limestone fossils are known to have with- 
stood the changed conditions of the Marcellus shale horizon. There is 
about thirty-six feet of the Delaware limestone in central Ohio, but it 
thickens notably to the north and also becomes a purer limestone. At 
Delaware, from which city the formation takes its name, it has been used 
quite extensively as a building stone. 

1 Whitfield, R. P., Proc. Am." Ass'n Adv. Sci., Vol. 28, 1880, p. 298; 
also Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. 7, 1893, pp. 432, 433. 


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Nearly every outcrop of rock along the Scioto River shows at least 
a small fraction of this formation. An excellent exposure may be seen 
along the Dublin pike on the east side of the river just beyond Fish- 
inger's bridge, and the entire formation outcrops along Slate Run/ 
which passes through the grounds of the Columbus Fishing Club not 
far beyond. Another outcrop which is equally as interesting and shows 
the Olentangy shale somewhat better is to be found along Bartholomew 
Run. 2 This run is located a mile north of the Franklin-Delaware county 
line and enters the Olentangy River from the west, heading near Powell. 
The following section gives, in some detail) the rocks outcropping along 
this run. 

Ohio shale. Thickness. 

25. Black shale, rather thin bedded and considerably weathered. 

It contains a number of large spherical concretions .... 16' 0" 

Olentangy shale. 

24. Soft bluish marly shale, the upper part yellowish in color . 3' 10" 
23. Layer of flat, more or less disc-like, calcareous concretions. 0' 7" 

22. Soft blue marly shale, with some brown layers 7' 2" 

21. Layer of impure bluish limestone 0' 6" 

20. Bluish marly shale, with some thin bands of brown or black 

shale 2' 0" 

19. Black shale, containing some fragments of fossil plants .... 0' 1" 

18. Marly blue shale 1' 0" 

17. Black shale cut into small blocks by two conspicuous 

systems of joints. Iron pyrites common 0' 3" 

16. Marly blue shale V 8" 

15. Two distinct layers of impure blue limestone 0' 4" 

14. Bluish green marly shale, containing thin bands of brown 

shale , 2' 4" 

13. Brown shale with marl-filled marks, or trails of marine 

"worms." It also contains fragments of plants 0' 3" 

12. Soft bluish green marly shale, containing great numbers of 

small limestone concretions 5' 0" 

11. Brown shale with some "worm" trails through it, and con- 
taining a few bryozoans(?) 0' 3" 

10. Bluish green shale, soft and gritless, showing some trails of 

marine animals . 2' 4" 

Delaware limestone. 

9. Cherty blue to brown shaly limestone, the top of which is 
penetrated by the "worm" holes and rilled with blue 
marl from above. Fish teeth and bones, somewhat 
water worn, and a few pebbles are also included in this 
shaly mass. At the present time this is the only known 
exposure of this contact 5* 

8. Very chetty bluish brown limestone. Layers rather even 
and sparingly fossiliferous. This is the zone which 
Winchell called "Tully limestone," and which Newberry 
conceded to contain a Hamilton fauna 9' 4" 

7 Granular layer of grayish brown limestone containing much 
iron pyrites which, in some cases, has replaced the 
original substance of the fossils. This thin zone con- 
tains a varied fauna notable among the species of which, 
is the small globular coral, Hadrophyllum d' 'orbignyi . . .. 0' 8" 

6. Massive bluish limestone containing very little chert 2' 0" 

5. Thin bedded shaly limestone with much black chert ...... 1 ' 0" 

i Prosser, C. S., Tour. Geol., Vol; 13, 1905, pp. 426-430. 

2 Winchell, N. H., Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. 2, pt. 1, 1874, pp. 288, 289. 



Delaware limestone — Concluded. Thickness. 

4. Blue to brown limestone containing iron pyrites and black 
chert intermingled and much contorted. These layers, 
together with the two just above, usually contain many 
specimens of Grammysia bisiilcata 4' 0" 

3. Rather massive blue limestone with some chert and shaly 

layers. Tentaculites scalariformis is a common fossil. ... 8' 0" 

2. Thin bedded brown calcareous shale with layers of black 

chert. It contains the Marcellus shale fauna 7' 0" 

1. Brown limestone, somewhat shaly and probably a part of 
the above zone. These layers extend to the level of 
the run below the highway bridge 2' 6" 

In the runs to the north of this there are many good sections of the 
Delaware limestone. Among these may be mentioned that in Deep Run 1 

Fig. 8 — The Olentangy shale, showing its basal portion and the uneven con- 
tact with the Delaware limestone below, as shown along Bartholomew 
Run in Delaware County. The observer stands on the summit of the 
Delaware limestone. 

and the one on the Amelia Case farm, south of Liberty road. The Del- 
aware limestone is not as fossiliferous as the Columbus limestone, but 
frequently layers may be found which have fossils in abundance. The 
fauna contains a much smaller number of species and is made up in 
part, as previously indicated, of species left over from Columbus time 
and in part of true Hamilton forms. 

Olentangy Shale* — With the above formation may be classed the 
soft argillaceous blue deposit known as the Olentangy shale (see Plate 

1 Prosser, C. S., Jour. Geol., Vol. 13, 1905, pp. 430-133. 


XIV). They are successive stages in the general change from pure lime- 
stone to the strictly clastic deposits that follow. The Olentangy shale 
contains several thin layers of argillaceous limestone which are quite 
persistent in position. Towards the upper part of the formation occur 
layers of the black shale, similar to the Ohio, alternating with the soft 
blue layers, and also several more or less definite layers of flat calcareous 
concretions. Notwithstanding this, however, the contact with the Del- 
aware limestone is sharp and the transition to the overlying Ohio shale 
is often sudden (see Figure 8). Sometimes the black shales are depos- 
ited on a surface which is decidedly uneven, with places where some 
sandy material has been found at the contact. Such contacts may be 
found at "Dripping Rock" on the Amelia Case farm and at the type 
section along the Olentangy River at Delaware. 

The 'Olentangy shale is very poor in fossils. The only traces of 
animal remains found within this area are a few fish teeth, a crinoid 
stem, one pelecypod shell, which is probably a Nucula, and a bryozoan. 
Aside from these, however, there are several layers of a brown to pur- 
plish blue shale, occurring quite persistently in the lower part, which 
show markings thought to be "worm" trails. It is generally believed 
that this shale is of Hamilton age and this is probably true. Certainly 
its lithological appearance suggests such a disposition of the formation 
and so does its meager fauna in the outcrops just north of this region. 
That Newberry's Prout limestone 1 and marl is the northern equivalent 
of the Olentangy shale, is reasonably certain. The preceding section, 
measured along Bartholomew Run, gives a very good idea of the gen- 
eral make-up of the Olentangy shale (see Figure 8) . 

Ohio Shale. — The Ohio shale (see Plate XV) is the last formation 
of Devonian age in central Ohio. In fact it is probable that even the 
upper part of it may prove to be of Waverlyan age. 2 "The shale is 
brownish or bluish black in fresh exposures, but weathered surfaces 
have a distinctly blue color." 3 This statement by Orton, while gener- 
ally true, does not always hold for weathered surfaces/ Frequently they 
retain their characteristic black color, except for the iron stains which 
may color the fragments a dull brown. While this shale is quite firm 
and somewhat massive at first, it soon falls into more or less thin laminae 
which finally break up into small fissile fragments'and in the end weather 
into a rather stiff clay. It contains a considerable amount of iron py- 
rites, hence the dull brown of the weathered surface above referred to. 
The shale exhibits two quite regular systems of joints which, along 
Rocky Fork, are approximately northeast and northwest in direction. 

A feature characteristic of this formation is the occurrence of large 

1 Newberry, J. S., Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. 2, pt. 1, 1874, pp. 189, 190 

2 SeeUlrich, E. O., Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., vol. 22, 1911, correlation table 
II, opp. p. 608. 

3 Orton, Edward, Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. 3, 1878, p. 634. 



"iron-stone" concretions at several horizons (see Figure 9). They some- 
times measure six feet or even more in diameter and are nearly perfect 
spheres, although there is some variety in form. Frequently the bed- 
ding planes may be traced into the concretion, showing that at least a 
part of the original shale matter is included within the mass. These 
concretions, in common with most others, are thought to be secondary 
products formed in situ by the aggregation 1 of like matter, usually about 

Fig. 9 — Concretions weathered out of the Ohio shale. Bartholomew Run. 

some fragment of foreign material as a nucleus. This may be suspected 
from the fact that the shale layers are heaved up over and depressed 
below the concretions, and from the uniformity of composition of the 
individuals especially in concentric layers. The nuclei of these concre- 
tions are frequently found to be crystalline masses; such minerals as 
calcite, barite and selenite having been found. In other cases organic 
matter, such as a fish bone or a piece of wood, 2 has served as a center 
about which the accumulation occurred. These concretions are usually 
more frequent in the lower forty or fifty feet of the formation. 

In the upper part of the formation calcereous bands from a frac- 
tion to several inches in thickness frequently occur. These exhibit the 
peculiar "cone-in-cone" structure common in several of the Ohio forma- 
tions. 3 The cones are in two series, one with the bases upward and the 
other with the bases downward. The origin of this structure is un- 

1 See Chamberlin and Salisbury's Textbook of Geol., Vol. 1, 1905, pp. 
438, 490-493. 

2 Orton, Edward, Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. 3, 1878, p. 635. 

3 Newberry, J. S., Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. 1, pt. 1, 1873, p. 211. 


known. It has been referred to concretionary action, but probably it 
is in some way connected with the compressive stresses developed by 
the load of overlying sediments. Near the upper limit of the formation 
is a layer of numerous small flat concretions of iron pyrites. This layer 
is rather persistent in the vicinity of .Central College and to the south. 

Aside from the impressions of long flat leaves of certain plants, 
spore cases, a few Catamites, the fossil wood associated with some con- 
cretions, and occasional fish bones, the great body of this formation is 
practically barren of fossils in this region. In the extreme upper por- 
tion, however, fossils like those of the Cleveland shale are sometimes 
found. Some of these are very similar to the forms occurring in the 
Bedford shale. 

The Ohio shale becomes the St. Clair shale 1 of Michigan and the 
New Albany black shale of Indiana 2 and Kentucky. These deposits 
are supposed to be of Genesee age. In all probability they represent 
the sediment accumulated in this section of the sea while the Genesee, 
Portage and Chemung, in part, were being deposited in New York. 3 

There are numerous excellent sections of the Devonian shales to be 
found in the deep valleys of the tributaries to the Olentangy River, 
from Stratford to Worthington and even at North Columbus. Notable 
among these are the outcrops at High Banks, Glen Mary, the Narrows, 
etc. The shales oi; all these sections are, however, practically identical. 

The following section, which was measured in the Narrows, shows 
the variable composition of this black shale as it occurs in central Ohio: 

Ohio shale. • Thickness. 

17. Drift 4' 0" 

16. Black shales 38' 8* 

15. Bluish gray shales alternating with black, and all apparently 

more fissile than that below • 6' 0" 

14. Layer of cone-in-cone * 0' 1" 

13. Bluish gray shales alternating with black shale 15' 4" 

12. Bluish gray shales with several layers of cone-in-cone 0' 6" 

11. Black shales with some bluish gray layers 6' 8* 

10. Black shales with few or no concretions 16' 0" 

9. Black shale containing a great many spherical concretions. . 21' 4" 
8. Black shales showing streaks of bluish gray running through 
the beds. Also some bluish gray shales alternating 

with the black, and this is especially true in the upper part 10' 8* 

7. Black shales alternating with bluish gray shales 6' 4" 

6. Black shales showing prominent oblique joints. Direction 

of jointing, northeast and southwest 9' 8" 

5. Band of bluish gray shales 0' 8" 

4. Black shale 0' 6" 

3. Band of bluish gray shales 0' 10" 

2. Black shale with very prominent joints running northeast 
and southwest. This shale contains numerous small 
iron pyrites concretions and some 'of the usual large 

spherical concretions ^ . . 8' 8* 

1. Covered interval to the level of the Olentangy River 6' 8" 

1 Geol. Surv. Mich., Vol. 3, 1876, pp. 64-68; also idem, Vol. 5, pt. II, 
1895, p. 21, 22; and idem, Vol. 7, pt. I, 1900, pp. 25-30. 

2 5th Ann. Rept. Geol. Surv. Ind., (1873), 1874, p. 158; also idem, 25th 
Ann. Rept., (1900), 1901, pp. 340, 341, 532, 533. 

3 Newberry, J. S., Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. 1, pt. 1, 1873, pp. 69-71. 


Along Alum Creek, which crosses the northeast quarter of the quad- 
rangle from north to south and joins the Big Walnut a short distance south- 
east of Columbus, excellent outcrops of the Ohio shale occur; in fact the 
valley of this stream lies, wholly within this formation. About the best 
of these outcrops is that along the run at Cheshire, at the extreme north 
end of the quadrangle, where some forty feet of the black shale may be 
seen. Another very good section may be found just east of Blendon, 
along a run entering Alum Creek from the east. 

The key to the stratigraphy of the east half of the quadrangle is 
to be found along Big Walnut Creek, although in the southeast quarter 
interest- is somewhat divided among Big Walnut, Black Lick and Little 
Walnut Creeks. The former of these streams flows almost along the 
line of outcrop of the lower Waverlyan formations; in fact, south of 
Galena, the Bedford shale was found west of this stream only at Central 
College. Many places where the east bluff has a fine outcrop of shale, 
the west, at no great distance, will show nearly all till (glacial clay and 
boulders). This is partly due to the presence of a buried pre-glacial 
valley, along the eastern wall of which the modern Big Walnut Creek 
flows from Galena southward. 

Bedford Shale*— With the Bedford shale begins the Mississippian 
system and the Waverlyan series of classic geological literature. The 
Waverlyan is recognized in Michigan, 1 where it has been called the Mar- 
shall series. 2 It is also known to be closely related to the Knobstone 
of Indiana, 3 and trje Kinderhook of farther west. The Bedford shale is 
usually an argillaceous deposit -(see Plate XVI) varying in color from 
bluish gray to red or chocolate brown, the red color usually being con- 
fined to the middle portion. Where the outcrop is fresh, as in the bed 
of a stream, the. layers appear massive, but on exposure they soon weather 
into a sticky red or yellow clay. A fine example of this formation in 
weathered condition may be seen in the hills east of Central College. 
Here the Bedford shale forms a line of bluffs along the east bank of Big 
Walnut Creek where the soft and easily eroded shale has assumed a most 
striking topography resembling, to a limited extent, that of the "Bad 
Lands" of the West. The color of the central portion of the formation 
is so conspicuous here as to have fastened the name "Red Hills" upon 
this locality. 

In the lower part of this formation, especially in the northeast 
quarter of the area, are several layers of small flat argillaceous con- 
cretions which show a decidedly concentric structure. Layer after 
layer may be broken off by the blow of a hammer. An occasional fossil 
has been found in these concretions. In the southeast quarter of the 
quadrangle, near Lithopolis, very much larger concretions of an irregular 

1 Geol. Surv. Mich., Vol. 3, 1876, pp. 69-101. 

2 Idem, Rept. Prog., 1861, pp. 80-88. 

3 25th Ann. Rept. Geol. Surv. Ind., 1900, pp. 339, 340. 



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shape are often found. One of the most notable characteristics of the 
formation in this part of the state, and the same is true in the vicinity 
of Cleveland, is the disturbed condition of the sediments forming the 
upper portion. These layers are frequently much contorted and some- 
times even crushed while the overlying Berea is little or not at all affected. 
The nature of the material of which the Bedford shale is formed indi- 
cates that it was probably deposited some distance from shore. Per- 
haps at the outer margin of these mud deposits, or even elsewhere, steep 
sub-marine slopes occurred. The slumping or superficial faulting 1 of 
such deposits would result in the contortion of the layers, especially if 
the material was sufficiently tenacious to hold together. 

Dr. Prosser considers the prominent concretionary layer occurring 
along Rocky Fork as forming the base of the Berea grit 2 . This is 
possibly the proper boundary line for that locality, but it must not be 
expected that such a layer usually or even often marks the contact. 
Indeed it is frequently impossible to say where the shale ends and the 
sandstone begins. The upper part of the Bedford is usually arenaceous. 
Gradually thin layers of sandstone begin to appear and these keep 
increasing in number until the shale is in the minority and finally dis- 
appears. Moreover these thin sandstone layers are well ripple-marked, 
showing the same shore conditions that existed during the deposition of 
afc least a large part of the Berea. Such is the condition of these sedi- 
ments along Big Walnut Creek between Galena and Sunbury. However 
along Rattlesnake Creek, near its junction with Big Walnut Creek, there 
is a massive concretionary layer which) from the fact that it marks the 
real beginning of. the sandstone, may possibly be taken as Berea grit 
and hence probably the beginning of that formation. However the 
usual sediments of the Berea are rather coarser and more massively 
bedded than those of the sandy layers in the Bedford. Hence there is 
a disposition on the part of some geologists to throw all these questionable 
central Ohio beds into the Bedford, leaving only the massive coarse 
sandstones at the top in the Berea. 

The Bedford shale is also one of the essentially non-fossiliferous 
formations. From one to two feet of the basal layers, however, are 
frequently very full of fossils. This fauna is no less remarkable in its 
association of species than is its occurrence here among these almost 
barren deposits. While it contains a Devonian element linking it, in a 
general way, to the Hamilton, 3 yet its affinities are more nearly with 
the Kinderhook, which itself contains a Hamilton element. The Rock- 
ford limestone of Indiana and the Glen Park limestone 4 of Illinois carry 
related faunas, a fact which points to a possible solution of the problem. 

i Chamberlin, T.'C, and Salisbury, R. D., Textbook of Geol., Vol. 1, 
1905, p. 527. 

2 Prosser, C. S., Jour. Geol., Vol. 10, 1902, pp. 276, 278; also Am. Geol. 
Vol. 34, 1904, p. 340, foot note. 

3 Herrick, C. L., Rept. Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. 7, 1894, p. 507. 

4 Weller, Stuart, Trans. Acad. Scil., St. Louis, Vol. 16, No. 7, pp. 467, 470. 


Over Ohio and eastward the Hamilton fauna disappeared during the 
deposition of the Black shales, while in the west it continued to flourish 
and undergo changes due in part to the usual processes of evolution and 
again to the addition of some new species. A decided deepening of this 
Ohio portion of the sea probably occurred at the beginning of the Mis- 
sissippian and with it the faunas of the purer western sea migrated 
across Indiana and Kentucky into Ohio. Hence the Bedford fauna is 
decidedly western in its affinities with here and there an eastern species, 
while the entire fauna still bears a marked resemblance to its ancestral 
association of species. 

The outcrops which furnish good sections of the Bedford shale are 
so numerous that there is little necessity in calling attention to them. 
The sections here given are selected because they are fairly accessible 
and also show some of the succeeding formations excellently. 

The following is a combined section of the outcrops occurring along 
Rocky Fork from its union with Big Walnut Creek below Gahanna to 
the upper part of the tributary which flows through New Albany. 

Cuyahoga formatton. Thickness. 

18. Thin bedded sandstones and some bluish colored shales. 
This portion of the section is exposed along the trib- 
utary flowing through New Albany 50' 0" 

17. Soft bluish shale 5' 0" 

Sunbury shale. 

16. Covered interval, most of it probably belonging to the 

Sunbury shale : 10' 0" 

15. Fissile black shale, iron stained, and somewhat decomposed. 
The lower two or three inches contain quite an abund- 
ance of two or three species of Brachiopods. This 
portion is best exposed along a small tributary at the 
bend of Rocky Fork just south of the highway, where 
the Ealy mill formerly stood 25' 8" 

Berea grit. 

14. Rather massive sandstone layers, many in lenticular beds, 
and some showing ripple- marks. A layer of marcasite 
occurs on top 17' 6" 

13. Layers of fine grained sandstones from a fraction to ten 
inches in thickness, and well ripple-marked. Some 
layers are much contorted, in places, and contain local 
beds of shale 8' 6" 

12. Arenaceous gray shale, which grades into the sandstone up 
stream. It contains some thin layers of ripple-marked 
sandstones 12 ; 0" 

11. Concretionary layer, which is thought to form the limiting 

layer of the Berea 1' 0" 

Bedford shale. 

10. Soft argillaceous blue shales, becoming arenaceous towards 
the top. Some of the slab-like fragments when freshly 
exposed show marks resembling the impressions of 

plant stems 38' 8* 

9. Soft argillaceous gray mottled shales 8' 0" 

8. Soft fissile red to chocolate brown shale. These layers 

weather rapidly into a stiff clay .• 25' 6* 

7. Soft argillaceous blue shale, quite fissile and .much jointed. 15' 6* 
6. Argillaceous blue shale, very fossiliferous and especially so 

near the base 2' 0" 

5. Dark bluish brown rather soft shale, containing some fossil 

shells and worm trails (?), the latter cast in iron pyrites. 0' 4" 


Ohio shale. Thickness. 

4. Black shale prominently jointed (joints N. E. and N. W.), 

and much iron stained 5' 0" 

3. Covered interval (aneroid reading) 5' 0" 

2. Black shale . . 10' 8* 

1. Black shale with several layers of "cone-in-cone" to level 

_ of Big Walnut Creek 8' 10" 

The Bedford shale is well exposed at Taylor's station on the Penn- 
sylvania and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroads, where it is being used 
in the manufacture of brick and tile. The contact with the Ohio shale 
may also be found at that place. 

Along Duncan Run, which enters Big Walnut Creek a mile and a 
quarter north of the Franklin-Delaware county line, there is an excep- 
tionally fine section through the greater portion of the Waverlyan series 
and into the Devonian. The following section gives the gross measure- 
ments taken in the cut made by this run. 

Cuyahoga formation. Thickness. 

11. Blue to gray sandstones in layers from a few inches to six 

or eight in thickness , 5' 0" 

10. Bluish gray shale, alternating with shaly sandstones, the 
surface of which show some marks resembling impres- 
sions of plant stems or trails of animals 10' 0" 

9. Gray shale, not well e*xposed 5' 0" 

Sunbury shale. 

8. A fissile black shale. The contact with the Berea grit is 
shown back of Harlem, but the contact with the 
Cuyahoga formation is slightly covered 30' 0" 

Berea grit. 

7. Buff to bluish gray fine grained sandstones, the upper layer 
much iron stained. The lower layers are rather thin 
shaly and well ripple- marked. At Harlem this stone 
has been quarried and crushed for road material; for 
which purpose, when mixed or covered with crushed 
limestone, it is said to serve excellently. In the quarry 
here it is a fine-grained bluish sandstone, rather com- 
pact and often banded 40' 0" 

Bedford shale. 

6. Mottled and gray argillaceous shales, with some "sandy 

layers , 28' 6" 

5. Soft red or chocolate brown shales 16' 0" 

4. Gray shales with a few thin layers of chocolate brown shale. 12' 4" 

3. Layer of very compact hard red or chocolate brown shale. 0' 4" 

2. Soft gray argillaceous shale containing fossils in the lower • 

part 2' 10" 

Ohio shale. 

1. Firm black shale to level of Big Walnut Creek 55' 0" 

From this section it will be observed that the Bedford shale de- 
creases in thickness to the northward. By the time the Sunbury region 
is reached an even greater decrease is noticed, while the simultaneous 
thickening of the Berea grit is a feature of the northward sections. This 
variation is somewhat relieved, however, if the lower thin bedded sand- 
stones are considered as a part of the Bedford shale. 



Berea Grit 1 * — The Berea grit is the earliest persistent sandstone 
formation occurring in central Ohio. It is a rather fine grained gray to 
buff colored rock laid down in beds of varying thickness which usually 
become more massive towards the top of the formation. The beds 
frequently show a tendency to feather out or to increase in thickness as 
traced along a cliff. Distortion or concretionary effects (see Figure 10) 
are common throughout a large part of the formation as defined in 
central Ohio. This condition may frequently be seen to pass into the 
ordinary layers of the formation. The thin layers, and many of the 
thicker as well, are excellently ripple-marked. These ripple-marked 

Fig. 10 — The peculiar concretionary structure common in the Berea grit, at 


layers are sometimes contorted into various shapes, showing that what- 
ever produced the twisting of these beds was operative since the deposi- 
tion of the sediment and not contemporaneous with it. A notable 
feature of this formation, and one worthy of mention since it is so per- 
sistent, is the occurrence of a layer of marcasite on the extreme upper 
surface. The decomposition of this sulphide of iron gives rise to the 
hydrogen sulphide of the sulphur springs to be found along Rocky Fork. 
Fossils are rare in this formation, in fact none were found in the 
outcrops of this entire region. As already mentioned, the Berea grit 
is quite variable in thickness. In the southeastern part of the area it 
lies unconformably on the Bedford shale and is reduced to about four 
feet, while at Sunbury it is probably more than sixty-five feet in thick- 

1 Berea sandstone is often used instead of Berea grit. 


ness. The Berea grit takes its name from the village of Berea, Cuya- 
hoga County, where the formation is extensively used in the manu- 
facture of grindstones, for building stone, curbing, flagstone, etc. In 
southeastern Ohio this formation becomes one of the important oil 
and gas horizons. 

The Berea grit is well shown in the sections just given. The follow- 
ing section) which was measured along Rattlesnake Creek opposite the 
village of Sunbury, shows a greater thickness of this rock: 

Cuyahoga formation. > Thickness 
12. Soft blue shale, composing the base of the formation 5' 0;, 

Sunbury shale. 

11. Meager outcrops of bituminous black shale, somewhat iron 

stained ..... \ 12' 0" 

10. Partly covered interval of black shale , 5' 0" 

Berea grit. 

9. Rather thin bedded gray to e buff sandstone. The upper 
four-inch layer contains a'great deal of sulphide of iron 
(Aneroid reading) ........ 25' 0" 

8. Fairly thick layers of sandstone showing a lenticular shape 

and interbedded with thin layers 15' 0* 

7. Concretionary masses of sandstone with thin shaly layers, 

all more or less disturbed 5' 0" 

6. Ripple-marked thin shaly sandstone layers, somewhat 

banded 5' 0" 

5. Rather massive layers of sandstone interbedded with some 
shale. The massive layers are more or less concre- 
tionary , 5' 0" 

4. Soft arenaceous shale containing some concretions 6' 8" 

3. Layer of massive concretions more or less continuous, but 
■, sometimes interrupted and apparently somewhat re- 
placed by the bluish shale 3' 0" 

Bedford shale. 

2. Bluish gray shale, which is rather argillaceous, but some- 
what gritty 2' 0" 

1. Covered to level of Big Walnut Creek 5' 0" 

The Berea grit has been quarried to some extent along the banks of 
this creek, however it is worth but little for commercial purposes. 

Sunbuty Shale* — The disappearance of the sandy sediments is 
no less remarkable than it is sudden. Few horizons are more marked 
than is the contact between the Berea grit and the Sunbury shale. So 
sharp is this line that we may be absolutely certain, within a fraction 
of an inch, where one leaves off and the other begins. The Sunbury 
is a black argillaceous shale with much bituminous matter resembling 
somewhat, in general appearance, the Ohio shale. However, it is thinner 
bedded, more fissile and resists weathering less than does the Ohio. 
The lower layers of this shale cling with wonderful tenacity to the top 
of the Berea grit. So often is this the case that large areas exist with 
but a few inches of black shale separating the sandstone from the glacial 
drift above. The lower six or eight inches of the Sunbury shale are 
often quite fossiliferous, although the number of species is small. The 
most numerous of these fossils are Lingula melie and Orbiculoidea new- 
berryi, which will be recognized as such genera as are usually associated 

1000— G. B. 14. 


with black shale conditions. The great body of the deposit, however, 
is essentially non-fossiliferous. 

Prof. Hicks' typical locality for the Sunbury shale is along Rattle- 
snake Creek 1 east of Sunbury. Much better outcrops, however,- occur 
along Rocky Fork northeast of Gahanna and especially in Dutch Hollow 
at Lithopolis. Some of these sections have already been given while 
that of this latter place will be given in connection with the following 

Cuyahoga Formation* — In all sections where the contact between 
the Sunbury shale ; aiid the Cuyahoga formation is exposed, the latter 
begins with about five feet of bluish gray argillaceous shale. This is 
followed by fine grained sandstones alternating with shales and all 
usually bluish in color. In the southern part of the State several of the 
persistent sandstone layers have received definite names, viz.: Buena 
Vista stone 2 ^and City Ledge. 3 Dr. Prosser has revived these names 
aiid applied them to their equivalents 4 in central Ohio. He calls the 
lower fifty feet of the Cuyahoga formation the Buena Vista stone and 
states that the lowest sandstone of the formation apparently corresponds 
to the stratum termed the "City Ledge" in southern Ohio. No fossils, 
other than fragments of plants, and vermicular markings were found in 
these shales and sandstones, although at some localities in the northern 
and southern parts of the state very considerable collections of animal 
remains have been made from it. 

The following section was measured along the little run in Dutch 
Hollow (see Plate XVII) at Lithopolis. 5 It begins near the eight-hundred- 
foot contour line, three-quarters of a mile northwest of the covered 
bridge, and runs up stream for a distance of a mile. 

Cuyahoga formation. Thickness. 
; 10. Several fairly even compact layers of grayish sandstone, 
followed in ascending order by bands of arenaceous 
gray shale and' soft uneven sandstone layers to the 
crest of the hill at the Lyndecker quarry. The shales 
contain fragments of plants, but no other fossils were 
iound in these layers . 31' 0'' 

9. Compact even grained blue freestone. This is the only 
• ■ layer of sandstone extensively worked in the quarry, 
where it is said to extend for hundreds of feet without 
a cross joint v . . . .' 4' /y 

8. Layers of sandstone interbedded- with shales and thin shaly 
sandstones outcropping above the covered bridge and 
along the steep bank below. 31' 0" 

7. Massive layer of blue, but frequently iron-stained sandstone. 2' 0" 
, ' 6. Arenaceous gray shales and thin layers of blue sandstone . . 4' 2" 

5. A massive layer of iron-stained blue sandstone, the "City 

Ledge'' 2' 9 r 

4. Very soft gray shale composing the base of the formation, 

wherever this part has been found outcropping 5' 0" 

i Am. Jour. Sci., 3rd Ser., Vol. 16, 1878, p. 216. 

2 Orton, Edward, Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. 2, pt. 1, 1874, p. 626. 

3 Idem, 2nd Ann. Rept., 1838, pp. 263, 264. 

4 Am. Geol., Vol. 34, 1904, pp. 337, 341, foot note. 

5 For a more detailed account of this section and also of other sections 
in this vicinity, see Prosser, C. S., on "The Waverly Formations of Central 
Ohio." Am. Geol., Vol. 34, 1904, pp. 335-361. 


View of the lower portion of the Cyahoga formation at Lithopolis. 


Sunbury shale. Thickness. 

3. Fissile black shale in very thin laminae and considerably 
iron stained in old exposures. Near the outcrop of trie 
Berea grit this shale crises fifteen feet in the south bank 
of the run. In the north bank, a little farther up - 
stream, is another fifteen-foot bank capped by the 
bluish gray shales of No. 4. The characteristic fossils 
of the base of the Sunbury shale — Lingula melie and 
Orbiculoidea newberryi — were found at this place . . .^ . . . . 26' 0" 

Berea grit. 

2. Fairly coarse grained gray sandstone occurring in the bed 
of the run and in the bank at the lower end of the out- 
crop. Layers thick, compact and with no intercalated 
shale. The upper part of trie exposure is in contact 
with the black shale of the next succeeding division of 
the section, and is strongly impregnated with iron 
pyrites, which occurs in small nodules or concretions. 
Ripple-marked 5' 0" 

Bedford shale. 

1. Soft argillaceous shale, drab in color, but stained yellow 

where weathered 8' 0" 

The shales of the Cuyahoga formation frequently contain flat iron- 
stone concretions and occasionally other concretions in which fossils 
have been found. 

Black Hand Formation* — Only *a very small portion of the 
area here discussed is covered by the Black Hand formation. This is 
the hilly region about two miles east of Lithopolis and known as Chest- 
nut Ridge. The formation consists of soft, coarse grained sandstones 
which vary in color from yellow or buff to brown and red. It is fre- 
quently cross-bedded and often very massive. Occasionally the rock 
contains a number of quartz pebbles. Portions of the formation con- 
tain some fossils, but none were found in the region under consideration. 

Chestnut Ridge forms the most conspicuous feature of the land- 
scape in a region of uniformly low relief. Its topography at once 
suggests interesting geological features and the expectation is by no 
means disappointed, for this ridge proves to be composed of the very 
coarse massive yellow sandstone which constitutes the base of the 
formation so extensively developed in the Hocking Valley, ten miles 
to the east. These hills are therefore geologically and topographically 
the outliers of the picturesquely eroded region that gives to the Hocking 
Valley its beautiful scenery, and owe their existence to the greater 
resistance to weathering and erosion, of the formation which caps 

The region about Jefferson affords a clue to the geology of the ridge. 
One and one-half miles northwest of this village, twenty feet of red 
Bedford shale overlain by Berea grit is exposed in the south bank of 
Little Walnut Creek at the covered bridge. The Sunbury shale and the 
lower part of the Cuyahoga formation are not exposed nearer than 
Lithopolis. At the north end of Chestnut Ridge, at the southern edge 


of Jefferson, the upper Cuyahoga shales and thin sandstones are exposed 
to within forty or fifty feet of the coarse yellow sandstone capping the 
ridge. A section at this point follows: 

Black Hand formation. Thickness. 

4. Massive thick bedded, very coarse grained, soft yellow sand- 
stone in the quarry at the north end of the ridge. The 
whole rock is apt to be impregnated with iron in irreg- 
ular bands and concretions. At some places these 
layers are colored various shades of red or brown, 
while other bands are entirely without coloring matter. 40' 0" 

3. Covered interval 50' 0" 

Cuyahoga formation. 

2. Thin bedded sandstones and shales, bluish at the base of 
the exposure, becoming more iron stained and some- 
what coarser towards the top 60' 0" 

1. Covered to road level at Jefferson 5' 0" 

On the crest of the ridge, nearly a mile south of the village of Jeffer- 
son, is an old abandoned quarry in the more massive layers of the upper 
part of this coarse sandstone. It was from this place that the massive 
stone was obtained, years ago, for the canal locks of the vicinity. The 
sandstones of Chestnut Ridge resemble closely the quarry beds south of 
Newark and about Lancaster, but perhaps the latter more closely since 
it is not so fine grained as the Newark stone. Eastward this coarse 
sandstone can be traced almost continuously to the vicinity of Lancaster 
and there can be no doubt that it forms the western-most outcrop of 
the formation so well developed at that place, Stratigraphically, the 
Black Hand is the highest formation, except the glacial drift, of this 
area and forms thus the last feature of consideration, the drift being 
treated in connection with the physiographic discussion of the area. 


In many of the stratified rocks are to be found organic remains, 
which have previously been referred to as fossils. These give us a 
knowledge of the life which lived in the seas during the time of the 
deposition of these sediments and also afford a means by which the 
deposits, wherever found; may be identified. So universally is it recog- 
nized that certain types of life were characteristic of the time during 
which certain formations were being deposited, that we have come to 
rely upon fossils for the recognition of the strata of the entire sedi- 
mentary record. 

Monroe Limestone* — (Plate XIX). The fossils found in the Mon- 
roe limestone are not usually abundant. In the region where these 
strata outcrop along the western side of the quadrangle in question, 
Leperditia alta, a small bivalve Crustacean, is sometimes rather plentiful. 
Spirifer vanuxemi has occasionally been found. This Spirifer shows the 




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simple plications characteristic of the early forms of the genus. In the 
northern part of the state fossils are frequently quite abundant in the 
Monroe and the number of species is considerably increased. These 
fossiliferous strata of the Monroe are quite extensively developed in 
Ontario and southeastern Michigan, 1 where they have received consid- 
erable attention of late. 

Columbus Limestone* — (Plates XIX-XXII.) The Columbus lime- 
stone has by far the largest fauna of any of the formations outcropping 
in this region. Corals, brachiopods, mollusks and even fishes are abun- 
dant in nearly every outcrop, while at places, such as Harrisburg, the 
layers are literally crowded with certain of them. This rich fauna, 
following so closely on the relatively unfossiliferous strata of the Silu- 
rian, places this formation in marked contrast to the Monroe. Coral 
beds of reef-like dimensions are common along the Scioto River, espe- 
cially about 65 feet below the top of the formation. These are made 
up largely of the compound forms, such as Favosites emmonsi, Syringo- 
pora tabulata, Synaptopkyllum simcoense, etc. 

Brachiopods are abundant throughout the Columbus limestone. 
The brachiopod, it may be said, has a two-valve shell as does also the 
pelecypod or common clam. The shell of the former may be distin- 
guished from that of the latter, however, by the fact that it is bi-later- 
ally symmetrical. That is, if a line be drawn from the beak or point 
of the shell to the middle of the opposite margin, it divides the shell 
into two equal parts which are symmetrical about this line. Of the 
brachiopods in the Columbus limestone, the most interesting are the 
Spirifers. They range from the type with simple costae as in Spirifer 
duodenarius to Spirifer acuminatus with its bifurcating costae and finally 
Spirifer divaricatus in which the costae bifurcate and the fold and 
sinus are also covered with costae. These progressive developmental 
characters of the Spirifer culminate in Spirifer cameratus of the Penn- 
sylvanian, where the whole shell is covered with secondary bifurcating 
costae. Another interesting form is the genus Chonetes. This genus, 
which is represented by three species in the Silurian where it makes its 
first appearance, has thirty species in the Devonian. The most common 
form is Chonetes mucronatus. The distinctive characteristic of Chonetes 
is the row of spines along the upper margin of the cardinal area and often 
appearing as though they extended along the hinge line. The genus 
Productella was introduced in the Devonian and may be considered as 
the forerunner of Productus, which came in during the Mississippian. 
It has the gibbous pedicle valve and spiny surface of the Productus, but 
differs from the latter in that it has teeth on its hinge line. 

Among the mollusks, the pelecypods are not especially common but 

1 See Grabau, A. W., and Sherzer, W. H., Mich. Geol. and Biol. Surv. 
Pub. 2, Geol. Ser. 1, 1910. 


they are rather distinctive. Paracyclas elliptica and Conocardium cuneus 
are the more common. Gastropods are quite abundant, especially in 
the cherty layers above the coral zone. These often have the external 
markings well preserved. Platyceras dumosum is almost always to be 
found a few feet below the "bone-bed. " Cephalopods occur more or less 
frequently throughout the formation. The large coiled form, Ryticeras 
cyclops, is sometimes fairly common in the middle portion of the for- 

The pygidia or tails of trilobites are to be found occasionally and 
the heads more rarely. These belong to a half dozen or so genera, of 
which the more common are figured on the plates herewith. Fish re- 
mains are usually limited to the teeth, spines and fragments of the dermal 
plates. But occasionally the jaws with the teeth in place are found and 
even at times the whole cranial covering may occur as a fossil. These 
latter are so conspicuous that they are noticed and collected even by 
workmen in the quarries. 

Delaware Limestone* — (Plate XXIII.) The fossils of the Delaware 
limestone differ from those of the preceding chiefly in the fewer number 
of species and in the less abundance of those that do occur. There is, 
however, the introduction of certain species which occur in more recent 
rocks in New York State. These come in with the beginning of the 
formation when such a characteristic Marcellus species as Leiorhynchus 
limitare is introduced into the basal shaly layers. Some of the other 
conspicuous forms which do not occur below the "bone-bed" are Del- 
thyris consobrina, Chonetes deflectus, Martinia maia, Grammysia bisulcata, 

Olentangy Shale* — The Olentangy shale has yielded but few fos- 
sils near Columbus. One or two fragmentary fossil shells and some fish 
teeth in the basal portion constitute nearly the whole fauna. At Del- 
aware, however, a small but thrifty crinoid bed was found. 

Ohio Shale. — The fossils of the Ohio shale are rare and often 
inconspicuous. Those usually found are leaves or fragments of plants 
and their spore cfases. A few fish bones and conodont teeth have also 
been found in the formation. 

Waverfyan Series* — (Plate XXIV) Within the area here under con- 
sideration the only horizons found to be fossiliferous are the base of 
the Bedford shale and the base of the Sunbury shale. The most con- 
spicuous fossils of the latter horizon are Orbiculoidea newberryi and 
Lingula melie. In the former, or base of the Bedford shale, the fauna is 
quite large and varied; unfortunately, however, it is still but little 
known as some of the species have possibly never been described. The 
relationships and sudden appearance of this fauna have been discussed 
in the preceding pages. Palaeoneilo bedfordensis is one of the common 


fossils. Every Waverlyan formation has yielded fossils at some point 
within the state. The Cuyahoga perhaps contains the larger * fauna 
and especially is this true in the northern part of the state. The plate 
of Waverlyan fossils here given illustrates species collected in that section 
and mostly from the Cuyahoga formation. It is intended mainly to 
represent the Waverlyan fauna in contrast to that of the preceding forma- 
tions. The introduction of Productus and Syringothyris is significant 
of the Mississippian age. 




Fig. 1. 
Figs. 2,3. 




Meristella bella Hall. 

Spirifer vanuxemi Hall. Note the simple plications and the 

un-plicated fold and sinus. These are characteristics of early 



Fig. 4. Leper ditia alta Conrad. This is the more common fossil. It 
often looks like a small pebble in the rock. 



Fig. 5. Heliophyllum corniculum (Lesueur). This is one of the simple 

Corals. It is sometimes called a cup or horn Coral, because 

of its shape. It occurs throughout the formation, but is 

probably more abundant in the upper part. 
Fig. 6. Aulacophyllum sulcatum (d'Orbigny). This is another of the 

simple Corals. Compare the septae (divisions on the inside) 

with those of the preceding. 
Fig. 7. Synaptophyllum simcoense (Billings). One of the common 

compound Corals. It is made up of a number of individuals 

growing in a colony. 
Fig. 8. Favosites limitaris Rominger. Another of the compound 


1 The illustrations of fossils used in this bulletin are chiefly after Hall, 
and from earlier reports by the Ohio survey. 




Monroe and Columbus limestone fossils 




Brachiopods. Figs. 1-19.' 

Figs. 1, 2. Schizophoria propinque Hall. 

Figs. 3, 4. Stropheodonta perplana (Conrad.) 

Figs. 5, 6. Productella spinulicosia - Hall. Usually this fossil shows 
long spines projecting from the surface. This genus differs 
from Productus of the later formations, in that it has hinge 
teeth. The genus makes its first appearance in the Middle 

Fig. 7. Stropheodonta hemispherica Hall. 

Fig. 8. Reticularia fimbriata (Conrad). The fimbriate structure shows 

up nicely under a magnifying glass. 

Figs. 9, 10. Chonetes mucronatus Hall. Note the spines projecting 
from the pedicle valve along the upper margin of the cardinal 

Fig. 11. Atrypa reticularis (Linnaeus). 

Fig. 12. Pholidostrophia iowaensis (Owen). 

Figs. 13, 14. Spirifer gregarius Clapp. A common fossil in this 
formation. About thirty-two feet below the "bone-bed," it 
occurs in great numbers. * 

Figs. 15, 16. Spirifer duodenarius (Hall). This fossil occurs only 
in the upper part of the formation in central Ohio. It, as also 
the preceding, belongs to the primitive simple plication type 
of Spirifer. 

Fig. 17. Meristella nasuta (Conrad). A smooth spire-bearing shell, which 

occurs most abundantly in the lower part of the chert zone. 

Figs. 18, 19. Spirifer acuminatum (Conrad). This Spirifer is almost 
entirely limited to the upper part of the formation in the region 
here discussed. Note that its costae or ribs bifurcate, a char- 
acteristic of the more advanced species of the genus. 


Columbus limestone fossils. 





Fig- 1. 
Fig. 2. 

Fig. 3 







8, 9. 





Figs. 1-5. 

Paracyclas elliptica Hall. This is a common and easily recog- 
nized fossil, occurring throughout the formation. 
Conocardium cuneus (Canrad). This fossil usually occurs as 
merely a cast of the interior of the shell. It is one of the most 
striking fossils of the formation. 

Modiomorpha concenirica (Conrad). Note the concentric mark- 
ing of the surface, which has given the specific name. 
Aviculopecten cleon Hall. 

Mytilarca per car in at a Whitfield. This is not a common, but 
a very characteristic fossil. 

Figs. 6-11. 

Platyceras dumosum Gonrad. Note especially the spines which 
cover the exterior part of the shell. It is a common fossil just 
below the "bone-bed." 
Loxonema pexatum Hall. 

Bellerophon pelops Hall. Note that this shell is coiled 
in a single plane. Usually found as a cast of the interior. 
Callonema hellatulum (Hall). These last three are excellently, 
preserved in the cherty layers of the Columbus limestone, 
Even the smallest exterior markings of the shell show nicely. 
Pleuronotus decewi (Billings). A very common cast in this 
formation. It is rarely preserved with the shell, and yet it is 
quite readily recognized. The coil is nearly in a single plane. 


Columbus limestone fossils. 





Fig. 1. Coleolus crenatocinctus Hall. 


Fig. 2. Spyroceras thoas Hall. One of the straight Orthoceratites, 

which are quite abundant in some parts of the formation. 

Crustaceans (Trilobites) . , Figs. 3-7. 

Figs. 3, 4. Phacops cristata Hall. Usually it is only the pygidium 
of the trilobite that is found. The four species figured on 
this plate are quite common. 

Fig. 5. Chasmops calypso Hall. 

Figs. 6, 7. Coronura diurus (Green). 

Fig. 8. Proetus rowii (Green). 



Columbus limestone fossils. 




Brachiopods. Figs. 1-17. 

Figs. 1, 2. Orbiculoideq lodiensis (Vanuxem). 

Fig. 3. Lingula manni Hall. These two fossils occur in the shaly 

basal portion of the formation. Their shells are composed of 
phosphate of lime, as is so frequently the case in shells oc- 
curring in black shale. 

Fig. 4. Lingula ligea Hall. 

Fig. 5. Rhipidomella vanuxemi Hall. 

Fig. 6. Stropheodonta demissa (Conrad). 

Figs. 7, 8. Leiorhynchus Umitare (Vanuxem). This is a characteristic 
fossil of the Marcellus shale. 

Fig. 9. Leptaena rhomboidalis (Wilckens). This species, as at present 

defined, is one of the long-lived forms. It is found from the 
Trenton to the Waverly, but there is a difference in the forms 
from the two extreme ends. These, however, seem to grade 
into each other. 

Figs. 10, 11. Delthyris consobrina (d'Orbigny). A common fossil of 
the formation. Note the zigzag concentric markings; unfor- 
tunately, these seldom show in specimens from the limestone 

Figs. 12,13. Martinia maia (Billings). 

Figs. 14, 15. Chonetes deflectus Hall. Compare this with the Chonetes 
figured among the Columbus limestone fossils. 

Figs. 16, 17. Cyrtina hamfltonensis Hall. 

Pelecypods. Figs. 18 and 19. 

Fig. 18. Pterinea flabellum (Conrad). 

Fig. 19. Grammysia bisulcata (Conrad). Note the ridge, with a furrow 
on either side, running from the beak to the margin. 

Gastropods. Figs. 20 and 21. 

Figs. 20, 21. Platycera s erectum (Hall). Compare this species with the 
spiny one occurring in the Columbus limestone. 

Pteropod. Figs. 22 and 23. 

Figs. 22, 23. Tentaculites scalariformis Hall. This fossil is very fre- 
quent and readily recognizable. It is probably a worm 

Crustacean (Trilobite). Fig. 24. 
Fig. 24. Phacops rana (Green). 


Delaware limestone fossils. 

1000— G. B. 14. 




Crinoid. Fig. 1. 

Fig. 1. Platycrinus lodensis Hall and Whitfield. Crinoids are among 

the abundant fossils of the Mississippian, especially in the 

Brachiopods. Figs. 2-9. 

Figs. 2, 3. Orbiculoidea newberryi (Hall). 

Fig. 4. Lingula melie Hall. 

Fig. 5. Orthothetes crenistriata (Phillips). 

Figs. 6, 7. Athyris lamellosa (L'Eveill6). 

Fig. 8. Syringothyris carteri (Hall). 

Fig. 9. Productus semireticulatus (Martin). 

Pelecypods. Figs. 10-13. 

Fig. 10. Aviculopecten winchelli (Meek). 

Figs. 11, 12. Palaeoneilo bedfordensis Meek. 
Fig. 13. Allorisma winchelli Meek. 

Gastropod. Fig. 14. 

Fig. 14. Mourlonia mississippiensis (Wh. and Whit ) 

Crustacean (Trilobite). Fig. 15. 
Fig. 15. Phillipsia lodiensis Meek. 


Waverlyan fossils. 





Physiographically the area around Columbus included within the 
scope of this bulletin belongs to that regional province known as the 
Prairies. Nevertheless, the topography of the region lacks the variety 
of feature, the rolling surface with sag and swell or with hillock and 
kettle containing swamp or lake, so constant over broad reaches of 
these drift prairies. In the early days it differed from much of the 
prairies in being rather completely timbered. Further, the area is 
located near the eastern border of the prairies, so near in fact that the 
southeastern corner comprising some twenty-five square miles, shows 
the effects of the more resistant rocks of the Allegheny Plateau, and 
presents rock hills. A similar effect, in higher land but not hilly, is 
found continuously from Pickerington northward to the limits of 
the area, in a belt four miles wide at Reynoldsburg and over 
seven miles wide at New Albany. The highest of this land is about 
two hundred feet above that lying to the west with well-marked west- 
facing slopes and occasional bare "brows" of rock between, but no 

The drift border lies nearest to Columbus on the southeast. While 
the area lies from fifteen to sixty miles northwest from the drift margin, 
it is near enough to be in the zone of thick accumulation, and it has 
received a heavy mantle of till transported by the continental glaciers 
of the recent ice age from many points to the north, even as far as Canada. 
With this great depositional work, probably, as may be shown later, 
very little ice erosion was accomplished. While the thickness of the 
drift varies greatly, its surface is so evenly disposed that aside from 
one large moraine, almost the whole area may be called a till plain of 
remarkable levelness, broken only a little by very moderate, postglacial, 
stream erosion. 


The Drainage Pattern* — On the topographic map the most 
striking feature is the north-south alinement of streams, valleys, and 
interstream areas. This was noted in one of the earliest descriptions 



of Franklin County physiography, 1 and has not ceased to call forth 
comment. It is perhaps the most perfect part of a similar alinement 
of streams over several neighboring counties. 

In the northern part of the area there are four, nearly parallel, 
south-flowing, slightly-converging streams/and two others, one on each 
side of the four, just beyond the limits of the quadrangle. Between 
these six streams extend five strips of inter-stream plain. Several of 
the railroads, in accord with these features, enter Columbus from the 
north, along these elevated tracts. Adopting the names of small towns 
upon them, the several level-topped areas between the streams may be 
designated from west to east as the Hilliards, Powell, Worthington, 
Westerville and New Albany strips. 

In the southern part the alinement shows less clearly. This part 
is bisected by the Scioto and its western half is, in the main, a continua- 
tion of the Hilliards strip; but, owing to the fact that the downstream 
convergence of the valleys has brought the Darbys within the area, a 
considerable tract of another strip between them and Deer Creek is 
included in the quadrangle. Since the Olentangy River enters the 
Scioto, the Powell strip runs out at their junction. The Worthington 
strip is cut off at the south by the Big Walnut as it swings westward 
and joins the Scioto after receiving Alum Creek from the right side and 
Blacklick from the left. In a similar manner the Westerville strip is 
terminated southward by the junction of its bounding streams. The 
New Albany strip, split in its southern part by Blacklick, may be thought 
of as continuing south westward beyond the mouths of Alum Creek, 
Blacklick and Big Walnut off the area, and bounded on the southeast 
by Little Walnut which cuts around the small, hilly tract in the corner 
referred to in the first paragraph. 

Minor Lateral Valleys*— These major water courses mentioned 
above are for the most part, consequent streams on the till plain, and 
they date from the last retreat of the glacier from the region. It will 
be shown later that none of them can claim, at least to any significant 
extent, a preglacial ancestry. Many lateral minor valleys, developed 
by subsequent streams, join each of these major valleys, descending in 
the northern part as rock gorges from the interstream remnants of the 
till plain, 100 to 200 feet, to the floors of their masters; but wandering 
in the southern part as shallow, youthful, drift valleys because here the 
till plain is much lower with reference to the Scioto than farther north. 

The lateral valleys are undoubtedly the most valuable criterion for 
measuring post-glacial time, because the majors were well under way 
when the ice was finally melted, having been initiated by the drainage 
attendant on the melting of the ice. In many of the tributaries of the 

1 Orton, Edward, Geol. Survey of Ohio, vol. 3, pp. 596, 597. 



(after leverett) 

Wisconsin Moraine Illinoian Drift Till Plain (Wisconsin) Esker 

Moraines of the Scioto Valley Lobe. Note the loops festooned from the highlands on 

either side with till plains batween. The Columbus area is located. 

(After Leverett, Mon. U. S. Geol. Surv., No 41, PI. XIII.) 


Scioto, particularly on the right or western side, are waterfalls over 
ledges of the heavy-bedded limestone already described as underlying 
this part of the area. 1 

The Moraine Pattern* — Crossing this conspicuous, approximate 
parallelism is a weaker but equally significant concentric pattern con- 
sisting of purely glacial features. It was stated on a previous page that 
almost the whole area might be called a till plain. Indeed, it is a part 
of one of a series of similar crescentic till plains, alternated with a series 
of concentric recessional moraines, convex toward the south, and fes- 
tooned across the central part of the State from the highlands near 
Bellefontaine to those near Mt. Gilead and Mansfield. A clear concep- 
tion of this concentric arrangement of features can be obtained by con- 
sulting the map, (PI. 25), which is reproduced from LeverettV exhaus- 
tive treatise on the glacial features of the Ohio and Erie Basins. 

One of the larger moraines shown on this map, and designated 
the Powell, sweeps across the area from Sunbury and Galena in 
the northeastern part, south westward nearly to Westerville, then it 
bears more nearly westward, where it is crossed by Alum Creek and 
Olentangy River just north of the Franklin-Delaware county line, and 
by the Scioto on the same line southwest of Powell. From this point 
it bears a little northwest in a broad belt to New California and far 
beyond the confines of the quadrangle. South of this large moraine 
and somewhat concentric with it, may be traced other much smaller, 
less continuous, belts of moraine as shown on the physiographic map. 
(In pocket.) 

Glacio-Fluviatile Features, — Associated with these moraines are 
two types of features. On their convex or southern sides are some 
minor outwash deposits, and within their concavities are several inter- 
esting eskers. Tumuli of till, sand and gravel occur in considerable 
numbers over parts of the till plain, but they do not in any manner 
seem to conform to the concentric pattern. A large kame area con- 
sisting of a pile of gravel hills about four miles south from the city limits 
of Columbus, is adorned by the uniformly red and white buildings of 
the Hartman farm. Several kame areas will be described subsequently 
with the other glacial features. 

Rainfall and Runoff* — Since it is the rainfall which perpetuates 
the streams and keeps them at their perennial task of reshaping and 
removing the lands, it may be well here briefly to describe the rainfall 
and some related topics. The total precipitation in Central Ohio in- 
cluding all rain, hail, sleet and snow, amounts to about 40 inches each 
year, or enough to make a layer of water all over the area three and one- 

1 Chapter I, p. 209. 

2 Leverett, Frank, Mon. U. S. Geol. Survey No. 41, pi. XIII. 


third feet deep. Probably not more than one-third of this runs off; but it 
is this third which carves the valleys, carries the waste away and delivers 
it to the larger streams or builds it into such minor features along the 
valleys as alluvial fans and flood plains. 

Of the portion which soaks into the ground, a small part is collected 
in cracks in the rocks or in more or less porous layers above relatively 
impervious ones, and thus conducted again to the surface along valley 
walls, as seepage, or, if the latter be concentrated, as springs forming 
streams. Most of this water coming out as seepage or springs ulti- 
mately gets into the streams, so it assists in erosion and transportation. 

A small portion of the water which falls as rain is collected in basins 
on the surface and thus keeps a few tiny lakes and swamps in existence. 
If it were not for these basins and for the almost continuous vegetation 
cover, maintained by the precipitated moisture, a cover which prevents 
much water from running off, the streams would carry away a much 
larger proportion of the rainfall and with it much more rock waste, and 
erosion would certainly be greater. This assumption is on the ground 
that the precipitation remains the same. 




Although to the casual observer practically everything seen in the 
Columbus quadrangle may seem to date from the melting of the great 
glacier, the history of the features just described began ages before the 
time of the coming of the ice, just as American history has its roots far 
back in the nations of Europe, although the first settlements were made 
here only 300 to 350 years ago. 

The development of the present features depends partly upon the 
rock structures underneath, and partly upon the treatment those struc- 
tures have had through millions of years at the hands of weather, glacier, 
and stream. 

For a full and adequate description of the rocks, their origin, 
position, structure, and strength, the reader is referred to the chapter 1 
dealing with the geology of this region. Their modification by the 
various physiographic agents, from the time they were made, down to 
the present, in so far as the changes have contributed to the present 
topography, will now be examined. Some of the record is deeply 
buried beneath the glacial drift, other parts have been mutilated in 
bringing about later changes; therefore many points are in obscurity 
and some are today entirely out of our reach. In some cases the in- 
completeness of the obtainable record may lead to wrong conclusions, 
hence great care should be exercised in interpretation. 


Without endeavoring to present the argument all the way through, 
it may be stated that the area under discussion had been subjected to 
subaerial conditions of weathering and stream work from before the 
close of the Paleozoic era down to the Glacial period. During this 
time there had been oscillations of level and climatic changes. The 
land had been roughened by erosion, valleys had been carved, widened 
and deepened, tributaries developed and divides reduced until the whole 
region had passed from physiographic youth, through maturity, to old 
age. This process was probably repeated more or less completely more 
than once, so that just prior to the coming of the glacier, the country 
presumably had been reduced from a low plateau to a lower, grandly 
rolling surface deeply mantled with residual soil and subsoil. 

1 Chapter I. 



Evidence in the Field. 

The rolling topography of large pattern may be found, modified 
to some extent by ice erosion, in the large features of the present rock 
topography. To appreciate it one must necessarily pass over many 
local steep slopes, which will be treated later, and examine only the 
general or larger features. 

Gentle Slopes* — A few local examples of the slopes referred to 
under the heading "grandly rolling" will suffice to make the meaning 
clear. Lithopolis in the southeast lies among the hills. A couple of 
miles to the east and southeast of this village is Chestnut Ridge, a crest 
with neighboring hills all of sandstones and sandy shales. The highest 
rock surface among these hills rises to about 1,150 feet; to the north 
and west the slopes descend from the crest at the rate of about 100 feet 
to the mile, and the rock surface drops from this summit altitude to 
800 feet in three miles northward, to 750 feet in four miles northwest- 
ward, and to 760 feet in five and one-half miles westward. Such slopes 
make an angle with the horizontal of about one degree. 

*Other examples from the southwestern part of the area are added. 
At Derby, wells strike the rock at a depth of 130 feet, which places the rock 
surface about 780 feet above sea level. (PI. 26.) Around Harrisburg, the 
stream has revealed it in several places, ranging from 800 to 780 feet above 
sea level. Southeast of Harrisburg, some five miles, and one mile southwest 
of Matville, the rock is less than 690 feet above sea level. A mile nearer 
Harrisburg, it is 100 feet higher. This lowest altitude is fifty feet below the 
lowest bed of the channel of Big Darby on the area. 

At Rome, on the National Pike, a few miles west of Columbus, the rock 
surface is 820 feet high and is covered with over 100 feet of drift. Two miles 
south of Rome, the rock is 880 feet high, while two and three-fourths miles 
farther southeast toward Grove City, it is only 740 feet above sea level. 
(PI. 26.) The Scioto south of Columbus nowhere encounters rock, therefore, 
all along the river the rock surface is less than 700 feet above sea level, and 
at the edge of the area less than 660 feet. 

Rarely are these slopes of the rock surface as great as 50 feet in a 
mile, but they are greater than the slopes of the till plain except where 
it has been modified by post-glacial erosion. Instances with the same 
values might be multiplied from other parts of the quadrangle. 

Steeper Buried Slopes* — Besides these long gentle slopes which 
must have required ages to make, well records and gorge wall outcrops 
reveal many ancient, steep rock-slopes and a few valleys comparable 
with the present steep-sided gorges. Some of the more marked instances 
found are added. A little over a mile north of Amlin are several wells 
along the east and west road whose depths make known much of the 
rock topography. The first one on the west end of the series shows the 
rock surface to be less than 760 feet above sea level; the next one an 

♦Text in smaller type consists of additional examples similar to those previously given, or of 
somewhat elementary matter, which may he familiar to many readers. It is believed that all fine 
print may be omitted without breaking the continuity of the report. 


Rock topography beneath the drift. Figures givo the altitude of the rock above sea 
level for the place indicated by the circle. Solid lines show present major streams and 
figures in these lines altitude of stream bed regardless of material. Supposed buried 
valleys shown with broken lines. Probable Newark Valley between two heavy dash lines 
in southeastern part. Altitudes given with a minus sign are maxima, the rock not having 
been reached. 









— & 







Sec? L? ye 








Fig. 11 — Section across a buried 
valley near Amlin. Datum 
line sea level. Altitudes in 
feet. Horizontal distance one 
and one-eighth miles. 

eighth of a mile away, and across the road, shows the rock surface at 
803 feet, while another about a half mile east shows 845 feet. One- 
eighth of a mile farther east the 
rock surface is 720 feet high and less 
than one-third of a mile still farther 
east it is 920 feet. Here is a val- 
ley less than a half mile wide with 
an east wall 200 feet high and a west 
wall of at least 125 feet, with slopes of 
1 in 7 or 8, and 1 in 5 respectively ijj-aa? 
(Fig. 11). It is manifest that these 
cannot belong in the same cycle with 
the very gentle neighboring slopes, and 
also that there should be no such 
slopes and valleys in immediately pre- 
glacial topography which had been so 
long in developing. Their presence 
testifies to a short erosion period 
following the long one which ante- 
dated the laying of the last drift, 
and also to only moderate glacial erosion after they were made else 
they would have been rubbed away. 

Evidence From More Distant Topography* — Further evidence 
regarding the nature of the preglacial topography of Central Ohio may 
be had by consulting the topography of southern central Indiana and 
adjacent parts of Kentucky. Near Tell City, Indiana, and Owensboro, 
Kentucky, the underlying rock is a series of not very resistant forma- 
tions, horizontally disposed, and the topography has not been glaciated 
but the area has been subjected to erosion, as had this of Ohio, through 
long ages of time and presumably with similar oscillations of level and 
fluctuations of climate. The slopes are all very gentle, flood plains 
broad even up the third and fourth order branches; the divides are rows 
of rolling hills or short, low ridges, rising a hundred feet or a little more 
above the flood plains. The latter occupy something like half the area. 
The strongest slopes are 100 feet in about a half mile, but most of them 
along the divides require a mile or more to make such a descent. There 
are no gorges nor youthful valleys of any sort. This condition was 
essentially reached before the glacial period, because there has not 
been time enough for much change on mature topography since the' ice 
invasion. Such old age as here described must resemble closely in its 
main features the topography of the Columbus region before the advance 
of the ice. The steep slopes found may be interglacial, or may be re- 
lated to the oncoming ice as shown in subsequent pages. 

These conclusions as to the character of the immediately preglacial 


topography are in harmony with the long period of atmospheric erosion 
which is known to haye continued from the close of the Paleozoic era 
to the beginnings of the Glacial period. 


A continental glacier is a large ice cap consisting of snow, modified by 
pressure and compression, and by repeated partial melting and re-freezing. 1 
It usually occurs on a plain or plateau, rather than among mountains, and 
spreads laterally, overflowing neighboring lands. The thickness is hundreds 
of feet, and, back some miles from the margin, may be a few thousands of 
feet. The movement is outward from a central area, approximately radially, 
but varying in response to topographic irregularities. The margin of these 
huge ice sheets is usually more or less lobate in response to broad inequalities 
in the elevation of the land over which they spread. 2 Over broad lowlands 
between higher, a lobe advances. Forward creeping is much more active on 
the warmer, or low latitude side, where opposition to advance is perpetually 
removed by melting. Although the movement is very slow it is very powerful 
owing to the size and weight, and for this reason a glacial invasion may mean 
much physiographically to a region. 

Repeated advances and retreats (or meltings) of the glacier are 
believed to have occurred at long intervals over a considerable portion 
of the North American continent. At least two of these are recorded 
in Central Ohio which have been called the Illinoian and the Wisconsin. 3 

We have seen in previous paragraphs what manner of topography 
the ice over-rode on its first invasion of the Columbus quadrangle. The 
ice sheet entered from the north, presumably in a great rounded scallop 
known as the Scioto lobe (PI. 25), and so spread as to occupy the space 
between the hills near^ Belief ontaine on the west and the highlands from 
Mansfield southward to Newark, Carroll and Chillicothe on the east. 
It may have been so thick as to cover many of these hills at times, and 
certainly completely covered all intermediate lowlands. Where not 
over-ridden again by later ice, the presence of old drift would help to 
determine which hills were covered by the first glacier. 

Effects on Plants and Animals, 

As the glacier slowly pushed on southward spreading over the 
broad lowland, it over-rode everything that could not migrate, in- 
cluding of course all plants, trees and forest, bearing them down to 
the ground and mixing them in with the waste and ground rock which 
the ice moved forward. All animals which could migrate most likely 
did so, not as individuals but perhaps as a species through a series of 
generations. Each generation was more restricted in its roaming on 
the northern side of its home than was the former, and each new home 
was placed farther south than that of the year before. There must 

1 Chamberlin, T. C, and Salisbury, R. D., Geology, vol. 1, pp. 308-317. 

2 Leverett, F., Mon. U. S. Geol. Survey No. 41, pp. 222-226. Carney, F., 
Jour. Geol., Vol. 15, 1907, pp. 488-495. 

3 Bull. U. S. Geol. Survey No. 58, pp. 14, 15. Leverett, F., Mon. U. S. 
Geol. Survey, No. 41, pp. 50, 51, 228 f. 


have been also a migration of plants. The ice front may be said to 
have crept southward over the area, and possibly with an intermittent 
advance, interspersed with halts when the melting just equalled the 
progress of the mass, or with recessions when the melting exceeded the 
movement forward. But in the aggregate the front of the ice made 
progress and advanced over the area. 

Effects on Streams. 

Streams that were flowing away from the glacier would receive water 
from the melting of the ice and would be increased in size. They would 
also receive rock waste freed from the melting ice, or washed in by the 
ice-born drainage. If this waste exceeded the power of the augmented 
streams to carry, it would be laid along the valleys aggrading until the 
the stream could carry what was left. It is probable that much gravel 
and sand was thus laid along the old valleys by the streams of low grade. 
Many of the deeper well records mention gravel and sand near the bottom. 
Several such did not strike rock until below the present levels of the 

About three miles north of Linden, opposite the country schoolhouse, 
is a well 145 feet deep, which ended in gravel and sand of a bluish unweathered 
character, without striking rock at all. The depth reached here is 25 feet 
below the stream bed in Alum Creek two miles east. A test well for oil was 
sunk a few years ago in the Alum Creek flood plain at the point referred to 
above, and rock was struck at a depth of 24 feet below the stream, after 
passing through gravel. A group of deep wells occurs some three miles west 
of Clintonville, along the divide between the Scioto and Olentangy rivers, 
several of which encountered gravel near the bottom. One of these reached 
a depth of 170 feet and ended in gravel without striking rock. The bottom 
of this one is 30 feet below the channels of both the Olentangy and the Scioto 
at the nearest points. These gravel deposits may be some that were laid in 
the valleys by the waters from the oncoming ice. Old, weathered, and often 
cemented, gravels are found below the fresh ones along the east bluff of 
the Scioto in the southern part of Columbus, which are probably to*be correr 
lated with those referred to above or wi£h outwash of Illinoian age. 

Turning now to streams which were flowing toward the approach- 
ing ice it must be seen that their difficulties would be quite different. 
Their valleys would be filled with waste, and by the ice itself, until flow 
in the normal direction would become impossible. The water would 
then accumulate as a long lake in the valley, until its level equalled 
that of some low divide at the head of the main stream or some tribu- 
tary, when overflow would begin at the lowest place. Water thus 
flowing over the col in the divide would lower it at least through the 
thick mantle, possibly in some places into the rock, and this together 
with aggradation along the bed of the long lake might make it easier 
for the stream to continue in its new course than to resume the old 
one when the ice melted out. If the ice, after interfering with drainage 
beyond its margin in this way, continued to advance over the reversed 


stream and the notched divide, mantling all with drift before or after 
rounding the features by erosion, it might be difficult to find the old 
col, the new valley, and the broad, mature preglacial valley. Possibly 
some of the gorge-like valleys found with old drift in them, and steep 
slopes with old drift banked against them (p. 246), may have originated 
in this way. In some instances streams flowing eastward or west- 
ward might be modified somewhat as here suggested for north-flowing 

That this hypothecated ponding actually did take place within this 
area is shown in two instances. There are great quantities of lake clays 
exposed in the Glenmary Run both west of the road on the north side of the 
stream, and east of the road below the trestle, in the ravine behind the school- 
house, up the east branch and several of i£s tributaries, and up the eastern 
tributary of the north branch, which enters the latter near the north dance 
hall. Some of these clays are blue with small, button-like, calcareous, clay 
concretions; others are yellow with ferruginous, clay concretions; both are 
profusely jointed and in some places quite sandy. The distance across this 
lake as far as now determined, is at least a half mile north and south and 
nearly as broad east and west. The sediments rest on the rock at an altitude 
of 820 feet above sea level near the trestle and their upper surfaces have 
been seen at as great an altitude as 890 feet, hence the thickness may be 
assumed to be as great as 60 to 70 feet. In at least three places the char- 
acteristic blue, hard, jointed, boulder clay was found above the lake beds 
which must establish their age as pre-Illinoian. Additional evidence to fix 
their age is found in a dark soil at one place on top of the old drift, with new 
drift capping the soil (p. 256). The second example of stratified clays made 
at this stage was found one-half mile up the run from the sandstone quarry 
northeast of Reynoldsburg. A tough, plastic, blue clay, carrying many 
common Pleistocene shells occurs at the water level and shows below water. 
its upper surface, two feet above water, is beautifully ripple-marked, and 
dips gently southeast. Above the clay is two or three feet of blue, hard 
jointed, pebbly drift containing clay concretions. 

A good example of a filled young valley containing old drift is cut 
across by Rocky Fork a mile and one-half east of Gahanna just beyond 
the suspension bridge. Here the Bedford shale stops with a strong south or 
southeast facing slope and old drift may be seen piled against it some 
fifteen feet high, above which is 25 to 30 feet of later drift, a part of which 
is stratified. Between the drift and the bed rock is talus of uncemented 
fragments of Bedford shale without admixture of drift. (PL 27A). 
This steep slope may not have been formed in the manner outlined above 
but the evidence shows that at least two ice advances have occurred 
since it was made. A fuller discussion will be given later (p. 259). 

Beyond the margin of the ice sheet are found many illustrations 
of this type of drainage modification, left uncovered and free for careful 
investigation. Their presence, like that of the outwash, constitutes 
one of the tests for judging that the region has been approached by a 

Effects on Mantle. 

As has been shown this region is believed to have been deeply 
mantled with residual rock waste in preglacial days. Only one exposure 


of residual waste beneath the old drift was found. This particular case 
occurs in the northwestern part of the quadrangle, in a small run 
leading eastward from Hyattsville about one-half mile from the station. 
The section is as follows: ' 


5. Loose, fresh yellow till 6-8 

(More in the grassed, gentle slope above). 

4. Blue, hard, jointed till (apparently old — Illinoian). 6 

3. Stratified sand, much weathered; thickness vari- 
able 2±_ 

2. Hard, rusty, jointed dark material without foreign 
admixture, probably an old soil grading into 
No. 1 2 

1. Ohio shale, firm and strong at water, but weathered 

above; grading into No. 2 2-5 

In all other cases when the old drift is found, either it lies on fresh 
rock or its contact with the rock is covered. Since at least 75 exposures 
of probable old drift below new have been noted in this area and only 
in this one exposure was residual waste seen beneath any of them, it 
would seem that the removal of the mantle by the earlier ice invasion 
was more complete than that by the last. At several points residual 
rock waste was found immediately beneath later fresh drift, showing 
that the later ice erosion was sufficient to remove the old drift but not 
the old waste down to the rock. 

Effects on Rock Topography. 

It has long been granted that ice containing tools in the form of 
pebbles and boulders, has power to erode rock. Moderately loaded ice 
with thickness to give it sufficient weight, and capable of considerable 
movement is a very active eroding agent. Probably the most con- 
vincing arguments for ice erosion in this sense, which are found in this 
area are (a) the pulverized but undecayed rock in the drift, (b) the 
smoothed, striated, grooved or furrowed rock surfaces and (c) the sharp 
contact between freshly smoothed rock and the drift at almost all 
points. This last argument means ice erosion enough to remove most 
of the effects of previous weathering, and was discussed in the last 

Undecayed Rock Fragments* — Two simple tests for pulverized 
rock can be made. First, ground rock fragments can be seen with the 
lens. Second, a carbonate reaction with hydrochloric acid applied to 
drift means undecomposed limestone. 

Situations* — Observation in the field is the basis for the second 
argument. Striated and smoothed surfaces are occasionally found. 
If ever made on any rock beside the limestone, they have been weathered 
out and are gone. About three miles northwest of Rathbone the 
harder limestone presents very nice striations whose direction was 



* determined by means of a compass to be S. 60° to 70° W. They run over 
a rock ridge summit which rises here almost through the drift and is 
quarried at several places. At another point on the east bluff of the 
river nearly opposite the mouth of Hayden's Run are nicely striated 
surfaces. Again on the west side of the Scioto River between it 
and the Toledo and Ohio Central railroad just as the latter swings 
away from the bluff some four miles out from the station, others occur 
under fresh drift with the direction S. 17° E. The fourth place is a 
finely exposed surface cleared for quarrying near the southwest edge 
of the quarries west of the Scioto River and south of the Pennsylvania 
railroad tracks at Marble Cliff. Here the direction determined was 
S. 12° E. No corrections are needed, for the line of no magnetic decli- 
nation passes very close to Columbus. These four localities are believed 
to be all new ones, and, except the first, agree well with previous finds. 
In each of the four cases above, the glacial striations are on solid 
unweathered limestone surfaces from which all evidence of rock decay 
had been removed previous to or during the making of the grooves. 
No weathering adequate to remove or scarcely to weaken them has 
taken place since their carving. 

Solution Cavities in the Rock* — Rather striking contributions 
to the question of the measure of modification of the local preglacia 

" y " s 






Fig. 12 — Tumbled rock due to preglacial weathering. Drift above, and resid- 
ual chert and clay with no foreign pebbles below. About three and 
one-half miles west of Union Station, Columbus, and near Scioto River. 

topography by ice erosion have been found in a number of the quarries, 
in the nature of residual clay and chert pockets in solution cavities at 
considerable depths; and in the multitude of sinkholes and underground 
water passages on the west side of the Scioto from Marble Cliff north- 
ward beyond Rathbone. 



In a new quarry south of the highroad along the southern bluff of the 
Scioto some three and one-half miles west from the State House, the lime- 
stone is deeply weathered along joints with considerable residual clay and 
some chert in the joints and along bedding planes, but always without ad- 
mixture of any glacial material. So far has the weathering advanced here 
that the layers have been let down and are a little tumbled and displaced. 
(Fig. 12.) Farther along the bluff westward and on the north side of the road 
are several other places where residual clay and chert without glacial frag- 
ments occur. At one place a vertical crack six to ten feet wide and twenty 
feet deep is filled with clay, chert and siliceous corals which have weathered 
out, but not a fragment of igneous material is intermixed. (Fig. 13.) At 
another point north of the road a quarry section shows many seams of residual 
clay and chert and some horizontal bodies in cavities closed by strong rock 
above, but open below, two to six feet high, and nearly or quite filled with 
chert and clay. These cavities would have been fair caves when empty. 

In the new Casparis quarries west of the Scioto River the work 
has revealed the fact that the weathering has gone a long distance 

LQf» Drift 

'tu* tfes/duo/r? 

Fig. 13 — Crevice in limestone containing residual chert, clay and silicified corals, 
but no drift. Till above. About three and one-half miles west of 
Columbus. Near Fig. 12. 

below the present rock surface. Along joint planes, solution has re- 
moved soluble calcium carbonate and left the clay, an impurity in the 
limestone, on the walls, thus opening appreciable cracks. These have 
attained widths as great as two or two and one-half feet, ten or twelve 
yards below the surface. Along bedding planes further solution has 
occurred and openings have been made, into which are packed clay 
and chert from the decomposing limestone. Recently two teams 
with carts were kept busy some days hauling out this material from a 
group of pockets in the quarry. The lower pockets thus opened and 
filled by the work of ground water were at the very base of the excava- 
tion, which is fully fifty feet below the rock surface. Here is evidence 
of extensive and deep weathering. When it occurred cannot be estab- 
lished. Of course, it cannot be postglacial, when the surface of the rock 


beneath a few feet of drift retains its striations perfectly. Further, if 
post- Wisconsin time has not sufficed to efface the striations on the 
exposed surface, and if, as has been estimated, 1 this period of time is as 
much as one-seventh to one-ninth as long as that from the Illinoian 
to the present, it does not seem possible that this deep weathering 
could have taken place in post-Illinoian time. The point may be made 
stronger by noting that the older drift seen in so many places is only 
weathered notably along its joint planes. Another possibility is that 
there was a still earlier ice invasion, so much earlier that this amount 
of rock weathering might have occurred since its date. But only two 
ages of drift have been recognized in Central Ohio. One would neces- 
sarily seem to be forced to the conclusion that this weathering preceded 
the oncoming of the ice. Still further weight may be added to this 
conclusion, when it is observed that all this deep-lying residual material 
is absolutely free from foreign pebbles, as it certainly could not be if it 
had been washed in since the ice had scattered foreign mantle all over 
the region. This applies whether the Illinoian or some much earlier 
invasion be the first. 

Sinkholes* — From near Dublin, west of the Scioto and eight 
or nine miles north of Columbus, northward some ten miles may be found 
many sinkholes. They occur fairly close to the Scioto and also west- 
ward a mile or so from the river. They are openings into enlarged 
joints and cracks; often crevices large enough to admit a man can be 
entered from the bottom of the sink. Into many of them surface 
drainage is now poured and by them is led down and away to the river; 
but they are not to be correlated in formation with the present stream 
valley, for the cracks are as large leading away from the river as toward 
it. Such opened joints were found in one of the quarries northwest of 
Rathbone three miles west from the river, but no sink occurred above, 
because since the Glacial period, the drainage has not yet found its 
way through the opened joints and cracks to the river. Similarly 
enlarged joints were found on the east side of the river in several old 
quarries} but no sinks occur at the surface on that side except one on 
the rock terrace two miles above the storage dam where the drift had 
been removed by the stream, (p. 299). The opened cracks and 
joints seem to be a common feature of the limestones, but the sink at 
the surface only occurs where postglacial drainage has been successful 
in opening passages already existing, downward and away to some 
drainage line low enough to receive their waters. These passages, 
since so often not in use now, are certainly preglacial and were more or 
less obstructed by the glaciers. 

Conclusion* — From the presence of the deep weathering found 
in the quarries, and of the enlarged cracks and joints in many places 

1 Chamberlin, T. C, and Salisbury, R. D.,~ Geology, vol. 3, p. 414 


in the limestone, both of which are too extensive and too ancient to 
have been made since the Glacial period, it may well be inferred that 
glacial erosion was not deep enough to remove the partly weathered 
zone over this area. To what depth preglacial weathering had gone, 
we have no way of knowing, hence, of course, cannot fix the thickness 
of rock removed, but it is apparent that the glaciers certainly have 
not scoured off more than a few scores of feet of bed rock after remov- 
ing the mantle. As was shown above, the Wisconsin sheet probably 
removed but little beside the mantle and frequently not all of that, 
while the earlier ice removed more than the last sheet, but only a little 
bed rock, and that in a manner so as to develop neither uneven nor 
valleyed topography. 

Effects by Deposition. 

Beside erosional effects, the glacier must have left its marks as a 
depositing agent, but this first advance and subsequent retreat could 
not have been very significant as a factor in present day topography, 
because the Wisconsin ice sheet over-rode and destroyed many of its 
features and then deposited new material over the ruins. 

The deposition of drift by the earlier ice sheet would stop valleys and 
cause streams to take new courses and carve new valleys, thus providing the 
buried gorges which after being filled with later drift are unearthed or cut 
across by the present streams. 


Between the time of the disappearance of the earlier ice sheet and 
the approach of the later one, streams wera busy developing valleys, 
draining basins, and withal getting possession of the land. These new 
valleys would not necessarily bear any genetic relation to those existing 
before the ice came on. They may have coincided with their prede- 
cessors in places and crossed them in other places. There should have 
been a very considerable development of tributary valleys as well. We 
know but very little of these interglacial valleys. 

Buried valleys containing Wisconsin drift have been found in many 
places. The valley leading westward from Lewis Center to the Olentangy, 
has a wide section a little over half a mile west of the road and the Columbus, 
Delaware and Marion electric, and here no rock is found in the valley walls, 
except at the very bottom. The slopes are all of drift, while both down and 
upstream from the place, black shale occurs in both bluffs. A half mile south 
of this run is another in which the rock is entirely wanting for a quarter mile, 
and only Wisconsin drift occurs in the walls. It looks as if a pre- Wisconsin 
valley was here crossed by two present valleys. 

Glenmary Run at the park crosses a similar drift-filled valley. The 
second run south of Africa on the west side of Alum Creek has a rock gorge 
at the mouth and upstream for a hundred yards, then the rock ends against 
Wisconsin drift in a steep contact. A quarter mile farther upstream the 
shale appears in the bed of the stream for fifty feet, then disappears again 
and is no more found in the run. The next run northward has no rock at 
all, Three and one-half miles farther north in the last big run south of 
Cheshire and west of Alum Creek, the stream is in a rock gorge for a half 
mile up from its mouth, then the valley widens out, the rock disappears and 

1000— G. B. 14. 


only recent drift shows in the walls the rest of the length of the run. A dozen 
other occurrences such as these are known in the area under discussion, and 
they seem to admit of no other interpretation than that they indicate buried 
interglacial valleys. They are pre- Wisconsin because they contain Wisconsin 
drift. If made prior to the deposition of the Illinoian sheet of drift, they 
have been cleared of all drift of the older age at the points crossed by the 
present streams, before the later ice sheet came — a supposition which seems 
quite improbable. 

Plant Occupation and Soil Formation. 

While the streams were carving valleys, the plants and animals 
forced to evacuate before the advancing ice were able to return and 
again occupy the territory. Probably vegetation as a whole very 
promptly followed the ice as the latter receded, but not with the same 
relative mingling of species as occurred later. The ultimate grouping 
and distribution at any given time is the result of conflicts and adjust- 
ments to changing conditions. As the plants took possession, their 
partially decayed remains from year to year added carbonaceous 
matter to the surface portion of the drift, thus making a soil. In depres- 
sions where water stood, water-plants grew and their remains accumu- 
lated in the pond or swamp and brought forth peaty conditions. 

Whatever of soil and peat was produced during the interglacial 
stage would be present when the returning ice arrived in the Wisconsin 
stage. Most of it no doubt would be dragged or shoved along by the 
ice or covered up with new drift. Parts of the soil and one peat bed 
have been found preserved between the two sheets of drift. In the 
east branch of Glenmary Run, north side and about one-fourth mile 
up from the junction of branches, may be found a yellow stratified clay 
along the stream bed; above the clay is a mass of characteristic old 
drift covered with a weathered zone and dark soil, and above the old 
soil lies Wisconsin drift. 

Springwater Run enters Big Darby at the southern edge of Harris- 
burg. A short distance up this run on the north side, the following 
drift section from the water up, was recorded: 


5. Yellow, loose, unweathered till 30 + 

4. Light gray layer, like Southern Illinois soils .... 1 

3. Fine, weathered sand and sandy till 3 

2. Coarse, weathered, gravel having smooth contact 

with No. 3 above 1 

1. Old characteristically jointed, blue drift 5-6 

A mile farther up the same creek occurs 20 feet of blue drift, capped 
by 10 feet of a much weathered dark variety, which is overlain with 
several feet of fresh drift. About two and one-half miles west of 
Matville at the turn north of the road, in the little stream which 
crosses the highway, the following section was noted: 

Old characteristic, indurated boulder clay for three feet above the water, 
then about a foot of badly weathered dark soil-like material covered with 


six to eight feet of fresh gravel with unweathered drift to top of section. 
A steep till cut occurs about one-half mile north of Morgan station at the 
east bluff of Big Darby, exposing the following section: 

4. Weathered till and present dark soil grading 

down into the next (No. 3) 3-4 

3. Fresh, loose, stony yellow clay till with sharp 

contact between it and No. 2 12—15 

2. Much weathered, dark compact soil-like material 

gradually passing into the next below (No. 1). 2-4 
1. Characteristic dense, blue old drift from water up. 50 

Across the Scioto from the Hartman farm the little stream which 
heads near Grove City is digging out old peat. At least four feet of 
this material is exposed, half below the water and half above. Fresh 
drift constitutes the bluffs on both sides here. Apparently the stream 
has cut into an interglacial peat bog. 

All this erosion, soil formation and development of peat require 
time and hence give us a suggestion of the duration of the interglacial 
period. Evidence derived by examining valleys 1 on Illinoian drift 
which has not been covered by later ice sheets, points to a period from 
the beginning of the interglacial stage to the present some seven to nine 
times as long as that since the Wisconsin ice melted out. This con- 
clusion is based on the relative maturity of valleys and completeness 
of the drainage system in Illinoian drift as compared with the same in 
Wisconsin drift, together with the amount of weathering the two sheets 
have undergone and several other factors. 


The second advance of the ice from the north was probably similar 
to the first. But instead of finding the topography in advanced maturi- 
ty as in the first instance, the second ice sheet must have found a till 
plain with moraines rising above it and multitudes of youthful valleys 
carved in both plain and moraines. The landscape must have been 
something like the present except that the valleys were larger, longer 
and more mature; the tributaries more numerous, longer and more 
branched; and the interstream remnants of the till plain less extensive, 
narrower, more serrate at their margins, and more completely possessed 
by the streams. The drift of the first invasion may have been similar 
during the interglacial stage, in composition and structure to the present 
surface deposits; but the second sheet of ice rubbing over and pressing 
upon the older drift probably compressed, packed, and in places, jointed 
it, 2 and thus left it in the dense compact condition so often seen, which 
aids in recognizing it today. Illustrations of the power of the ice to 
shove and distort over-ridden material are not wanting. 

1 Chamberlin, T. C, and Salisbury, R. D., Geology, vol. 3, p. 414. 

2 Carney, F., Metamorphism of Glacial Deposits, Jour. Geol., vol. 17, 
1909, pp. 473-487. 


Illustrations of Ice Shove. 

When the excavation for the Ohio State University Student Buildjmg, 
was made, sand and fine gravel layers complexly crumpled were exposed 
below a boulder layer, recent drift, and the present soil. ^ The boulders were 
much weathered, some to complete crumbling, but the drift above was fresh. 
The crumpled sand layers were in the older drift over-ridden by the later ice. 

In a little run east of Big Walnut and leading into that stream a mile 
above Galena, is an outcrop of shale which is much disturbed and folded. 
Drift pebbles have been crowded into the shale and all much crumpled but 
not removed. In several places short folds and crumplings have been seen 
in the Ohio shale. One fine instance may be noted west of Alum Creek some 
three miles above Westerville; another in the clay pits opened for sewer pipe 
materials at North Columbus. 

Possibly Several Ice Invasions. 

Whether the ice entered the Columbus region more than twice is 
not known. That may be the case, for in other regions in similar lati- 
tude certainly more than two invasions have been recorded. If the 
advances number more than two, the little known ones probably ante- 
date those better known. Whether or not there have been more than 
two advances of the ice is also of little significance in this region, in as 
much as two later known advances have both gone entirely beyond the 
area. Perhaps the greatest moment of the question attaches to what 
may have been done in the interglacial stages. It has been seen that 
erosion in an interval between two advances of ice gives immature 
valleys partly in drift and partly in rock. We must have a few youth- 
ful preglacial valleys developed as the ice came on, interglacial youthful 
valleys for each interglacial stage, and one set of postglacial valleys. If 
only an Illinoian and a Wisconsin invasion occurred, our postglacial 
streams would encounter two sets of buried valleys; and as the number 
of invasions increases, the number of sets of valleys thus encountered 
must also multiply. The wonder is not that we find sections of so many 
buried valleys, but that we do not find more 1 . As was suggested in 
connection with the discussion of valleys containing Illinioan drift, the 
fact of the preservation of so many pre-Wisconsin valleys although sub- 
sequently traversed by the Wisconsin ice sheet, is a strong argument 
for moderate glacial erosion beneath the last Scioto lobe. The fact that 
we have more or less of two sets of youthful valleys buried beneath our 
drift, and possibly remnants of still other systems, complicates greatly 
the problem of mapping any one system. One cannot always be sure 
to which erosion period any given buried valley may belong. 

The work of the ice sheet last to deploy over this region was no doubt 
similar to that sketched for an earlier one; but its depositional or con- 
structive work has been very much more perfectly preserved; primarily, 
because no subsequent leveler has appeared to obliterate the work, 
secondly because the time since the work was done has been too short 
for the subaerial processes of destruction to more than begin their work. 

1 At least thirty-two distinct valleys filled with drift, and now crossed 
by the present streams, were found. Some are very small, 50 to 100 feet 
across, others seem to be over a mile wide. 




Reference to the map of the Scioto glacial lobe (PL 25) makes it 
clear that the last ice sheet advanced with a broadly lobate margin. 
During its maximum stand its eastern margin extended from near Mans- 
field approximately southward to Lancaster; then the margin swung 
southwestward past Adelphi and Chillicothe, to near Hillsboro, whence 
it bore northwestward to Springfield, Cable and the hills east of Belle- 
fontaine. The lobe at this time covered from 4,000 to 4,500 square 
miles. Columbus and the Columbus quadrangle are pretty well cen- 
tered in this great area. 

Lake Deposits. 

The effects of ponding back the streams, forcing them over divides, 
and overcharging them with waste, as outlined under the Early 
Continental Glacier, were apparently repeated in the advance of this 
last sheet. As instances of the ponding effects reference may be 
made to two deposits which possibly belong to the same body of water 
although the exposures are some fifty feet apart vertically. They occur 
north and northeast of Reynoldsburg. 

A little over one and one-fourth miles straight north from Reynoldsburg, 
on the east bluff of the run leading southwest, there was found a splendid 
section of sands and clays, with a height of over 20 feet. The beds are hori- 
zontally stratified and consist of clays and very fine sands, but apparently 
without organic remains. Two sand layers carry very perfect ripple markings 
five inches from crest to crest and one inch high, very similar to those re- 
vealed in the Berea sandstone, and along the margins of the bed of Lake 
Erie today. These ripple markings of such large size seem to argue for a 
considerable body of static water. Just about a mile southeast of Blacklick 
station and where the north and south road crosses the run, appears another 
similar deposit of fine sand and bluish clay horizontally bedded. Plant 
remains badly decayed are abundant, but no ripple marks are visible. 


As an example of aggradation during the advance of the ice, the 
phenomena at the private suspension bridge over Rocky Fork may be 

About one and one-half miles east of Gahanna the old drift in a pre- 
lllinoian valley mentioned on page 250, has been partly cut out, as if the 
stream returned to its earlier valley when the Illinoian ice melted back; then 
after the removal of much of the drift, stratified gravel and sand (seen in 
pa'rt at the top of PI. 27A), have been laid in the strath apparently as out- 
wash prior to the deposition of Wisconsin drift, for there is a thickness of 
25 feet of the latter over the stratified material. 



Compacting Old Drift. 

The Wisconsin ice is probably in part responsible for the compact 
and jointed condition of the old drift; 1 for, with its thickness of hundreds, 
not to say thousands of feet and its sliding motion it must have tramped, 
and possibly jointed loose material over which it crept. 

Carving Rock Surfaces. 

It is also probably the agent which made many of the striations on 
rock surfaces. While the earlier ice must have made polished, striated 
and grooved surfaces, this last sheet, wherever it removed all old drift, 
would leave its markings across the older ones or first remove them and 
then carve its own record. 


Having attained its maximum dimensions and having stood there 
for a time sufficient to free by its melting, and deposit around its margin 
a well marked terminal moraine, it began its last stage, namely, its 
melting and the laying of the till sheet and interspersed recessional 
moraines, with their associated fluvio-glacial phenomena. 

The location of the margin of an ice sheet is determined by the relative 
rate of forward movement and of melting. When ice movement is more 
rapid than is necessary to compensate for the loss in volume by melting, 
then the margin or ice front advances; but when the movement is nil, or too 
slow to balance the waste by melting, then the ice front retreats. The rate 
of melting and rate of movement are both variable, hence the ice front is 
oscillatory, advancing, halting, retreating and halting at various intervals, 
sometimes halting briefly, sometimes for a long time, sometimes retreating 
intermittently, sometimes advancing in a similar manner. Occasionally con- 
siderable areas of ice melt, when there is practically no compensating forward 

The Marcy Moraine. 

With several halts occupied by moraine building, and several re- 
treats which left a more or less featureless inter-morainal till plain the 
glacier ultimately withdrew from its maximum stand to the southern 
margin of the quadrangle. The first land within this area to be freed 
from its burden of ice was about two square miles in the southeastern 
part, that lying beyond the little Marcy moraine. Reference to the 
general map (PL 25), shows this moraine to be probably the innermost 
or last of the moraines grouped by Leverett 2 under the heading "western 
member of the eastern limb" of the Scioto lobe system. It is hummocked 
and kettled but usually the depressions have been drained artificially 
A small tile factory uses the clay, which has accumulated by surface 

1 Carney, F., Jour. Geol., vol. 17, 1909, pp. 481-484. 
2 Leverett, F., Mon. U. S, Geol. Survey, No. 41, pp. 383, 405 f, 


A. — Buried talus in bluff of Rocky Fork valley near suspension bridge, one 
and one-half miles east of Gahanna. Bed rock horizontally stratified from center 
to right. Drift with boulders below, and some stratification above on the left. 
Ancient talus of shale alone forms a wedge between drift and bed rock, and rises 
from water almost to top of bed rock. 

B. — Hay den Falls. About ten miles northwest of Columbus. A' more resis- 
tant limestone layer at the crest of the fall. (Photo by Dr. C. R, Stauffer.) 


wash in one of the kettles. A few are drained naturally. Outside 
the kettles the drift is stony. There are many rounded and angular 
pieces of sandstone from the hills to the north and many fragments of 
other stones from Ohio and Canada mixed with the clay and sand of 
the moraine. 

This moraine lies nearly three hundred feet higher than the plain 
to the west and north. To make it the ice lose over the mature slopes 
of the resistant sandstone between Canal Winchester and Lithopolis. 
The presence of these rock hills so obstructed the ice that its front was 
here markedly held back, as may be seen by following the moraine west- 
ward and southward. It swings here quite abruptly southward as it 
leaves the quadrangle, because the lower land to the west allowed the 
ice to advance farther and more freely in that direction. The physio- 
graphic map (in pocket) shows details of the distribution of the moraine. 

The Lithopolis Moraine. 

After building the moraine just described, melting of the glacier 
came to exceed the forward movement and the ice disappeared from the 
hilly tract, scattering a till sheet, over the mature rock slopes. Not 
enough waste was left here to completely conceal previous topography 
but sufficient to fill many valleys, and, with the little erosion accom- 
plished, to even and round the forms of the hills and leave a good 
light, long-lived soil basis. 

The streams in carving their present valleys have often encountered 
the rock, but they also reveal several very thick bodies of drift where 
former valleys must have existed. It seems impossible to so correlate 
the buried valleys as to discover any system. The map (PI. 26) shows 
in dotted lines where some of these valleys are believed to be. 

After the ice had melted entirely off of the hills, it seems to have 
pushed forward a little, shoving the drift in masses against the hillsides 
both east and west of Lithopolis, just as has been observed in the Alps 
and in Alaska. Around the village the moraine seems to be wanting. 
In the area east of town, there are two crests to the moraine less than a 
fourth mile apart but practically parallel. Each ridge is now discon- 
tinuous, and probably was always so, though erosion has done much to 
isolate the sections. Three deep drift-walled gorges cut through both 
ice-front moraines to a depth of 60 to 80 feet, but the rock is not reached 
in any of them. 

A Marginal Lake. 

Just west of these moraine ridges, the rock rises almost as high 
as the moraine, and the drift is so thin that the little stream has cut 
down through it to rock. At right angles to the east end of the moraines 
lies Chestnut Ridge of solid sandstone rising one hundred to one hundred 


and fifty feet above the morainic ridges. From the south end of this 
ridge, high rock topography connects across westward with the hills 
upon which Lithopolis stands. Thus, before the ice came there was a 
broad valley opening north, and bounded on three sides by rock hills. 
When the ice deposited drift in the north side opening, local water was 
ponded and a small lake, marginal to the ice, was formed. Clays and 
sands were laid on its floor but no streams other than hillside rills and 
surface wash seem to have fed it, hence no deltas remain and the shore- 
line phenomena are very weak. They consist simply of a sandy zone 
about the same height, only preserved in places. The topography and 
the clays, now badly dissected, are the best evidence of the existence of 
this little marginal lake. That it was short-lived is shown by the 
absence of outlet as well as by shoreline feebleness. That the moraines 
are due in part to pushing is believed, both because of the shortness 
of the lake history, and because of the failure of the moraine, beyond 
where it could be pushed up against the rock hills. The difficulty, 
however, of identifying pushed moraine is recognized. Beginning a 
mile west of town the moraine leads away southwest ward, flanking 
the hills nearly four miles, first as a weak terrace, then as a ridge, until 
it smooths out into the level till plain and entirely disappears without 
reaching the edge of the quadrangle. 

Phenomena due to Melting of Stagnant Ice. 

After the time occupied in building the moraine which helped retain 
the lake, a short period if much of the deposit was pushed up, the ice- 
sheet seems to have passed through a period of dissipation with essen- 
tially no movement forward. This melting would probably permit 
the waters of the lake to escape. The areas of rather characteristic 
morainic topography around Waterloo, possessing kettles and sags and 
swells, together with those across Little Walnut to the south and those 
south of Groveport for two or three miles, seem to defy systemati- 
zation. They may be classed as ablation moraines, 1 left by the melting 
of stationary or stagnant ice, and consisting largely of drift distributed 
unevenly in and on the ice, freed and let down to the ground as the ice 
vanished. Another area probably of the same origin, but possibly to 
be correlated with the moraine mentioned on either side of Lithopolis, 
occurs farther northward just east of Oakland. 

Starting about a mile southwest of Winchester a circuitous, crooked 
ridge or row of hills of sand and gravel leads irregularly westward a mile 
where it is crossed by Little Walnut. From there it can be traced south- 
ward, then southeastward, bifurcating at the end and terminating, 

1 Tarr, R. S., Fol/o U. S. Geol. Survey, No. 169, p. 124 (Field Edition), 
describes this phenomenon, which must have been common in many places 
as the ice-sheet was disappearing. Also, Zeitsch. fur Gletscherkunde, III 
Band, 1908, pp. 85f. 


after over three miles of crooks, less than a mile and a half from the 
starting point. The whole feature is known locally as the Irish hills. 
It consists of good clean gravel and sand stratified obliquely down slopes, 
and crossbedded, but it is always covered with one to ten feet of unstrati- 
fied drift. Where it is intersected by the stream the 30 to 35 feet of 
gravel rests on blue, hard till exposed ten feet above the water. Its 
structure indicates that it was made by running water over-charged 
with waste and flowing in confines now removed. The waste on top 
further testifies to an origin underneath ice, which, as it melted mantled 
the gravel with till. Furthermore, it must have been formed when the ice 
had ceased to move forward, else the restraining walls of ice would have 
brushed it and confused its stratification; and when the ice had become 
thin, else the weight of the ice would have closed any open spaces or 
tunnels through it. From the position of pebbles in the ridge, and 
the position of the ridge with reference to the moraine, it is believed that 
the water flowed toward the divided end. Such a deposit is classed as 
an esker. Other minor gravel ridges of this same sort occur two and 
three miles respectively east of Brice and south of the elbow in Black- 
lick Creek. 

The head end of the Pickerington 1 esker now bearing the Pickerington 
school building, also belongs to this same class of features and dates from the 
same time. The esker drainage must have been eastward, while the present 
drainage is westward. About a mile west of Duvall are some sand ridges, 
esker-like but not conspicuous, which are the beginnings of the large esker 
extending from this point southward nearly to Circleville. 2 

In this vicinity the Scioto Valley gives off a branch on the eastern 
side which continues some miles southward and then rejoins the main 
valley. The river must have been a divided stream here immediately 
subsequent to the melting out of the ice. The floor of the side valley, 
now entirely abandoned, lies about twenty feet below the till plain, and 
about thirty feet above the present river. It must then have been aban- 
doned for a long time, probably more than half of postglacial time. A 
minor stream enters it from the till plain to the east and flows north- 
ward to the river. The Ohio Canal from Lockbourne southward occupies 
a part of the abandoned channel. 

West of the Scioto in this latitude is an old channel now occupied by a 
minor stream entirely too small to have made it. This, too, is a remnant of 
early post-glacial drainage before the adjustments were as perfect as today. 
At the same time the precursor of the Big Darby was a divided stream, and 
one part has left an abandoned channel some three miles long lying west of 
the Darby and south of Harrisburg. The history of this channel has been 
carefully studied and its origin explained. 3 

Two and one-half to three miles due north of Canal Winchester, is a 
group of gravelly hills of rather weak relief resting partly on the sandstone 
and partly on drift. In places the gravel is well assorted but in other parts 

1 Leverett, F., Mon. U. S. Geol. Survey, No. 41, pp. 428-429. 

2 Idem, pp. 429-431. 

3 Nichols, R. H. ? Ohio Naturalist, vol. 11 (1910-11), pp. 210-213. 


it is not. Two large kettles in the group contain water, and in the northern 
part of the area was once a lake of two or three hundred acres. It is now 
drained and furnishes fine rich soil, as such places usually do. About a mile 
north of Winchester is another minor lake bed as is shown by its black, 
humic soil and sandy margin. 

A small hill two miles west of Lithopolis, which may easily be mistaken 
ior a morainal form, is an outlier of Bedford shale on the Ohio shale. 

Shadeville-New Albany Moraine. 

Another minor halt of the ice-front is marked by a series of patches 
of moraine topography, not a continuous band, entering the quadrangle 
from the northeast at a point about three miles east of Center Village, 
developing into a fine strip of moraine southeast of the village, and 
extending as such southward and southwestward past New Albany 
and Ovid. Here it becomes more patchy but can be traced southward 
past Taylors to Brice, 1 then southwestward to a well-defined ridge 
somewhat uneven-topped and containing two or three excellent kettles 
about two miles northwest of Groveport. This ridge portion is crossed 
both by the Hocking Valley railroad near Big Walnut Creek and by 
the Groveport pike and Scioto Valley Traction line. From the latter 
the kettles may be discerned as cattail swamps or ponds north of the 
road. The other branch of the Scioto Valley electric crosses the moraine 
a mile north of Lockbourne. While the contour lines with the 20-foot 
interval do not lie so as to show any particular difference in the altitude 
on opposite sides of this part df the moraine, the four locks in the canal 
offer positive testimony to the difference, which can also be seen by the 
student at proper points. Farther northeast along this moraine 
a reverse difference in altitude on opposite sides appears, because the 
deposit was laid on a rising rock slope. The ice lay on initially lower 
ground than that upon which the moraine was placed, and that outside 
the moraine was still higher. On account of this relation the moraine 
appears in some places as a terrace on the hillside, with lower land on 
the ice side than on the other. 

Southwest of Lockbourne and across the Scioto are a group of 
swells with several kettles, some still swampy; and westward from them 
around Commercial Point, may be found a considerable number of 
little knolls. At Matville and vicinity are others, and westward 
from Harrisburg as far as the Franklin-Madison county line are many 
more. From Lockbourne on, one would hardly be justified in calling 
the isolated hummocks and knolls moraine, if it were not for the well 
developed moraines farther east and northeast with which these features 
seem to connect. The crookedness of Springwater Creek, the lack of 
symmetry in its valley and the abundance of springs along its course 
are suggestive of moraine modified by the stream, which probably owes 
its position largely to these morainic accumulations. 

1 Leverett, F., Mon. U. S. Geol. Survey, No. 41, p. 427. This is the 
moraine, a part of which Leverett describes as occurring seven miles east of 
Columbus. : 


Associated Phenomena* — Associated with this moraine are several 
features of importance which date from the same time as that of the 
moraine. First, the moraine terrace, explained in the previous para- 
graph, occurs in the southeastern corner of Delaware County and again 
a mile east of New Albany, where it holds Blacklick Creek to a south- 
ward course, although the initial postglacial slope descends faster 
westward. From two and one-half to three miles straight east of 
Gahanna in this morainic belt are two north and south drainage lines 
not now occupied by streams. The eastern one about a half mile long 
is at the foot of a steep, west-facing slope and probably represents the 
work of marginal drainage, water flowing along the ice-front and re- 
strained on one side by ice, on the other by the rock. When the ice 
was gone it left a one-sided channel. The western channel is a little 
lower, was used after the completion of the former when the ice had 
melted back a little, and was probably only in use a short time. Gravels 
deposited south of these channels were in part dragged through them. 

At Lockbourne the moraine is fringed on the south side by an 
inconspicuous outwash plain, or better, by a frontal apron, because it 
is not confined in a valley but spread thinly. It consists of gravel and 
sand, coarser near the moraine, and extends two or three miles south- 
ward. This deposit has recently been extensively cut into for grading 
materials by the Norfolk and Western Railway company, thus revealing 
its nature. 

The halt for the construction of this moraine must have been a 
short one, and much shorter in the southern than in the eastern parts. 
Not only does the size of the moraine sustain this point but the relative 
distance between the moraines in the southern and the eastern parts 
supports the same conclusion. The withdrawal of the ice between the 
making of the Lithopolis moraine and that of the Shadeville-New 
Albany moraine was much more extensive around the southern border 
than along the eastern edge; hence, the duration of the halt may consist- 
ently have been less here at the south, resulting in the smaller moraine. 
The crookedness of the moraine suggests that the ice margin was quite 
ragged during its building. The unequal development of the moraine 
may be the result of varied distribution of drift in the ice, which might 
well result in differential melting and thus account for the ragged margin 
of the ice. 

Features Between the Shadeville-New Albany and the Lithopolis 


While the ice-front was withdrawing from the earlier to the later 
of these moraines, the history chronicled in the former similar period 
of ice melting was repeated with variations, 


The Hibernia Esker* — This ridge distinct for more than a mile 
each side of the National pike and Ohio Electric railway at Hibernia, 
eight and one-fourth miles east of High street in Columbus, is a rather 
prominent feature. Where the highway crosses the ridge, about a mile 
south of Hibernia, it is thirty feet high above the till plain, 1 and the 
well here did not reach rock at a depth of 70 feet. To the south the 
ridge divides and terminates without' a sand plain. Northward, it 
decreases in height and flattens out. The stream crossing it, evidently 
found it low and now has cut it entirely away at the crossing. A large 
gravel and sand pit is opened in the esker at Hibernia. Beyond this 
point northward the ridge is strong for a half mile, then less marked 
for nearly a mile. The road follows it closely. Here it entirely dis- 
appears except for a short section of low ridge a mile west of Taylors 
and south of the Pennsylvania-Baltimore & Ohio railroad. It is made 
consistently of gravel throughout and capped with a mantle of till. 2 

Gahanna Esker* — Northward about two miles farther is found 
the southern member of a group of related features consisting of kames, 
esker and sand-plain which beautifully illustrates their interrelations. 
Each feature is small and somewhat mutilated by erosion but readily 
identified. The sand-plain or esker-delta is at the southern end. At 
the other end west of Big Walnut at Pinhook is the kame area. From 
the latter southward mostly on the east side of the stream are scattered 
the fragments of the esker, opened in several places for gravel. The 
ridge fails about a mile north of Gahanna and the sand and gravel-plain 
begins. Broken by erosion at Gahanna, the sand-plain continues south 
and west of town for a mile and a half on the opposite side of the stream. 
This complete group of kame, esker and sand-plain seems to be in no 
way connected with the Hibernia esker, but was formed later as the stag- 
nant ice melted. 

Galloway Esker* — Beginning more than a mile from Galloway up 
Hellbranch Run, small ridges of gravel occur. The series continues 
intermittently down stream for nearly four miles. The stream and road- 
makers have removed considerable portions, but enough remains to mark 
the series as an esker, made during this same period of ice recession. 
South of Galloway occur three or four lake beds aggregating over 100 
acres of rich black soil. They occupy as many large shallow kettles in 
the drift. Stream work, aided by artificial means, has completely 
drained them all. 

Abandoned Channels* — Two and one-half miles east of Pinhook, 
an abandoned channel twenty feet deep leaves Rocky Fork valley on 

1 Leverett, F., Mon. U. S. Geol. Survey, No. 41, pp. 430-431. 

2 Several recent openings in this ridge reveal its true water-laid nature. 
The boulders occurring upon it are undoubtedly a part of the unstratified 
drift cap. 


the west side and continues southward parallel to the latter for about 
one and one-half miles, then again joins Rocky Fork. Probably the 
precursor of the present stream was, during the melting of the ice, a 
divided stream and here as elsewhere, the ice-drainage waters were 
eroding instead of depositing. 

Kames t Baker HilL — Two miles or more south of the Driving 
Park, Columbus, and near the Scioto Valley Traction line is a peculiarly 
stratified, rounded, gravel and sand hill rising fully 50 feet above the 
level till plain. It may probably best be called a kame, although a 
considerable portion of the stratification is entirely too steep, contorted, 
and tumbled for purely deposition work. No kettles are found on its 
surface, but rather the whole form is smooth and rounded remarkably 
like a low drumlin. The mass must have been laid with some ice under- 
neath and then let down by melting to give such a tumbled structure 
as is constantly presented in the cuts made by removing sand and gravel. 
A thin sheet of unstratified drift mantles the lower slopes, but there 
seems to be none at all over the top, indicating that no waste-burdened 
ice existed over the place when deposition ceased. This hill has proved 
of so much economic importance, because of its contents, that the Nor- 
folk & Western Railroad company has constructed a stub track to the 
hill preparatory to its complete removal. 

Karnes, Spangle* HilL — Four to five miles south of South Colum- 
bus are the finest kames to be found in the area. They are situated two 
to three miles north of where the margin of the ice stood when the 
Shadeville-New Albany moraine was built and cover a little less than 
one square mile. (PI. 28 and PL 29 A.) They consist of some twenty 
or more gravel hills ranging in height from a few feet up to sixty or 
seventy, above the surrounding till plain. Obliquely stratified sand and 
gravel are exposed in several places where openings have been made. 
Huge kettles, empty with one exception, are enclosed between the knobs. 
In the eastern part is a kettle lake-bed now thoroughly drained, floored 
with fine black soil and under onion culture. (PI. 29 B.) The former 
shorelines, with a small sand bar on the southwest side of the area, can 
be traced much of the distance around, and they, with the lake-bed 
deposits and the smoothness and levelness of the lake plain testify to 
the presence and extent of the now extinct lake. The deposits are not 
thick and probably came largely from the moraines on the east. The 
lake covered at least twenty acres at its maximum, and must have 
been filled nearly full of clay and organic matter for the shoreline feat- 
ures rise but very little above the lake bottom. Around the kame area 
and connecting with the Scioto Valley at the north end and with the 
Big Walnut at the south, extends a broad, shallow, abandoned channel 
through which water flowed at some time during the melting of the 


A considerable supply of drainage would be required to build so 
large a group of kames as this. The arrangement of hills, lake-bed, 
channel and moraine indicates that at the cessation of forward move- 
ment and the completion of the moraine above mentioned there was 
here a notch or re-entrant angle two miles deep in the margin of the ice. 
Into this notch drift, making moraine, was piled, and now gravel, a 
little farther north, making kames. As shown on the physiographic 
map, some of the gravel accumulated in the kame hills while other 
parts were carried southward and laid along the Scioto as outwash. 
Much of the latter has been eroded. 

Moraine for a mile south of the kames should be correlated with 
that described under the heading Shadeville-New Albany moraine. 

Tumuli — In Harlem Township, on the New Albany strip, and around the 
village of New Albany, are a number of low rounded to ovoid drift hills or 
tumuli. They range in height from ten to twenty-five feet, in length from 
an eighth to one-half mile, and in width from an eighth or even less to rather 
more than a fourth mile. Stony till is almost the universal content of each, 
but a few were found containing some stratified gravel and sand. One mound 
two and one-half miles east of Westerville and one-third mile south of the 
county line near the highway, contains no gravel and very little drift, but 
seems to be of shale. This is the only one known to contain bed rock. Many 
are known to contain no rock. They seem to be essentially drift features 
and similar if not identical with other knolls in the moraine last mentioned. 1 

Outwash* — Gravel along the Scioto Valley, recent and fresh, but 
covered sometimes with a few feet of till is abundant. The map shows 
only the surface exposures and much of this may be of later date. 
For a mile or more east of that shown on the map between South Colum- 
bus and Shadeville, the gravel occurs and is reached below the till by 
many wells. At the starch factory in South Columbus flowing wells 
have been" made ending in this gravel at depths of fifty feet and more. 
A half mile farther east, a large gravel pit has been opened in it. Wells 
between here and Baker Hill reveal the gravel only at depths of fifty 
feet or thereabouts. The thick till cover both here and southward along 
the river shows the gravel to have been laid under the ice and covered a 
little in the final melting, or to belong either to the advancing ice or to 
an earlier invasion. In some places it seems to have been but very 
little covered. Near the river, part of the cover may have been re- 
moved. The later deposits are discussed on page 287. 

The Till Plain* — Southwestward from Columbus the topography is 
exceedingly level and is locally known as "the plains. " The apparent uni- 
formity is largely in form, for even the surface material varies consider- 
ably. In the spring when the ground has been prepared for planting 
and before the crop has grown to cover it, the land is seen to be spotted, 

1 Many of these features were mentioned by Leverett, Mon. U. S. Geol. 
Survey, No. 41, pp. 426-27. Better opportunities for study have been given 
the present writer, and correlations can now be made which were not possible 
when the former work was done. 


A. — Karnes of Spangler Hill looking southwest. The kames stretch away 
about a mile. On the left, over the fence, is the lake bed. 

B. — Looking east of Spangler Hill. 
Looking southeast. 

Moraine east of lake bed in the distance. 


dark to black blotches in a gray or yellowish background. The darker 
areas are usually very slightly lower, and can sometimes be located 
even when the crop is grown, by the size and vigor of the latter or by its 
darker green color. The darkness of color in the soils of these patches 
is due to organic matter. It seems probable that when first made, the 
till plain may have been a little less level than now, and that the de- 
pressed areas, once more or less swampy, have been aggraded by surface 
wash of clays and by the admixture of partially decayed vegetable 
remains. Thus, there has been made from a very slightly undulating 
till plain a still more level feature. It has been thought that much of 
this level country was once occupied by a glacial lake, 1 but there is no 
stratification to be found in the surface materials, except in a few of 
the larger and presumably once deeper black earth depressions. The 
part played by surface wash in augmenting the levelness is undoubtedly 

South of Columbus and east of the Scioto, the plain is often equally 
level though in smaller tracts, because the streams have cut little valleys 
across it. This region has long been known as the "barns/' a corrup- 
tion probably of the "barrens" 2 in deference to its former relative un- 
productiveness as compared with surrounding tracts. 

The Westerville Moraine. 

After this period of excessive melting with the forward movement 
at a minimum or nil, a slight change in conditions began and the balance 
of melting and advance was again established. The margin of the ice 
during this minor halt is marked by the Westerville moraine which 
enters the area somewhat scattered in the northeast corner, leads west- 
ward four to five miles, then southwestward as a series of isolated hum- 
mocks to a point two and one-half miles south of Galena and west of 
of Big Walnut Creek. 

Here unmistakable moraine begins in a hundred-acre patch of hills 
somewhat modified by erosion and cut entirely in two by a little run. 
Nearly southward from this area the moraine continues as a narrow, 
rolling belt to the Delaware-Franklin County line, then widens into 
a broader, bunchy, kettled strip nearly to Blendon. It probably never 
was well marked as moraine beyond this place, either because locally, 
the retreat was too rapid, or because the ice was too free from debris. 
Several phenomena however, indicate the position of the ice border 
southward to a kettled rolling area a mile southeast of Linden, and then 
southwestward to gently rolling moraine topography between Alton 
and Galloway. 

Further evidence upon which the ice-front may be traced follows. 
Very thick drift at Minerva Park and southward to Linden with con- 

1 Orton, Edward, Geol. Survey Ohio, vol. 3, p. 646. 

2 Bownocker, J. A., a fact and explanation contributed orally. 


siderable work of minor streams in it, sufficient to destroy true moraine 
forms, marks the course. Beginning at Park's Mills east of the creek 
and leading almost a mile and a half north is a marginal drainage channel 
with the rock east of it and gravel and drift to the west; and five hundred 
yards east of the northern or upper end of this channel is another short 
one behind a small hill, cut in shale but not used today at all. These 
abandoned channels were carved by marginal waters during the minor 
halt of the ice, while the ice-front was crowded a little against a rising 
shale slope. Fair moraine topography with two or three swampy kettles 
toward the south occurs one to two miles southeast of Linden. These 
swampy tracts have been scraped out and walled in a little to make a 
series of artificial ponds for duck raising and ice cutting. Through the 
city nothing remains to mark the ice border, but west of Greenlawn 
cemetery is a group of fnorainic hummocks and north of them several 
more. Along Scioto Big Run from the point where it is crossed by the 
Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern railroad, between Briggsdale and Urban- 
crest, to the Big Four crossing of the same stream three miles farther up> 
the topography is very irregular. Hummocks of drift are common in 
positions where the stream could not have made them, and sections of 
the valley mark places where kettles once were, having now been cut 
through by the stream. This creek nowhere touches rock but has cut 
deeply into drift. It seems probable that if no stream had modified 
the topography where the creek flows, one would with assurance and 
propriety map moraine, Westward from the Big Four crossing above 
mentioned, numerous low hummocks and minor swells with occasional 
kettles, now drained, mark the margin of the ice during this halt and 
permit it to be traced to the Big Darby. Off the quadrangle westward 
one-half to one mile along the National Pike and south from it, thickened 
drift, gravelly hummocks and black-soiled sags mark the same line. 
The curve traced by this series of features is quite similar to that of the 
Powell moraine yet to be discussed. 

The Till Plain and Associated Features* — Northward from the 
western half of this moraine for a dozen miles, including the Hilliards, 
Powell and Worthington interstream areas, practically as far as the 
Delaware-Franklin County line, the till plain is remarkably level and 
featureless save for the post-glacial erosion to be described subsequently. 
The Toledo & Ohio Central railroad passing over this plain, through 
Amlin and Kileville covers 25 miles without a turn, a grade or a cut 
except where it Grosses a couple of little runs and the Powell moraine* 

Just south of the road a mile north of Marble Cliff is found a little group 
of kettles in the till plain. One of these has become a peat-bog, and if 
one may judge from the black, humic condition of the soils, others certainly 
were somewhat peaty when drained. In fact, many areas on the Hilliards 
and Powell strips south of the Powell moraine must have been swampy if 
not even slightly peaty at a prehistoric date. The plain is as spotted with 



dark and light soils as is that farther south. Corroborative evidence is re- 
corded on the Soil map. 1 

Drainage lines established and used during the melting of the ice in its 
stagnant condition following the making of the Westerville moraine, are now 
marked by several interesting features. The Columbus esker fully described 
by Morse 2 is a little ridge (Fig. 14) with its accompanying sand plain to the 
south lying about half a mile east of the Ohio State University campus. It 
has been nearly obliterated by street and building excavations and grading. 

Fig. 14 — Columbus esker. Structure revealed at 16th Avenue between Sum- 
mit Street and Indianola Avenue. Looking south. 

So far it has been impossible to trace any connections farther than mapped. 
If the southern part of this feature marks the edge of the ice during the West- 
erville moraine building (which seems improbable), the ice margin must have 
been very crooked here. It is more likely that the esker and sand-plain were 
made wholly under the ice, as both are covered with a sheet of till. Another 
drainage line lies west of the Olentangy and begins about opposite Clinton- 
ville. This is not an esker, but a channel, now separated from the Olentangy 
by a sandy or gravelly area sometimes in the form of a ridge. It may be 
traced from the starting point mentioned, southward a mile and a half to 
where it divides for half a mile, the parts reuniting near Lane Avenue; from 
whence the course can be traced to a point opposite the State University. 
Here it leads into the present Olentangy channel. A third drainage line is a 
channel, mostly in rock, west of the Scioto, over a mile in length, and extend- 
ing from a point opposite the Columbus Fishing and Gun Club southward. 
These last two channels have no streams at present. They are interpreted 

1 Map 20, Columbus sheet. Bureau of Soils, Rept. of Field Operations, 
1902; and Map 30, Westerville sheet, Bureau of Soils, Rept. Field Operations, 

2 Morse, W. C, Ohio Nat., vol. 7, Feb., 1907, pp. 63-72, 

1000— G B 14. 


as water ways during the waning of the ice, but probably not long after, 
because the present river courses must have been better water ways, and 
hence would take care of post-glacial drainage. They certainly have been 
abandoned during the cutting of the present valleys below their levels. 

Two and one-half miles northeast of Westerville a channel cuts 
obliquely across the moraine. Its length is about one-half mile, width 
a hundred feet, and depth ten or twelve feet. Its walls are quite dis- 
tinct, although it has not been used for ages. It was undoubtedly 
made and used by water from the melting ice for a short time during 
its recession, but ever since has been isolated and wholly unconnected 
with any drainage system. 

The Powell Moraine 1 

One cannot with certainty discover how far the ice melted back 
during the period of recession just discussed, but beyond a question 
the minimum retreat was to the present Powell moraine. The rather 
bold south-facing front, the very considerable height of the moraine 
together with its uniformity in height, its lack of kettles, and the total 
absence of any ice front phenomena on its inner border indicate that 
the moraine is submarginal, i.e. that the nose of the ice lay upon the 
moraine during the accumulation of the latter. While the western 
half of the moraine in this area sustains the argument very well, the 
eastern part was probably less over-ridden. Since the moraine is rarely 
less than a mile in width, and often two miles wide, it seems probable 
also that the ice-front oscillated during the building, moving forward 
more rapidly than it melted, then melting back a short distance, only 
to advance again over the moraine. The compactness of the drift 
about Powell, New California and other points as reported by well 
drillers and as seen in stream bluff exposures, further corroborates the 
theory of a submarginal moraine tramped down by over-riding ice. 

In several places, the south-facing moraine-front is very conspicuous. 
Perhaps as marked a place as any is about two miles south of Powell. For 
several miles to the south of the edge of the moraine, the leveltill plain stands 
at practically nine hundred feet above sea level. One approaching the moraine- 
front on this plain sees a gentle slope extending east and^ west and rising 
northward thirty to forty feet in one-fourth to one-half mile; while to one 
standing on the moraine and looking southward, the till plain seems to stretch 
away for a long distance, but on a distinctly lower level. Thirty feet in one- 
fourth to one-third of a mile gives a slope a trifle steeper than one degree. 
This is extremely low, but conspicuous among slopes like those of the till 
plain — two or three feet in a mile. The change of slope is quite marked. ^ The 
Hocking Valley railroad rises on a long grade of a mile before the moraine is 
reached, then it enters a cut of twenty feet or more and so rises to the moraine 
top at Powell. Nearly every freight train from Columbus has two engines 
to a point beyond Powell. Not alone because of the moraine is the extra 
power needed, but because the Hocking Valley station in Columbus is on the 
Scioto flood plain about 720 feet high, and the engine must climb in fifteen 

1 Leverett, F., Mon. U. S. Geol. Survey, No. 41, pp. 525-531. 


miles out of the valley, to an elevation of 920 feet at Powell. The average 
railroad grade is 13 to 14 feet in a mile, while the slope of the moraine is 
probably as steep as 100 to 120 feet in a mile. 

West of the Scioto, the moraine rises 50 to 70 feet in about a mile, or from 
a 950-foot till plain to moraine summits of 1,000 to 1,021 feet. A rather 
marked moraine-front can be seen a mile north of Flint on the Big Four and 
Pennsylvania railroads. These begin to grade half a mile south of the mo- 
raine, and make half the altitude necessary before reaching the moraine, 
then they make a cut until they emerge on the plain north of the ice deposit. 
For three miles southwest of Galena, along the Cleveland, Akron ft. Columbus 
railroad, the southeast-facing moraine-front shows distinctly. The railroad 
company has cut off the nose of the moraine about a mile south from Galena. 

One. would be entirely excusable for not recognizing this moraine 
until across it, if he approached it from the ice side; for it grades imper- 
ceptibly into the till plain here and rarely has a kettle on its summit. 
Levelness or broad shallow sags and low swells characterize the whole 
surface except along the larger streams where modified by erosion. 

The moraine is probably widest at Powell or just east of Alum Creek, 
and averages over two miles in width entirely across the Hilliards strip. 
Across the Worthington strip, it averages about one mile in width. 
It is narrowest east of Africa for two miles, where all unevenness of surface 
is confined to a strip one-half mile wide, but across the rest of the W^ster- 
ville strip and on northeastward beyond Galena and Sunbury to the 
margin of the quadrangle, the width of a mile to a mile and a half is 
constantly maintained. The moraine was once continuous across the 
area except for two or three small stream cuts where the Scioto and 
Olentangy rivers and Alum Creek now cross it. 

Phenomena Accompanying the Moraine. 

Among the features whose origin is wrapped up in the history of 
the Powell moraine are a lake (now drained), an outwash plain, and two 
or three drainage channels. About half way between Galena and Sun- 
bury and nearly parallel with Big Walnut, between the wagon road 
and the Cleveland, Akron & Columbus railroad may be seen a channel 
a mile in length and in its middle and southern parts quite distinct. 
(PL 30 A.) It evidently carried water near the ice margin, for a short 
time, after deposition of drift had begun. Its preservation means that 
at this point the ice did not again advance over its first deposits. Be 
tween Westerville and Africa in a complicated mass of moraine, some- 
what modified by stream erosion both during the melting of the ice 
and post-glacially, two channels now wholly abandoned by water are 
easily traced. The longer one begins about a half mile south and a 
half mile east of Africa and continues southward a mile and a half, then 
turns southeast for a half mile. The shorter one begins one-fourth mile 
east of the south end of the other and continues in the same direction, 
southeast, for a half mile or more. These two were probably con- 
tinuous when made, but their connection could not be established. 


Together they reach almost entirely across the moraine and must have 
been in rather constant use during its building. When the ice was 
gone, the waters seem to have crossed the moraine in what is now Alum 
Creek Valley. 

East of Flint an area of four or five square miles, partly in each 
county and extending entirely to the big Powell moraine, has, according 
to the topographic map, intermittent streams. The land is very level, 
and surface drainage seems to be poor, but the land is not wet. It is 
too sandy. Water, which would normally flow away in surface streams, 
sinks. The soil survey map 1 shows the soil to be streaked, strips of clay 
loam alternating with black clay loam. Below the black soil the sub- 
soil is silty. This is all in accord with the conditions, but it should be 
added that there is considerable fine sand in the subsoil. The area is 
essentially an outwash deposit of fine material spread as a thin sheet 
at this point in front of the Powell moraine. 

Most of the drainage of the Powell moraine, so far as this quadrangle is 
concerned, went in the present valleys, for at no other point across the whole 
moraine-front was any outwash found, save the minor deposits along the 
present drainage lines. The drainage seems not to have laid down much 
waste during the making of this moraine, for only very limited deposits occur 
down the valleys from it. Along the Darbys very little occurs which could 
be called outwash Recent stream gravels and sand are found- at several 
places, and possibly some of the areas mapped as outwash belong in this 

Around Columbus are a dozen square miles of gravel-covered territory. 
(See map in pocket) . Some of this is mapped as flood plain, because at present 
subject to floods. Beneath the alluvium, however, the gravel is found in 
almost every cut. The State House well 2 shows the gravel to extend down- 
ward at least sixty feet below the present stream. Its surface, even in undis- 
turbed areas, is lower than the till plain, and over large tracts a portion of 
the deposit has been carried away. With such a depth, the deposit can hardly 
be all post-glacial. The lower part may have been laid during a previous 
ice invasion or even during the oncoming of the Wisconsin sheet. While the 
ice was melting back from the Westerville moraine and before the building 
of the Powell moraine, erosion took place; then during the building of this 
latter moraine, the waste-laden waters deposited in the valley large quantities 
of sand and gravel; so much, in fact, that the valley was filled nearly level 
full. Thus it happens that the outwash plain is not quite as high as the sur- 
rounding till plain. It is not believed that the valley filled was much deeper 
than the present valley, possibly not as deep here where the deposits occur, 
and certainly not nearly as deep up stream toward the moraine as the present 
ones. The steep grade from the moraine to this point prevented the deposi- 
tion, while the greater depth here and consequently lower grade for some 
distance below encouraged deposition. 

On the western side of the quadrangle a mile or so south of New 
California, the moraine seems to have enclosed a basin. It has distinct 
moraine nearly around it, silts across its floor, and sand around much 
of its margin as a small beach. Sugar Run enters it from the northwest, 
sluggishly traverses the whole length and emerges at the south. Since 
the clays and silts and the beach deposits establish the fact of a former 
temporary lake, there must have been a barrier across the south side as 

1 Westerville sheet. Field Operations, Bureau of Soils, 1905. 

2 Newberry, J. S., Geol. Survey Ohio, vol. 1, pp. 113-114. 


A. — East wall of an abandoned valley between Galena and Sunbury, west of 
road. The lower clump of trees is in the channel. The west wall of the valley 
does not appear in the figure. 

B. — Alluvial terrace at Harrisburg. Looking southeast from the road in 
north edge of town. Terrace is nearly half concealed by the tall corn on the 
flood plain. 


on the other borders. This has been removed and the basin drained 
after* having been nearly filled with sediments and organic matter. 
There is no delta to be seen at the upper end; on the contrary, the lake 
plain and flood plain of the stream above, seem to be perfectly graded 
to the same level. It is believed that the. basin is due to uneven deposi- 
tion of drift, and probably not to an ice block, as the margins nowhere 
exhibit evidence of having been built against something now gone. 

Subsequent Glacial History. 

When time enough had elapsed for the building of the big Powell 
moraine in the ways suggested above, the balance of process was turned — 
melting exceeded flow — and the margin of the great glacier again began 
to recede. In this recessional move no stream deposits of any kind 
seem to have been made within the area. The till plain is continued as 
between the other recessional moraines and with about the same level- 
ness. No more halts even of the shortest duration are recorded within 
this quadrangle, but in the territory to the north may be found the 
records of repeated halts and recessions, until the ice had melted back 
beyond the divide and the marginal Lake Maumee became possible. 

In the conclusion of this chapter on glaciers and their work in the 
Columbus quadrangle, let it be noted that the events and the succession 
of events here recorded are a part of a great whole, namely, the story 
of the Glacial period in America. The facts presented might be dupli- 
cated in a dozen quadrangles of the same size along similar zones of the 
drift-covered portion of North America. No tract would have its record 
written with exactly the same characters, nor would it tell exactly the 
same story; yet there would be remarkable similarity. The problem 
of deciphering the inscriptions, once learned, would be easy in other 
places and the methods would apply in hundreds of instances. 




Post-glacial history began considerably earlier in the southern 
part of the area than in the northern, but the total post-glacial time 
has been so long that any advantage thus gained is scarcely discernible 

Beginnings of Valleys. 

As the ice left the lands, none of the valleys now so attractive and 
important were present except those used for glacial discharge, mainly 
north and south valleys; and these must have been very youthful. 
The lands at first were bare and free from vegetation; but undoubtedly 
then as now, in front of waning glaciers, the vegetation crowded close 
up to the ice and possessed all but the newest surface each year. The 
first plants to grow were not the present flora, but a more northern one 
which had been crowded south by the oncoming ice, and which was now 
following its cold usurper back to its early home. As the soil became 
better and climatic conditions more salubrious with the lapse of time 
and withdrawal of the ice, the present flora crept in and became adjusted 
element to element, while most of the more northern plants migrated 
farther or perished. A few, however, remained to surprise and delight 
the zealous botanist and testify, with the drift, to the former presence 
of the ice. 

Such streams as the Darby, Scioto and Little Walnut in the southern 
part, probably extended from the very ice front or even beneath the 
ice a short distance at times, southward as at present. These streams 
increased in length as the ice receded, but probably not much in size 
except as they took on new tributaries because their waters were largely 
of glacial origin. 

The Courses of Major Streams. 

Several items have been given which bear on the origin of the major 
streams. The Scioto and Olentangy seem never to have been marginal 
in this area, while Blacklick from its sources in the southeastern 
corner of Delaware County, practically through its entire course was 
from the start, and even yet is, a rather close follower of the moraine. 
At a little later stage, Rocky Fork was approximately marginal through 
many miles of its upper course, although the ice did not halt long enough 
to leave moraine where the stream now flows. Big Walnut below Ga- 
hanna flowed away from the ice front; from Pinhook six miles south- 



ward it was a subglacial stream close beside its present channel, while 
it made the Gahanna esker; from the same point northward six to eight 
miles it grew as the ice melted out, and later, for the upper three miles 
or from Galena northward it was marginal. When marginal, its channel 
must have been similar to abandoned marginal channels noted in the 
same vicinity except that it was occupied by a stream; and, if streams 
had persisted in the now abandoned channels, they must have become 
by today indistinguishable from ordinary present day valleys. 

Alum Creek from the turn at Blendon southward three or four miles 
was in a marginal channel. As the ice melted, the stream dropped to 
the lower present course and the upper channel was left behind. Farther 
south it swung across the new till plain in a consequent course to Big 
Walnut Creek and the Scioto. From Blendon northward to the 
limits of the area, the stream must have taken its start at the ice margin 
and flowed directly away, growing as the ice vanished. Its channel 
through the moraine was once divided; and probably both parts resem- 
bled at first the abandoned channels above Westerville, except that they 
had more youthful slopes than those. Years of weathering and surface 
wash have widened the channels and matured their slopes. 

.Scioto Big Run was given its direction by the ice margin and mo- 
raine deposition, and it received marginal drainage during the making 
of the Westerville moraine. 

These may all be classed as consequent streams, taking their 
initial courses across the drift in accordance with, and in consequence 
of, initial slopes. A few slight, subsequent adjustments here and there 
have been made. 

The relation of these streams to outwash deposits has been watched 
for carefully. It might reasonably be expected that outwash would be 
found along each valley down-stream from each moraine. Such, how- 
ever, seems not to be the case. Outwash accumulates in ready-made 
valleys or on the plains beyond the moraine, if the slopes, volume of 
water, and supply of waste are so adjusted as to make it necessary. 
The scarcity of gravel and sand deposits suggests that the abundance 
of water was able to carry most of the waste beyond the limits of the area, 
even with the moderate grades provided for the streams. Boulders 
along the Scioto and Olentangy below the Powell moraine witness to 
the fact that the streams carried away all in their courses but the boulders, 
sorting them out because of their size to be left behind. On the out- 
wash in and below Columbus, the Scioto must have been left, when 
aggradation ceased, with a braided or divided channel. Evidence of 
this condition is found in the abandoned channels south of Grandview, 
and among the gardens south and southeast of the cemeteries. Other 
cases of braided channels have been treated in connection with the sub- 
ject of abandoned channels. 


Beginnings of Laterals. 

As the streams proceeded to deepen their valleys, each of those 
with divided course soon got all its water together, taking the channel 
which in this stage deepened the fastest, and abandoning all others. As 
these main valleys were deepened, drainage down their sides washed 
waste in and thus widened them. Then the surface wash became con- 
centrated in places along certain lines and by erosion developed small 
lateral valleys. These constitute the fringe of subsequent later valleys, 
so marked a feature along the main valleys in the northern half of the 
area. (See topographic map in pocket.) There are many of them in 
the southern half, but they are smaller and shorter and do not show so 
well on the map. Where the Scioto and Olentangy rivers, and Alum 
Creek cross the Powell moraine their laterals have so far destroyed the 
morainic topography that moraine should not be mapped, although till 
yet mantles the rock in these places. In these gaps in the moraine, 
probably made by the carrying away of drift, the map shows till sheet. 

Many of the smaller streams are intermittent, i. e., they do not flow 
all the time as do perennial streams. This is due to variations in the 
supply of water — irregularities in rainfall. The absence of springs, is 
especially conducive to intermittency of streams, because such absence 
leaves them with no supply when dry seasons come. The floors of the 
channels of these smaller streams frequently consist of a bed of gravel 
and stones into which the water sinks and creeps along out of sight. 
Others are floored with jointed and partly dissolved limestone, having 
secret passages below, which conduct part of the water away. Since 
these two types of floor are not continuous all the way down a valley 
but are interspersed with reaches of denser rock, it frequently happens 
in times of low water that a stream will be visible while flowing over 
the less porous drift or shales; and then will entirely disappear in the 
gravel or in solution cracks for a distance, leaving a dry bed to be suc- 
ceeded again, when conditions have changed, by a stretch having a 
visible stream. 

Alluvial Terraces. 

The main streams while cutting down have also cut more or less 
laterally, and so have widened their valleys and developed more or less 
of flood plain along the channels. By these two kinds of cutting, they 
have in many places carved terraces. Around Georgesville are several 
in drift. Their forms are not clear cut, but indefinite. Similarly, 
others occur at the junction of Blacklick and Big Walnut, along the 
latter near Central College, and again south of Galena; along Alum 
Creek near Linden, above Parks Mills; near Africa and at Cheshire; and 
two miles above Worthington along the Olentangy. Terraces have been 
carved in a like manner in gravels and sands in several places. On 


A. — Rock defense at the end of an alluvial terrace, near the gate leading to 
the State Farm, Orient. The upper rock defends the upper terrace; the lower rock 
defended a lower terrace, but has now been quarried out. 

B.— Rock terrace, Marble Cliff, 
drift bluffs beyond. 

Looking nearly north across terrace top to 


the Darby at Harrisburg is a fine cluster standing out into the valley 
from the west side. The stream has repeatedly cut into the gravel 
here at successively lower levels, but has always swung away and failed 
to completely remove the deposits. Each time it has left a terrace on 
a lower level than the last. (PI. 30 B.) A very similar group juts out 
into the valley from the east side lapping over the block from the west, 
so that the stream is obliged to make a very crooked course to get down 
the valley. (See topographic map.) At the tips of this latter group, 
limestone ledges are always found acting as a defense for the weaker 
material. (PI. 31 A.) If it were not for this rock at critical points, the 
rest of the gravel must have been cleared away. The defense may be 
seen in several places at the west end of this group near the railroad 
bridge and the gateway leading beneath the railroad to the State Farm. 
These terraces are neat and trim. The front slope of the highest is 28 
feet, but to the north where these ledges occur the one big one is divided 
into three or four steps, too small to be mapped. No such defense was 
located on the critical points of the Harrisburg group, although repeated 
diligent search was made; and, in spite of the failure to find a protect- 
ing mass of rock, the impression cannot be removed that there are rock 
ledges here also which may some day be found. Several less definite, 
apparently undefended gravel terraces occur down stream from these. 
In the eastern and southern part of Greenlawn cemetery are terraces, 
and others occur farther south; still others also occur west of the Olen- 
tangy a little above its mouth. These all seem to lack defense and they 
have not been given the neat, trim form of those cited at Harrisburg. 
Another indefinite undefended group of gravel terraces occurs along 
Alum Creek near the Infirmary in the eastern part of Columbus. A 
very interesting discussion of such terraces as the above, together with 
the question of the defense, has been published by Davis. 1 

Rock Terraces. 

Besides the terraces in drift and alluvium there are many- in 
rock along the Scioto and Olentangy shown mostly in the northwest 
quarter. (See physiographic map.) These rock terraces occur at all 
possible levels and in all possible vertical relations to the limestone 
formations into which these streams have cut. The Pennsylvania 
railway station of Marble Cliff is on one of these terraces. (PL 31 B.) 
At Dublin, the terrace on the east side is 30 to 40 feet above the water 
and 20 to 200 yards wide. Three to four miles up stream, a large 
terrace stands about 80 feet above the river. This is the highest, and 
the lowest is now partly below water at high stages. They have been 
described in a recent paper 2 from which the following summary and 
conclusions are in part borrowed. 

1 Davis, W. M., Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Geol. Series; vol. 5, pp. 282-346. 

2 Hubbard, G. D., Ohio Naturalist, vol. 9, (1908), pp. 397-403. 


All rock terraces descend down stream, and most of them descend 
toward the river. Almost every terrace top is nearer the river level at 
its down stream end than at the other, hence it follows that the grade 
of the stream has been reduced since the terrace was made. And 
further, an analysis of the slopes of the various tops shows that the 
higher ones descend down stream most rapidly, and the lower ones but 
little faster than the present water level. The average fall of the Scioto 
at present across the Dublin quadrangle is about 7 feet, and of the Olen- 
tangy is 5}i feet, bee-line distances. The upper terraces fall twenty 
feet in a mile and some of the lower ones ten feet or even a little less. 
This relation makes it quite evident that the present stream flowing 
in the same direction made the terraces. 

In harmony with the slight eastward dip of the rock strata and the 
customary streamward slope of the terrace tops, those on the west side 
are usually structural plains, while those on the east side commonly 
are not. 

The terraces are confined to country whose surface rock is limestone, 
or limestone with a very little shale cover. The shale alone seems not 
to be well adapted to terrace formation. Occasionally in the lateral 
valleys, good terraces are found consisting of Ohio shale from which 
the thick drift cover has been removed. The shale proving a much 
tougher material than the drift, the stream has, to date, been unable 
to make nearly as wide a valley in it as in the drift above. That these 
shale terraces are largely due to difference in the relative rate of weather 
ing in the shale and in the drift, and not to lateral planation by the 
stream, is shown by the fact that, in the two or three instances where 
such terraces appeared, they were similar on opposite sides of the stream. 
This condition is never true in the limestone terraces. Rarely is there 
a place found with a terrace on each side, and when opposite terraces 
do occur, they are of very different height. 

That there is neither harmony nor system in the height of the 
terraces seems to point to the normal cutting of the stream without 
rejuvenation as their cause. They are not systematically at the top 
of the limestone, as if due simply to the encountering of rock, but some- 
times near the top and sometimes way below it. Nor is there 
any gradation in the height of the terraces. A high one may be both 
succeeded and preceded by a low one, or any other succession may exist. 
The stream is not a systematically meandering one, hence the terraces 
have no crescentic fronts and terrace cusps. Nor are the terraces due 
to any rock defense, as are the alluvial terraces cited above. For these 
two reasons, they lack the neatness and the definiteness, the conformity 
to pattern, often associated with alluvial terraces. The streams were 
degrading streams but at the same time were doing a little lateral plana- 
tion. Hence, when cutting down in the rock they have migrated a 
little laterally, and have left, as they withdrew, a gently sloping terrace 


top with an alluvium cover. Occasionally, it has happened that the 
stream after swinging one way, has come to swing in the reverse direc- 
tion, thus partly planing off the first terrace and leaving another on the 
opposite side at a lower level. Had the ratio of down cutting to lateral 
cutting been greater, the terraces would have been relatively higher 
and narrower, and probably they would have sloped streamward more. 

The terraces are of marked economic importance, offering good 
roadways above flood waters, and good building sites above the fertile 
flood plains, but not so far away as sites on the uplands must needs be. 
Springs frequently occur at the back side of the terraces, making them 
still more desirable for residences. The Pennsylvania railroad (Indiana- 
polis division) finds on the Marble Cliff terrace an easy grade from the 
flood plain in West Columbus up to its bridge near the station and across 
to the undissected upland west of the Scioto. Finally, most of the lime- 
stone quarries of the area are in these terraces, because of the excellent 
opportunities offered to get at the rock. 

Other rock terraces occur along the Big Darby. One is two miles 
south of Georges ville on the west side and just south of a large alluvial 
fan. Its top is twenty to twenty-five feet above the water. This 
is the only one along the Darby large enough to show on the map. A 
little gravel or alluvium continues the rock terrace at each end. Between 
this point and Georgesville, a number of miniature rock terraces occur 
from water level to about 20 feet above. The Darbys have cut through 
the drift in many places, but have only begun here and there to cut in 
the rock, hence their terrace series are in a much less advanced stage 
of development than are those of the two larger rivers. While its ter- 
races are not large and are never far above the water, it seems probable 
that the time will come when the Big Darby will have so far cut into 
the rock that its valley too shall be ornamented with terraces of lime- 

Growth of Lateral Volleys. 

As the main streams have enlarged their valleys both downward 
and laterally, and the side valleys have developed, the streams have 
been getting more and more complete possession of the till plain. A 
sag or kettle in the plain collects water. When the depression is full, 
it overflows and the overflowing water carves a little channel away to 
some growing tributary. Thus, the tributary is lengthened by the addi- 
tion of a new section. When the addition is completed and water 
drains from beyond the sag into and through the latter without halting, 
and on down to the larger stream, this whole lateral valley in which it 
flows will be narrow at the head, wider where the sag is traversed, and 
narrow again below it. Many laterals in this way now pass through 
what were once sags or kettles in the till plain or moraine, and hence 


are not systematically larger from source to mouth; nor are they sym- 
metrical. They vary in width, and the stream often lies close to one 
side with no evidence of its having swung across the valley. 

By Springs* — Springs often lead a valley head ward. Water flows 
away from the spring and joins a stream, developing a little valley as 
far up as the spring. Then earth falls repeatedly into the head of the 
new valley and is carried away. By this process, which is known 
as sapping, the valley is elongated, the spring leading it along the 
underground water course that supplies the spring. A fine example 
of this phenomenon occurs a mile or more below Harrisburg in the west 
bluff of the Darby, where a valley a hundred feet long and fifty feet deep 
has been made by a spring issuing from the contact of new and old drift. 

By Headword Erosion* — The universal process of head ward 
erosion is responsible for most of the elongation of tributary valleys. 
Much has already been done toward obtaining complete possession of 
the uplands. Yet hundreds of square miles of plain still exist which 
have been practically unmodified by the streams. Man is aiding the 
work by making open ditches through the fields and preventing erosion 
by underdraining with tile. As one follows up the young lateral valleys, 
their floors in each little tributary are found to approach nearer and 
nearer the level of the till plain. Usually the rock disappears and the 
stream flows on drift some little distance below the sources. (PI. 32 
A and B.) Finally the valley, like a vanishing trench, runs out and 
leaves the traveler upon the upland. This is the level till plain 
previously described. Thousands of little rivulets form upon it and 
creep tmt toward some tributar}' head, then leap over a little drift fall, 
a few inches to a few feet in height, and start down the ravine. These 
tiny rivulets by eating at the ravine heads and pushing the tiny falls 
back are putting the streams in possession of the plain. 

So little progress have the streams made in developing the drainage 
system that the topography is designated as young. The valleys both 
of the major streams and of their laterals are in a youthful stage of de- 
velopment, as is evinced by the relatively steep slopes of the valley 
walls; the narrowness of the valleys; the barrenness of the rocks of the 
valley walls in many places; the broadness of the interstream areas 
which contain the inconspicuous, indefinite divides; narrowness, in many 
cases absence of flood plains; the steepness of the grade of the channels; 
the paucity of tributaries, and the failure of the drainage system yet to 
have gotten possession of much of the uplands. Different degrees of 
maturity are reached by different streams. The major streams, espe- 
cially along those parts working in drift, have the most mature valleys. 
In fact, in some places the development is so advanced that the term 
submature, almost mature, might be applied; while some of the upper 
ends of the tributaries and upland farm streams occupy valleys in such 


A.— Headward erosion valleys as seen from the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad 
north of Orient. Two branches meet in the center of the field. 


^ v ;; . 

B.— A view farther up the left branch seen>bove. 


extreme youth that there really is no valley at all — only a channel, 
whose slopes are so short vertically and so little worked upon by the 
streams that they have not yet reached the steepness considered char- 
acteristic of youth. These valleys are too young even to have steep 
slopes either in their walls or in their channel floors. 

Effects on Till Plain* — Two pictures will serve to illustrate what 
the streams are doing for the plain in the way of dissection. South- 
west from Harrisburg a good macadam road leads toward Mt. Sterling. 
Careful construction and considerable grading have given a good easy 
highway. The photograph for Plate 33 A was taken about one and 
three-fourths miles out from Harrisburg, looking back along the road. 
It shows the ups and downs of this part of the road which are due to the 
unevenness of the plain, unevenness developed by erosion of small 
streams leading southeast to the Darby Valley. These streams cross 
the road nearly at right angles. The plain here may be said to be broken. 
The picture on Plate 33 B was taken two and one-half miles farther 
southwest looking northeast, and shows the extreme levelness of this 
unclaimed portion. Telephone poles, the view of the carriage and the 
house at the end of the road, show vividly how extremely level and 
unmodified the plain here is. 

Varying "Width of Valleys. — A great many of the valleys, not- 
ably the gorges; show remarkable variations in width even within short 
distances, variations which can be traced almost entirely to local causes. 
Some of these have been noted in other connections on previous pages. 
One of the prettiest illustrations of this variation is found in the valley 
of the first stream on the left of the New Albany pike about two miles 
out from Gahanna. (Fig. 15.) The upper part of the valley down 
nearly, to the town line road is narrow, bordered with practically contin- 
uous outcrops of Mississippian sandstones and shales. Then for more 
than half a mile the valley opens out four to six times as wide and is 
grassed over completely. No rock can be found in any part of this 
section, but farther down stream the valley narrows down again for 
one-fourth mile, and the same shales appear constantly. The varia- 
tions here are due to the fact that the present valley crosses an earlier 
buried valley. Where the present valley is in rock, it is narrow; but 
where the stream has had to remove only drift, filling the old valley, it 
has been able to open out a wide one. Northeast of Reynoldsburg 
are several similar illustrations. Between Columbus and Worthington, 
several of the valleys largely in the black Ohio shales exhibit the same 
peculiarities. There is usually an abundance of boulders in the stream 
bed at these wider places. 

From Lewis Center westward, a valley leading down to the Olen- 
tangy has almost continuous rock outcrop in its walls after the rock is 
once reached. But the valley is first of moderate width for some dis- 




tance west of the electric car line, then it becomes wider for a short 
distance, then narrows to a rock gorge at the bottom and so continues 
to the river. Examination reveals the fact that in the upper part the 
bed rock is a black tough formation described in the first part of this 
bulletin as the Ohio shale. In the middle part is a soft, easily eroded, 
bluish rock called the Olentangy shale; and by the time the lower part 
of the valley is reached, the stream has cut through both of these to 

Fig. 15 — Topography and rock outcrops (in heavy black lines) in the vicinity 
of Gahanna and Rocky Fork. 

the hard Devonian limestones below, and here it has been able, so far, 
to carve only the narrow gorge. Many streams tributary to the Olen- 
tangy and a few leading to the Scioto illustrate this type of variation. 
The large streams as well as the small are subject to these phenom- 
ena. At Georgesville, the Darby valley is broad in drift, but a mile south 
of town, the stream encounters the limestone, and the valley is pinched 
up almost to a gorge. The Scioto from Arlington and Grandview 
southward is a broad open valley, but northward it becomes a veritable 
gorge throughout the whole area; because downstream it is in drift and 
alluvium, but upstream in the limestones. The Olentangy is in drift 


A.— Effects of headward erosion on the till plain southwest of Harrisbure; 
bags in road mark places where little valleys have been cut. 

B.— Absence of erosion on till plain near Derby, Ohio. Road is very level. 


from its mouth nearly to North Columbus; then in Ohio shale, in part 
at least, nearly to Worthington; in drift here, for two miles; 1 then in the 
shale, nearly to the north county line; from whence it is in limestone to 
Delaware. The valley gives expression to these variations in material 
by presenting corresponding variations in width and general maturity 
of form. A comparison of the size and depth of the Olentangy and 
Scioto valleys also shows the effects of rock resistance. Although the 
Scioto is three or four times as large as the Olentangy, it has a much 
smaller and even shallower valley in the limestones than the Olentangy 
has in the shales. 

Variations in valley widths have been noted in a few instances 
where the above conditions do not apply, usually at junctions of streams, 
or at turns where lateral planation has been specially active. 

Many streams run their whole courses in similar rock materials. 
Rattlesnake Creek is in the Berea or Cuyahoga sandstones almost its 
whole length; and it has carved a narrow steep-sided gorge which might 
well be called a box canyon, because its sides are so steep and its walls 
make such clear cut angles with both the flood plain below and the till 
plain above. The gorge lies like a trench cut in the plain and is sparsely 
timbered. A similar valley, but one carved in drift, is that of the Darby 
at Orient. It is now r a hundred feet deep, but many times as wide as 
Rattlesnake valley; yet its bluffs are as steep as the drift will stand. 
The Baltimore and Ohio railroad does not descend to cross it, but 
traverses a long viaduct ninety feet above the flood plain. 

A pretty valley entirely in drift leads from a mile or so west of 
Linworth eastward to the Olentangy. Nowhere is the rock revealed 
in it. The valley is open; its slopes gentle, except where recently under- 
cut, grassed over or under cultivation; its floor is evenly graded, and the 
whole valley is beautifully smooth. Similarly, the south valley that 
leads to the Scioto at the Columbus Fishing and Gun Club, has no rock 
exposures, but is mantled and smoothed with the drift until it presents 
most attractive curves and slopes; while the north valley is a rock gorge 
all the way. Such comparisons as these show clearly the difference 
between age in years and age in development. Valleys in rock are 
very young, while those in drift are many times as far advanced; yet 
in years, all those mentioned are essentially of the same age. 


Many of the more youthful valleys have had landslides and now 
present characteristic topography. In most cases, the sliding has 
been due to ground water producing springy conditions in the drift, 
occasionally in rock. About one and one-half miles southwest of 
Galena along the valley road are well marked landslide surfaces in drift 

1 Orton, Edward, Geol. Survey Ohio, vol. 3,fp. 598. 


over Ohio shale. Several slides in relatively recent times have occurred 
a mile or so south of Georgesville along the west bluff of the Darby. 
On the same side, some four miles below Harrisburg, are many more 
large drift slides. Some have a growth of young trees twenty-five or 
thirty years old upon them. Rock slides are known in the gorges 
tributary to the Scioto and Olentangy. Usually these affect the stream 
only a few years and are then all washed away, but a few persist for 
many years. 

Water Falls and Rapids. 

Many of these youthful valleys have rapids and a few of them have 
falls, which have gained a little local notoriety. Hay den Falls is per- 
haps best known. (PI. 27 B.) The water leaps over a layer of the 
Columbus limestone after cascading over several layers of the less re- 
sistant limestone above the hard one. The fall, which started at the 
bluffs of the Scioto, has retreated upstream only a short distance. 
Recently, the water has ceased during low stages to go over the falls, 
but drops down into joint cracks some distance above the fall and 
finds its way through them out to the Scioto. Many streams during 
low stages follow this peculiar habit of losing themselves in cracks in 
the limestone near their mouths, and then emerging nearer the river or 
even below river level. In the case of Hayden's or any other stream 
with a fall from which underground passages have withdrawn the 
waters, the fall ledge constitutes a natural bridge; and if the lower pass- 
age becomes large be f ore the span collapses, a very attractive bridge 
will result. 

Indian Run entering the Scioto at Dublin has two branches uniting half 
a mile above its mouth. Falls, having retreated from the Scioto bluff up to 
the junction, divided, and each part has now migrated some little distance 
up its fork. The fall here has retreated much farther than that at Hayden's, 
possibly because there is more water. Just west of the new Casparis quarries, 
three-fourths mile up stream from Marble Cliff and west of the Scioto, a small 
stream enters the river with a 30-foot fall over the topmost layer of the Co- 
lumbus limestone; and the same stream has rapids for a hundred yards or 
more, higher up, over the thin-bedded Delaware limestone. This fall has 
retreated a little over 100 feet from the Scioto bluff. Slate Run on the east 
side of the Scioto a mile and a half above Fis hunger's bridge, has a small two- 
step fall over a layer of the usual fall- making limestone. This fall has re- 
treated nearly one-fourth mile from the Scioto bluff. Opposite Hayden's 
Run is another small fall. Several others occur in the laterals of the Scioto, 
and a few insignificant ones in the laterals of the Olentangy. 

Some falls occur over the top layer of the Columbus, others over 
different lower layers of the same formation. While the falls are over 
a layer twenty-five to thirty feet below the top of the Columbus, oftener 
than over any other, no layer seems to be preeminently the fall-maker. 
Neither is there any system in the distance the falls have retreated. 
Some streams have none. The Scioto itself has no fall, but in places 
has little rapids. It is on the Columbus limestone continuously from 


Marble Cliff, northward eleven or twelve miles into Delaware County, 
where it has cut entirely through the formation to those below. All 
the lateral streams are in gorges in the limestone, and the upper Scioto 
has a gorge beneath the top of the Columbus formation. The latter 
has entirely passed the fall stage, if it ever had falls. Their presence 
in the laterals would suggest that they may have occurred in the Scioto; 
but the facts, that there seem to be no common fall-maker and no uni- 
formity of retreat, would indicate that in the Scioto there probably 
never was more than rapids, unless for a short time at the southern 
limit of its gorge, and even there it is believed to be improbable. 

Many streams have rapids over limestone or shale ledges, and oc- 
casionally over the old drift and over beds of residual boulders left by 
the stream after sorting out the finer movable elements of the drift. 

Flood Plains. 

A brief survey of the physiographic map or a little observation in 
the field would show that there is a great variation in the degree of 
development of flood plain along different streams and in different parts 
of the same stream. The Scioto has the widest flood plain and is the 
largest stream, but it also has a very narrow plain in places. For 
example, about one mile south of the Duvall road across the river, it is 
less than one-fourth mile wide; while at the Hartman farm and north- 
ward to West Columbus, the plain is one and one-fourth to over one and 
one-half miles wide. This is all in drift. From Marble Cliff northward, 
the flood plain is quite limited, often wanting, usually too small for 
cultivation. From Marble Cliff down, the stream is not degrading 
perceptibly, but is cutting laterally. Up stream the lateral cutting 
is still very slight. Undoubtedly, the ratio of the lateral to the vertical 
erosion in recent times is the variable upon which the flood plain width 
depends. Streams in drift or soft shale, even though small, axe cutting 
laterally enough to have developed flood plains. The plains are made 
of alluvium, with large recent fills in places. (PI. 34 A.) In some localities 
the alluvium overlies rock platforms; in others it overlies gravel; 
but in either type the deposit is there because of slight aggradation dur- 
ing lateral swinging. In this swinging the stream cuts out rock, drift, or 
previous deposits from one side, and lays down material on the other, 
coarser materials near the bottom and finer upward to the topmost level 
of the highest flood, which is manifestly the limit of stream aggradation. 
The surface of a newly finished section of flood plain is a little below the 
level of the plain being cut away, which may give a measure of the rate 
of down cutting. 

Meandering and Abandoned Channels* — The lateral cutting is 
sometimes associated with meandering, and where so related abandoned 

1000— G. B. 14. 


channels, oxbows, and cut-offs occur. One and one-half miles above 
Harrisburg, the Darby has abandoned a mile of channel in the flood 
plain. The southern end still contains a pond or lake. The channel 
northward remains open but is not now swampy nor, except in flood, 
water-covered. Similar abandoned channels can be found along all 
the larger streams and many of the smaller ones. 

Sand Bars* — Sand bars occur in many places on the flood plains, 
some five to ten feet above them. These were built during high "stages 
of water. Two examples may be mentioned. One is two miles north 
of Harrisburg in the Big Darby valley. It rises ten feet above the 
plain at its north end, but descends southward and blends with the 
plain at the lower end. The other is in the Scioto valley a mile or so 
south of the mouth of Big Walnut. This one is about a mile in length, 
but the former is much shorter. 

In a few places, the stream is now braided and aggrading. One 
to one and one-half miles downstream from Orient, the Darby is so 
conducting itself because of the undercutting, slumping and rapid 
erosion of the tumbled waste, upstream. More waste falls in than the 
stream can carry away, hence it aggrades therewith. The larger streams 
especially are not now doing much down cutting, as is made plain in 
places by the large development of flood plain and associated features. 
The plain is level and only a little above the stream; and there are upon 
it large alluvial fans. Now the making of these fans must have required 
considerable time; and they could not be started until the flood plain 
was finished and the stream had swung away. During their building, 
the stream has cut down scarcely at all. Hence, it is argued that the 
streams are not at present actively degrading. Further evidence on 
the amount of erosion now being accomplished by the Scioto is furnished 
by studies at Columbus, where the dredging for gravel is being carried 
on. Gravel is removed from the channel of the stream for commercial 
purposes, and the depressions resulting do not fill with gravel, nor even 
with sand, but with mud, showing that the river does not bring to these 
places any coarser materials. 1 

A very pretty ■ feature is the artistic blending of the valley wall 
with the flood plain. This is most pronounced along the larger streams 
in valleys in drift, but it may be seen along almost any stream where 
no recent undercutting has occurred. It is mainly due to the washing 
and falling in of waste from the valley walls. 

In many places along the larger flood plains, artificial levees or dikes 
have been constructed to keep the water off these flood plains. These 
are much narrower and have steeper slopes than natural levees. 

1 This item was furnished orally by Mr. A. L. Smith, of the Geol. Survey 
of Ohio. 


, A.— Deposit of sand laid on flood plain of Olentangy River on Ohio State 
University farm. This delta-like form is thick enough to cover corn stubble, and 
was all laid during one high-water period of thirty hours. {Photo by J. E. Hyde.) 

B.— Gently sloping alluvial fan at the mouth of a ravine near Grandview. 
Several such fans on the Scioto flood plain can be seen from the Arlington car 
looking north. The ravines furnished the waste now laid in the fans. 


Alluvial Fans. 

A glance at the physiographic map will show to what an extent 
large fans have been formed, but nothing less than a trip along a flood 
plain can reveal the beauty and abundance of the little fans which 
universally adorn them. Alum Creek, Big Walnut and, to a less extent, 
the Olentangy present the large fans. Typical examples may be seen 
opposite Westerville, opposite and south of Pinhook, and at the mouth 
of Big Run north of Clinton ville. A single large lateral has a simple 
fan, unless it has been eroded away by the main stream; but a group of 
laterals, as opposite Africa and again two miles further upstream, build 
a series of fans blended together at their sides, constituting a compound 
fan. Sometimes a large lateral of low grade has a large fan, and a small 
lateral has a small steep fan on the large one. Such a combination 
occurs on the Olentangy flood plain east side, a mile or so north of the 
Franklin-Delaware county line. Other fans occur on terraces, as does, 
one along the Scioto on the big terrace east of the river, and two miles 
above the storage dam. Even up many tributary laterals, such as 
Springwater and Glenmary runs, the Lewis Center valley and Rocky 
Fork, fans have been made by their laterals on flood plains and some- 
times on terraces. The younger and steeper the lateral that made the 
fan, the steeper the fan. Some were built in the youth of the laterals; 
and now in a slightly more mature stage of the lateral, the fan is found 
to be too steep, so the stream has trenched the fan, deeply at the top 
and less at the margin, and with the waste removed has built a secondary 
fan at the margin of the first. Nearly every little ravine leading down 
a bluff from the uplands and mouthing on a flood plain has a fan at its 
mouth. Literally, hundreds of these fans may be seen in a few days of 
travel along valley walls. A ride to Arlington on the Grandview car 
will suffice to show several very fine examples with radii of 100 to 500 
feet and altitudes of five to fifteen feet. (PL 34 B.) 

Succession of Events. — Some fine lessons in the succession of events and 
time consumed in making a series of features may be worked out with a 
study of fans and flood plains. Suppose one finds a group something like that 
shown in Figure 16, which is a conventionalized sketch of an actual problem 
found in one of the minor valleys of the area. There were in the field the 
upland (a) in which the valley had been carved, the east wall (b) of this larger 
valley, a rock terrace (c) to the left, covered with alluvium, and preserved 
since the valley was about half as deep as at present. Then there were two 
alluvial terraces with rock below, (d) the older on the right and (e) the younger 
on the left, made when the stream had degraded to a still lower level; and 
(f) the gravel and sand deposits of the present stream level. Three fans 
occur, a primary (g) on terrace (d), and a secondary (h) in front of its pred- 
ecessor, and another primary one (i) on the lower plain (e). The gorges (j) 
which furnished the waste for fan (g), and (k) similarly related to (i), differ 
in form in accordance with their respective ages. 

One of the last features made is the lower flood plain (f), which has willows 
and sycamores of good size upon it. Another recent feature is the secondary 
fan (h), which now has a walnut tree upon it over fifty years old. Not much 
material has been laid around this tree as it grew, hence fifty years ago this 
fan was nearly as it is now. How long it took to build (h) cannot be de- 


termined, but certainly centuries, if s<3 little has been done while a fifty-year 
tree grew. Fan (g) was completed before (h) was begun, because it was 
made by the same stream when the latter required a steeper slope and was 
aggrading its course across (g). After the stream ceased building and began 
to degrade, it trenched (g) and made (h) of the products. The change in 
habit of the stream across the fan is brought about by the reduction of the 
grade in gorge (j). Fan (g), which must have required much time to build, 
could not have been started prior to the completion of flood plain terrace (d) 
and the swinging of the stream away from this east bluff (b) ; and since that 
time the stream has been able to cut down approximately from level (d) to 
level (f), or three to four feet. Between the completion of terrace (d) and 
the present, the stream has swung to this east valley wall a little farther 
north and effaced part of the terrace, then swung away, leaving the lower 
flood plain terrace (e) ; and since the completion of (e) fan (i) has been made. 
It is smaller, its gorge is more youthful and it has not been dissected as has 
(g), all of which indicate its youth and are in harmony with its position on 

— __ #^~ 

i ^3^I$^gP^^ 

Fig. 16 — Birdseye view in block diagram of a group of terraces, fans, and 
related features, selected for a study in physiographic chronology. 

a younger flood plain terrace than that beneath fan (g). Long before the 
making of any of these features whose development has required so much 
time, the stream swung off of the terrace top (c) and then returned on a lower 
level and trimmed its front slope. This present front slope is too steep to 
date from so remote a time; hence, we may infer that the stream retrimmed 
it when it swung east and made terrace (d) or terrace (e). And the main 
valley, carved in the upland till plain, must have been as deep as terrace top 
(c) is below the upland when that terrace was begun. It would now be possible 
to state the time of making any one of the features with reference to that of 
any other, and to state their ages in relative terms. 

That the fans were made by the streams leading out of the ravines across 
them, may be inferred from a long line of evidences. (1) The material of the 
fan is the same as that removed to make the gorge. (2) It is distributed and 
deposited as a stream emerging from a steep-floored ravine upon a level 
plain would do it. (3) Fans are almost universally present at the mouths of 
ravines unless for obvious reasons it is impossible for one to exist there. 
(4) Fans do not occur in other kinds of places. (5) Fans in any given locality 
are consistent in size, form, and materials with the ravines above; i. e., large 
ravines have large fans at their mouths. Ravines with easy grades have 
fans of gentle slope and fine material and vice versa. (6) At certain seasons 
one can see the stream in the ravine pick up materials, transport them and 
lay them on the fan. 

Fans have some economic significance. They make easy grades for 
roads from the flood plain up the lateral valleys. The electric car line 
from Columbus to Arlington uses one to help get from the Scioto flood 
plain up to the till plain level from which the "grandview" is had. In 


many instances, they have furnished building sites safely above the 
floods or malaria of the lower flood plains upon which they rest. They 
have been taken for pleasure shacks, for stock yards with the pasture 
below, and for sawmill sites while the flood plain and hillside lumber 
was being worked up. 

Changes on the Till Plain. 

In most respects, the unclaimed parts of the till plain have suffered 
during post glacial time the least alteration of any part of the region. 
Yet, even on these level upland areas there has been considerable change 
locally. While the valleys were being carved, terraces trimmed out, 
flood plains constructed and adorned with fans, and lateral valleys 
developed, surface wash has carried a little of the finer materials from 
the higher swells of the till plain into the low places and leveled them 
up, at the same time leveling down the swells. Thus, many kettles too 
have become more or less completely filled. Some kettles, however, 
containing water, have developed swamp conditions and to this day are 
haunts of the blackbird, muskrat, crayfish and frog, together with the 
cattail and sedges. Such swamps can easily be found, and many of them 
have been mentioned on previous pages. Other kettles have developed 
peaty conditions and today present young peat bogs. Probably the 
best example of this feature occurs about half way between the Scioto 
and the Olentangy rivers, a little west of Seagrave and four and one- 
half miles northwest of Columbus. Others are to be found just west 
of the Scioto on the upland plains both north and south of the Franklin- 
Pickaway county line. Recent effort has been made to drain some of 


Peculiar Valleys. 

\. Rocky Fork Above Gahanna* 1 — Several valleys merit special consideration 
because of the apparent abnormalities which they present. One of these is 
that of Rocky Fork, which enters Big Walnut at Gahanna from the east. 
The upper course to a point some three miles from the mouth, is in drift 
touching rock occasionally. Then the stream is on the sandstones and shales, 
and has a narrow, rocky gorge for about a mile. At this point the valley 
widens, rock may be found only on the east side, and gentle drift slopes 
border a broad flood plain on the west side. (A, Fig. 17.) This continues 
for possibly half a mile, when the valley again becomes much constricted, 
and rock in steep cliffs stands on each side. The throat (B) is some 500 feet 
long, beyond which a broad valley with a valuable flood plain succeeds, and 
the rock is not found in either valley wall until near the swing-bridge, where 
the chocolate shales abut against the drift (C). (See p. 250.) The contact 
is a south or southeast sloping surface, as if the shales had been eroded from 
that direction to this point, and then the drift put into the valley thus made. 
(PI. 27 A.) The branch (D, Fig. 17) has no rock exposed at any point, and 
wells along the highway eastward even beyond the schoolhouse do not reach 
rock even at depths greater than the present valley. At the down-stream 
entrance to the throat mentioned above, and on the east side of the Fork 
the rock-drift contact is a south' facing slope. The^ little stream (E, Fig. 17) 
is on rock nearly to the mouth, but the last 600 feet or more is in drift. It 

1 Most of these little problems have been worked over repeatedly by 
students, but none of them have ever been published. 



seems probable after examining the rock distribution (Fig. 15) that the pre- 
glacial (or interglacial) valley here bends northward a little from a westerly 
course and is intersected by the postglacial valley. Possibly the broken 
line (Fig. 17) may represent the north wall of the buried valley. 

More peculiar is the abandoned valley behind the hill toward which the 
swing-bridge path leads. This channel is over a mile long and from 300 to 
1,000 feet wide. It joins the present valley at each end at points less than 
one-fourth mile apart. The eastern or upstream end (F) is about twenty 
feet above the present valley flood plain, while the western end is twenty 
feet lower and not more than eight or nine feet above the present adjacent 
flood plain. The latter descends some ten feet between the two entrances 
to the abandoned channel. 

It seems probable that Rocky Fork once flowed through this abandoned 
loop, but at that time it did not take it's present course at the suspension 
bridge. In the course of time, the curve near the bridge where the stream 
turned north, by undercutting, pushed westward; and the curve, where the 

Fig. 17 — Sketch map of salient features of Rocky Fork. Smooth line, bluffs, 
crinkled line, streams; hachures, rock; heavy broken line, probable north 
wall of buried valley; light broken line, suspension bridge and path. 

stream emerged from the now abandoned loop and turned west, by cutting 
eastward, approached the other curve. When the two curves met, the stream 
on the west was some twenty feet lower than that on the east side, i. e., equal 
to the fall of the stream in a mile-long journey around the loop. When the 
partition between the curves broke, the water abandoned the loop and took 
the shorter course. In this new course, the stream finally swung laterally 
and widened its valley to the present limits. Not much down-cutting- has 
been accomplished since this diversion, but the fall at the cut-off has been 
distributee, and the average grade of the stream in this part has been some- 
what lessened. 

The main points which lead to this interpretation follow, (a) A marked 
similarity exists between the abandoned loop and other valleys. It is evidently 
a stream valley, (b) The slope of the abandoned valley floor is down stream, 
but with a steeper slope and a higher level than has the present stream. This 



condition must have existed, if the stream went through the loop in earlier 
days; for all the streams in this vicinity have been lowering their beds and 
reducing their grades, (c) At (G, Fig. 17) the abandoned channel has boulders 
in it, as have present stream valleys, (d) It is manifestly not due to deposi- 
tion, although all surrounding valley walls are of drift. The cut-off must 
have occurred a great time ago, because the new course is now nearly as well 
matured as other parts of the valley continuously occupied; while the aban- 
doned part has no steep, recently undercut slopes, but all are evenly graded. 
Moreover, a good-sized fan has been built on the floor of the abandoned 

The broad section of the Rocky Fork valley (A, Fig. 17), above the 
throat, is due to a large curve in the stream now abandoned. This one differs 
from the one just described, in that the stream cut out all the land in this 
loop and left no hill. The plausibility of the explanation above for the isolated 
hill and abandoned valley seems greater when it is noted, that, if this loop 

Fig. 18— Hachure map of region in north branch of Lewis Center. Stippling 
more or less level flood plain deposits. Hachures, rock slopes of various 
degrees of steepness, usually mantled. 

(A) had cut through to (G) before the other loop had cut itself off. the throat 
would have been deserted and the peninsula-like mass of land now carrying 
the tree cliff would have become the isolated hill, while a horse-shoe-shaped, 
abandoned channel would have extended from (A) through the throat (B), 
past (F) to (G). Undoubtedly, the absence of rock in some portions of this 
valley, due to the encountering of the buried valley, has been a factor in the 
development of these peculiarities. 

2* Lewis Center Valley* — Two rather unusual features in this valley 
merit mention. They are both to be found up the north branch fully half a 
mile from its junction with the east fork. In this vicinity, the valley, wholly 
in the black shale, widens out to two or three times the width, either above 
or below the place, and the stream describes two closely compressed, deeply 
intrenched meander loops. An isolated rock hill stands here in the valley 
between the mouths of two laterals, which enter from the east and northeast. 
The problem is the explanation of the isolated hill (G, Fig. 18). The streams 
must have started with easy grades on the till plain, and as time went by, 



they incised their channels into the rock little by little. Lateral planation 
perpetually on the same side during the long continued down-cutting has 
accomplished results which the stream could not attain, cutting alternately 
on one side and then on the other. The big stream loops, which swing around 
curves (A and B), have enlarged and slowly slipped of! the spurs, which now 
extend far out into the loops. The necks of these tongues are narrowing, and 
may some day be cut through. Streams (NE) and (E) arriving from their 
respective directions, entered the main stream with a narrowing ridge between 
them. Each stream has gradually slipped southward (NE) over spur (C) 
and(E) over spur (G), just as the loops slid off of their respective spurs, 
leaving similar long, gentle slopes descending southward; and each has under- 
cut on the south side, making a steep cliff. Stream (E) has been more migra- 
tory than the others, for it and stream (NE) have succeeded in cutting out 
the rock between them near (F) and thus have isolated the hill from the 
end of the spur between them. Since the isolation both the main stream and 
(NE) have been planing off the hill; and (E) has deposited material for quite 
a fan (F), as it comes out of its gorge upon the flood plain. 

The other unusual feature is a hanging valley and cascade a little farther 
up this same branch. A stream with little entrenched meanders comes down 
from the west and leaps over an undercut bluff ten or twelve feet high, into 
the larger stream, while a similar little valley with curves like those of the 
entrenched meanders, extends from near the fall along the bluff southward 
perhaps a hundred feet. This short valley does not connect with the small 
valley from the west, though at one time it may have done so; but both ends 
of it connect with the main valley. It has been suggested that this short 
valley represents a former course of the main stream or the course of a part 
of the main stream. It seems more probable, however, that when the main 
stream had the course of the broken lines (A and B, Fig. 19), the little stream 
did not terminate at its present mouth (C), but turned on land now cut away, 
and passed through the abandoned short channel and entered the main 
stream near (D). The same undercutting by the main stream which tapped 
a meander of the lateral, cut away the former mouth of the stream from 
D to D 7 . This explanation is supported by the following facts: (a) The 
main stream manifestly has been, and is undercutting, (b) The meanders 
of the lateral and of the abandoned channel are similar as to size and stage 

of development. (c) The abandoned 
channel descends from (C) to (D) at 
about the same rate as does the present 
channel of the little stream. That the 
mouth of the lateral has been under- 
cut is shown by the fact that it is 
now, at (D), a foot or more above the 
main valley floor. A formula for the 
height of the hanging valley in a case 
of this kind may be stated as follows: 
The mouth of the lateral valley now 
hangs as much as the fall of the lateral 
from the new mouth to the old, minus 
the fall of the main stream between 
the same points and the amount the 
lateral has cut down since the capture, 
and plus the amount the main stream 
has cut down in the same time. Certain 
obvious substitutions must needs be 
made, if the main stream has aggraded; 
but such a variation would be rare, be- 
cause an aggrading stream is not liable 
to undercut in this manner. 

In the valley of Glenmary a short 
distance below the electric line, is a 
case very similar to this, except that just before the streams had completed 
the work, man aided by a little cutting and rilling. 

Back at the steep bluff north of loop (A, Fig. 18) a stream enters in a 
hanging valley much like the above; but in this case the stream formerly 
entered farther up stream (Fig. 20), rather than farther down stream, i. e., 
along the broken line. The formula for the height of the fall or amount of 
the "hang" of the lateral, could be stated for this case also. 

NfY * 

Fig. 19 — Map illustrating one method 
of stream capture shown in north 
branch of Lewis Center Run. 



3» Solution Work. — Sinkholes, mentioned in another 
are very numerous west of the Scioto and northward 
from Marble Cliff (Fig. 21), and a considerable num- 
ber of them occur west of the Olentangy from 
two miles south of Hyattsville to the northern edge of 
the quadrangle. The solution work accomplished by 
ground- water moving along joint planes, to which these 
sinks are due, must have occurred before the last advance 
of the ice and possibly before any advance of it. They 
certainly represent a long period of ground- water erosion, 
and could not have come into existence while the stria- 
tions on the rock surfaces nearby have remained almost 
untouched. That they are limited to the areas sketched 
above is true, because only here has the post-glacial sur- 
face water found its way through ready-made passages to 
the rivers. However, subterranean passages of the same 
sort are known in many other places, and no doubt they 
exist all over the area immediately underlain by the 
Devonian limestones. 

Their relation to valleys is illustrated in an interest- 
ing case a mile north and a little east of Hyattsville. The 
first run south of the east-west highway, leading down to 
the Olentangy, has a big sinkhole into which the drain- 
age for over half a mile pours. The valley increases 
normally in size, depth and maturity down to this point, 
where it is a broad, deep valley with a large capacity 
for water. But immediately below the sink, the valley 
is ten feet shallower, and there is not much channel. 
Water all goes down the sink under ordinary circum- 
stances, and there is none to make a channel below. 

connection (p. 254), 


Fig. 20 — Map il- 
lustrating a sec- 
ond type of 
stream capture 
in north branch 
of Lewis Center 
Run. Same 
part of stream 
as Fig. 18. 

Fig. 21 — Partial view of a sinkhole in limestone on the farm of Mr. Schrumm 
west of railroad bridge at Marble Cliff. Horizontal layers of limestone 
show from bottom of pit nearly half way to the top. The dark place at 
the right of the stones marks the entrance to a passage leading west- 
ward many feet along a joint plane. 


During rainy weather, water collects in the hole and goes down as fast as 
the passage will permit; but if the pit fills full, it sometimes requires a day 
or two for all standing water to drain away. The water is said to emerge 
and enter the Olentangy by means of a spring at low water stream level. 
Another similar large sink in a valley occurs about a mile further south. A 
third fine example is. just south of the road leading east, one and one-fourth 
miles south of Hyattsville. Here, the sink takes all water collecting in the 
channel above it. The valley below is not so deep as above, and is beautifully 
graded and grassed over and has no channel at all. Side valleys have large 
fans spreading out across the valley floor. Farther down, a tiny stream 
again begins in the valley and flows out to the mouth at the river. Water 
must have gone all the way down the valley once, and after the valley had 
reached about its present size, the underground passage was found, which 
has been used ever since. 

Rows of sinks sometimes occur with no surface connection, but with 
unquestioned subterranean communication. Other sinks occur with valleys 
leading to them and absolutely no sign of one beyond. Such is the case a 
mile or more northwest of Dublin, near the schoolhouse. Undoubtedly, a 
considerable number of the springs known along the western Scioto bluffs 
are outlets for sinkhole drainage, and obviously should be avoided as drink- 
ing places. 

Valleys and Deforestation. 

A century ago, nearly all this region was more or less densely for- 
ested. Valleys had become adjusted to that condition. The change 
to the present farming condition has brought about considerable altera- 
tion in many of the streams and corresponding changes in the valleys. 
If timber is removed, water moves over slopes more freely and carries 
waste down to valley floors faster than streams can remove it. Hence 
a considerable number of valleys have been aggraded and do not show 
rock at the bottom. Several of this type lead into the Olentangy from 
the west, a little south of Hyattsville, and others lead into Alum Creek 
opposite Africa. Those thus aggraded are level floored in cross-section, 
and, if pastured and kept clean of brush and weeds, present beautiful 
grassy slopes and floors. Many still forested have not been aggraded, 
and others deforested and now reclothed with new growth of timber 
are being re-excavated. Those in a brushy condition and unpastured 
are often springy and swampy because of plant interference with drain- 

Relation of Present Scioto and Olentangy to Pre glacial Valleys. 

It has long been believed that this region held the key to the prob- 
lem of the preglacial Scioto or of the drainage of Central Ohio, and dur- 
ing all this work care has been taken to find, if possible, a solution to this 
problem. Many items have been collected which have a bearing on the 
problem, some directly, some rather remotely; and it will be the purpose 
of this section to set down in order the facts and arrive at a probable 

It is well known that the present topography descends southward 
over nearly the whole area, and westward over a small strip along the 
eastern side. The only exception to this last statement is between 


Pickerington and Waterloo where the surface averages about 800 feet. 
It has been determined that the rock topography also descends in the 
same directions. (PL 26.) Reference to this map shows the rock alti- 
tudes across the north, so far as known, to be uniformly above nine 
hundred feet except for two well records one and one-half miles apart 
between the Scioto and Olentangy. This statement excludes the present 
valleys of the Scioto and Olentangy rivers, together with Alum and Big 
Walnut creeks, the first three of which are in this section on rock and 
have bed rock high on both sides, indicating that they are in valleys of 
their own making at these parts; while the latter seems to be entirely 
walled and floored with drift, but has cut only to 900 feet here. It will 
be shown that the present valleys are the work of the streams in them. 
Therefore, it does not seem possible that any stream of these larger 
sizes could have come into the area from the north, and certainly none 
could have left there. 

Along the western side, many well records and rock outcrops give 
figures for the top of the rock as shown on the map. (PL 26.) No 
reading along the border is low; but one to four miles in from the border 
and near the northwest corner of Franklin County, several well records 
show rock at or near the bottom. In all such wells the rock surface 
is between 700 and 800 feet above sea level. Rock topography east 
and south of them shows no place so low by scores of feet. Since 
there must be an outlet for the region somewhere if it is stream 
made, it must be sought to the west and southwest. Three wells in 
this group show rock surface lower than the present Scioto, which is 
now in a narrow rock gorge in this latitude. The supposed course of 
the drainage for this pre-Wisconsin depression is shown on the map 
(PL 26) by a broken line. 

Between the Scioto and Olentangy, nearly two miles north of 
Powell, a well reached the rock 735 feet above sea level, or about 40 feet 
below the level of the Olentangy, which is on limestone and has here 
carved a deep rock gorge. This rock surface is also about 60 feet below 
the limestone floor of the adjacent Scioto. At Powell, the wells reached 
the rock at 800 feet above sea level. Streams east of the well reach 
it at 850 feet. Its surface seems to descend westward as if on the slope 
of a valley, hence the broken line indicating the probable course of 
a valley is drawn west of Powell. North and west of Elmwood 
(Linworth on the Hocking Valley railroad) the rock is very near the 
present surface, and 815 to 890 feet above sea level, even close to the 
Scioto; hence it would seem that no buried valley exists between Elm- 
wood and the Scioto. At Elmwood, the rock surface is known to be 
only 700 feet above sea level and lower than the Olentangy River in 
the channel between Elmwood and Worthington. Hence, the broken 
line is made to cross the course of the Olentangy and pass near points 
eastward where the rock surface is known to be less than 750 feet. 


Another line of low levels can be traced from northwest of Wester- 
ville, southeastward through that town, and back to the west side of 
Alum Creek, thence southward to join the line just traced, a mile or so 
south of Minerva Park; whence the course of the combined channels 
starts south-southeast by south and is lost. The channel leading west- 
ward from beyond Gahanna (Fig. 17) may well be supposed to unite 
with this one somewhere west of Gahanna. A group of deep wells west 
of Clintonville and the Olentangy found the rock surface at 760 and 695 
feet above sea level and descending southward. Since no well was 
found in the rock southeast of this point toward the center of the city, 
and since the State House well found the rock at 637 feet above sea 
level, the broken line is drawn to indicate a drainage line leading south- 
east throughout the city. This line and those left farther northeast 
(PL 26) seem to be headed toward the supposed "Newark River" 1 val- 
ley, which may easily enter the area from the east between Reynolds- 
burg and Canal Winchester where the rock surface is known to be low. 
But so many records of the rock surface along the western side of the 
area were obtained, with none low enough by 100 to 150 feet to permit 
the drainage from such a valley or even the valley at the State House 
to escape, that it is believed that no considerable valley leaves the area 
westward. Since the rock seems to be generally out of reach by pres- 
ent wells through the central part of the southern half of the area, and 
to lie very low where found, it is believed that the exit for the pre- 
glacial and probably interglacial waters was south westward. Where they 
went from there is not a part of the problem of this bulletin, but west- 
ward connections have been suggested by Dr. J. A. Bownocker 2 and 
W. G. Tight, 3 which seem entirely satisfactory so far as our local evi- 
dence is concerned. 

Further evidence confirming this interpretation of the course of the 
old "Newark River" valley is contributed by two well records found be- 
yond the boundaries of the area. The first well is three and one-half to 
four miles south by southeast from Pickerington, not more than one and 
one-half miles from the eastern side of the area and directly in line with the 
valley as suggested. The well is 232 feet deep and did not reach rock. 
This puts the rock floor here at less than 600 feet above sea level. The 
second well is one mile southeast of Ashville, about three miles beyond 
the southern boundary of the area and east of the Norfolk & Western 
railway. It is 212 feet deep and ended in fine sand without striking 
rock. This places the rock surface at less than 500 feet above sea level 
here. The so-called Newark Valley belongs genetically with the long, 

i Read, M. C., Geol. Survey Ohio, vol. 3, p. 348. Tight, W. G., Bull. 
Sci. Lab. Denison Univ., vol. 8, pt. 2, pp. 47-59; also vols. 9 and 11. Tight, 
W. G., Prof. Paper U. S. Geol. Survey, No. 13, pp. 19, 23. 

2 Bownocker, J. A., Am. Geol., vol. 23, pp. 178-182. Ohio Acad. Sci., 
Sp. Paper No. 3. 

3 Tight, W. G., Bull. Sci. Lab. Denison Univ., vol. 8, pt. 2. 


gentle, mature slopes discussed on pages 246 and 251, and not with the 
steeper slopes of interglacial valleys. A comparison with the rock 
slopes and the abandoned "Newark Valley' ' between Hanover and 
Trinway will make this fact clear. 

While two or three main buried lines of drainage are suggested 
above, it is not asserted that these were all used at the same time, nor 
when any of them were used. Nor is it asserted that these are all the 
drainage lines now buried. Previous pages of this report mention 
others, and in the area there are at least thirty known buried valleys. 
There may be others as large as some of these, but evidence is not suf- 
ficient to show even their probable courses. In tracing these lines, 
only borings are used which have gravel or sand at the bottom or on 
the rock if they enter it, from a belief that such sections are more 
liable to represent old valleys. 

Present Scioto and Olentangy Valleys Postglacial. 

Resuming the record of these rivers where it was dropped (pp. 276- 
7), it will be shown that their valleys are largely postglacial, even though 
they intersect earlier valleys occasionally. The Scioto from the city 
south does not touch rock, although its bed is lower than known rock 
on either side (PL 26), hence it must lie in a former lowland area. This 
may be considered a valley, at least from Columbus southward to its 
intersection with the "Newark River" valley, probably near the southern 
border of the area. The present valley through this portion is all in 
drift, hence must be recorded as postglacial in a filled earlier valley. 

North of Columbus, between the streams, there are several places 
whose rock floors are below the present channels, and yet the latter are 
on rock, and, for the most part, in rock gorges. It hardly seems pos- 
sible that these present valleys are old ones re-excavated, when there 
occur so many depressions below their levels; and this possibility seems 
still more remote, since we can in places connect up the depressions 
as a system of valleys lying crosswise some of these present valleys, 
but at lower levels than they at the intersections. 

Further evidence supporting the supposition that these streams 
have made their own valleys, since the Wisconsin stage is found in the 
rock terraces. As shown on another page, (pp. 279-80) the terraces in the 
limestone along the streams occur at all levels from that of the present 
stream up to the level of the surface of the rock below the drift; they 
systematically descend down stream faster than the present channel 
descends, and the upper ones have the steeper slopes down stream. 
Hardly could a stream get into an earlier valley, and clear it out, and 
find the features so thoroughly in accord with itself. In addition, if 
the valley with its terraces was here before the glacier made its last 
visit, the terraces should be ice trimmed, smoothed or striated. Not a 


terrace has presented a striated surface to view, except a high one (820 
to 830 feet) near its bluff side about opposite Hayden's Run. 

Quarrymen were recently stripping off the mantle from the rock 
bluffs west of the Scioto about opposite Powell at an altitude of 80 to 
100 feet above the river and 860 to 880 feet above sea level. The rock 
revealed was stream worn, but had no glacial markings of any sort. 
The terrace on the opposite side is about the same height. 

The broad rock terrace between Slate Run and Fishinger's Bridge 
descends eastward, away from the stream as well as southward, and 
has a large sinkhole in it. Borings and wells east of it show the rock 
surface there to be lower than the terrace top, and the wells cited above, 
still further east, show the rock surface to be even below stream level. 
It seems here that the river barely missed getting into an old valley. 
After cutting down to this terrace which must have been a pre- Wiscon- 
sin rock surface, and stripping off the drift, then trimming the terrace 
a little, it swung off westward and made its gorge on that side, instead 
of sliding on down toward the east where the rock surface is so much 
lower. The possibilities suggested and the discordant slope of the 
terrace show what one might expect to find, were the present stream 
usually encountering a buried valley. The accordance everywhere 
else between stream and valley argues for the postglacial origin of the 

Again, neither the Scioto nor the Olentangy valley have led the 
ice forward resulting in a protuberance of the moraine. If there had 
been large valleys here preglacially, the ice should have pushed forward 
into them and should have built a protuberant moraine at such places. 
None of the present valleys has such a scallop on the moraine, nor 
could the buried valleys noted have been very broad, for they have 
not modified the ice-front either. 


If one fully grasps the idea of development of physiographic features 
and succession of physiographic events, resulting in the evolution of 
present out of past topography, it is but an easy step to the concep- 
tion of a future for the present topography. We have come upon 
the stage when the features of the present cycle are yet in youth. Their 
history is but begun. While they have had a past of considerable 
length, they also have a future; and, if uninterrupted, the future will 
be vastly longer than the past. Our acquaintance with this region 
may be compared to one's meeting a child for a day or two and hearing 
the sketch of his life down to date. Such an acquaintance with him 
might give one a glimpse of what he may become — a basis for a fore- 
cast of his future, provided, of course, that one had seen many examples 
of boys grown to men or knew the principles involved in such growth. 


This region being in youth and under the influence of streams in 
a moist climate may be expected to continue to develop into maturity 
and pass into old age normally, if the conditions do not change. Cli- 
matic variation, a return of glaciers, or the incoming of arid conditions; 
or elevation, or depression of the lands; all of which have happened to 
the region, may interrupt the normal processes; but the forecast may 
ignore them at present and try to sketch what may come with a con- 
tinuance of present conditions. 

A few stream adjustments may be anticipated, but in a level region 
of such simple structure but few need be expected. It seems reasonable 
to predict a change some day between Alum and Big Walnut creeks 
south of Blendon. The former has been recently undercutting on its 
eastern side; the latter has a large loop or curve westward which may be 
still farther developed and pushed westward. Since but about three- 
fourths of a mile of territory now remains between the streams, and 
since Alum Creek valley is already 20 to 25 feet deeper than Big Walnut 
on the opposite side of the interstream area, one may expect Big Walnut 
some day to break through and enter Alum Creek, abandoning its own 
channel from this point down. 

Another place where a change may some day occur is between the 
Scioto and Big Walnut at Shade ville. The streams are now not more 
than a mile apart, and modified drift constitutes the only barrier be- 
tween them. The Scioto flood plain is about twenty feet lower than 
that of Big Walnut, hence, when the barrier is planed off, the new 
junction will at once become effective. 

A third similar place is in connection with two small streams a 
little over a mile north of Reynoldsburg. Both are undercutting on 
their adjacent sides, and less than one-fourth mile remains between 
them. This adjustment may precede both of the others, because no 
rock seems to exist between them as high as present stream levels. 

These predicted changes are somewhat phenomenal and the ordi- 
nary, gradual, every-day, developmental changes are really much more 
significant; and attention may now be turned seriously to them. 

Streams will continue to widen and deepen their valleys, thus re- 
ducing both the steepness of the grade, and also the steepness of the 
valley walls. With wider valleys will come wider flood plains, a few 
more terraces, more meanders in the streams and larger but flatter 
alluvial fans on the flood plains. Laterals will multiply, and branches 
on the laterals will develop to the second, third and fourth orders at 
least, until by headward erosion the little tributaries will come to drain 
all the interstream areas. Waterfalls and rapids will be made to retreat 
upstream, until the layers that make them are intercepted by the bed 
of the stream which of course is higher up stream than near the mouth. 
Flood plains will come into the tributary valleys and into their branches. 
Tfie upland will become more and more dissected; the interstream areas 


smaller and more and more serrate-margined; the divides sharper and 
more easily found; all upland lakes and swamps will be drained and 
no level tracts of land will remain, but all will be on slopes. Finally, 
flood plains on the stream level will be the largest plains and will have 
the gentlest slopes; valley walls will become very gentle and will stand 
far apart and be thickly mantled with waste; and the remnants of the 
upland plain (the till plain of today) will be restricted to broad, low, 
uneven-topped ridges, or rows of isolated hills, as far from the streams 
as possible. Streams will no longer be subject to destructive floods 
and all change will be exceedingly slow. 




The economic materials of a, Geological nature within the area 
included in this bulletin are of the commonplace variety. * Of the fuels, 
coal, oil or gas, there are none, and the same is true of the metals. How- 
ever, the materials are of decided value and bid fair to enhance with 
increasing population and the extension of business. The most valu- 
able asset by far is the fertile soil. Second in importance is the lime- 
stone which underlies the drift in the western half of the area and which 
is now worked on a great scale. The other materials are of lesser value. 
The list and the order of their review in this chapter is as follows: 





Sand and gravel. 


Search for oil and gas. 


Underground waters. 






As already stated in Chapter I. the western part of the territory 
discussed in this bulletin is underlain with the Monroe limestone, or as 
it was formerly called the Lower Helderberg or Waterlime. Thus far 
this stone has not been used as a building stone or for other purposes. 
Farther east the Columbus and Delaware limestones outcrop, especially 
along the Scioto River. As is shown in the following paragraphs, one 
of these, the Columbus, is extensively quarried for a variety of purposes. 
Still farther east the Berea grit is found at the surface or just below the 
drift, and while it has a little value it is as nothing compared to the 
same formation in northeastern Ohio, forming, as it there does, one of 
the finest building stones in this country. 

The Columbus Limestone. 

Characteristics. — Economically this is one of the important lime- 
stones of the state, being used for flux, buildings, ballast, roads, walks, 
concrete, lime, fertilizer and in the manufacture of glass and soda ash. 
Quarrying of the stone for buildings and for lime began in the early 


1000— G. B. 14. 


clays of Columbus, but the work did not become extensive until about 
fifteen years ago. Now it is the basis of one of the large industries of 
central Ohio, though the prime use of the stone is no longer the same 
as in years gone by. 

The rock is fairly even bedded, but the layers vary much in thick- 
ness. (Plate XXXV.) Thus at Marble Cliff the range is from less than 
one foot to more than six feet, the thickest layers being below. The 
rock is strong, meeting in this respect the severest demands of the archi- 
tect or engineer. The surface of the layers varies somewhat, giving 
rise to such names as rough rock, hackletooth, smooth rock, etc. Occa- 
sionally it is quite crystalline and takes a fair polish. In fact some 
of the beds were once thought to be marble, hence the name Marble 
Cliff. The color ranges from buff to blue, the former predominating. 
On exposure the shade may darken and often becomes mottled. 

The composition of the stone varies from place to place and from 
layer to layer, and sometimes the changes are notable. Thus the 
"bone-bed" is high in phosphate of lime, one analysis showing over 
16%. J Probably the basal part of the same layer would show less than 
one-tenth of one per cent. Silica is low, ranging commonly from 1 to 
4%, both extremes being unusual. The iron and alumina usually 
comprise less than 1% of the rock. 

Greater variation exists in the carbonate of lime and carbonate of 
magnesia, and as one increases the other decreases. In other words 
when one is high the other is low. The carbonate of lime is highest 
near the top and decreases irregularly with the depth. It may exceed 
96% and fall to about 80%. 

The carbonate of magnesia is lowest near the top, where it may 
be less than 1%, and highest near the base where it may exceed 16%/ 
These relations are well shown in the two following analyses, the first 
of the "Gray Rock" near the top of the formation and the second of 
the "Six-foot Six" near the base: 

Composition of "Gray-Rock." 

Per cent. 

Carbonate of lime 96.51 

Carbonate of "magnesia 1 .43 

Silica '. 1.10 

Iron and alumina N .70 

Phosphorus .04 

Composition of "Six-Foot Six." 

Per cent. 

Carbonate of lime 80.900 

Carbonate of magnesia 16.070 

Silica 2.000 

Iron and alumina .- . . . . 1.100 

Phosphorus .016 

Building Stone*— The formation has had an extensive use for 

Orton, Edward, Geol. Survey of Ohio, vol. 3, p. 611. 


J . I 

I_ I 


Bone -bed 

2'-0 ,7 \ 

) Top courses 


/'- 4" Blue rock 
o'-/o" Gray rock 
/'- 4^" Smooth rock 

z'-o" Calico 

/' - 2" Sheepskin 

°o~- s'\ Two Figths 

/'-* Rough Rock 

/ '- 7" Nineteen Inch Course 

/'-2" Top Hackle 
/'-2" Bottom Hackle 
/ - o" Twelve Inch Course 
o'-//" Eleven Inch Course 

2 '- o"\Tivo Foot Course 

2-6" Two Foot Sice Course 

3 '- o" Three Foot Course 

3 '- 6 Three Foot Six Course 

4 -e" Four Foot Six Course 

6'- e" Six Foot Six Course 

.Bottom of Quarry 

Section of Columbus limestone at Marble Cliff. 


buildings, the best known structures made from it being the State Hoa^e 
and Judiciary Building. The former was erected more than a half 
century ago, and furnishes a good illustration of how the formation with- 
stands the trying Ohio climate. The stone for this building was se- 
cured from the quarry just north of the State Hospital, the lower beds 
supplying the heavy courses for the walls and columns, and the higher 
beds, especially the "Sheepskin," for the steps. The Judiciary build- 
ing, erected about fourteen years ago, is made from stone from the old 
Taylor and Bell quarry, just across the Scioto from Marble Cliff. Ex- 
amination of the walls of the State House shows that the stone does 
not weather uniformly, the result being a rough surface. However, the 
formation is at its best in these massive structures. 

The stone has been but little used in walls of residences owing to its 
unattractive appearance, but it has had an extensive market for founda- 
tions and door and window sills and caps. It is used in these ways in 
a large proportion of the residences and other structures of Columbus, 
its only rival being the Berea grit. The latter may be easily recog- 
nized by its more even layers and the limestone by its rougher surface. 
Further the limestone develops a slightly mottled surface on weather- 
ing, and the sandstone may have a light yellow or even yellow brown 
tint. A little practice makes it easy to distinguish between the two. 

Practically the whole of the Columbus limestone may be used for 
building purposes. Naturally the thickest layers are best suited for 
massive structures while the thinner beds serve for caps, sills and steps 
in ordinary structures. The layers do not vary greatly in a physical 
way, so that one works about as easily as another. The stone does 
not carve well. In former years it had a market for curbings and flag- 
gings, but this is now supplied by sandstone and concrete. It has 
been used also for pavements. 

All in all the formation cannot be classed as a first rate building 
stone, except perhaps for massive structures, its appearance being 
unattractive, and it is gradually being discarded except for foundations. 

In Making Pig Iron* — The great demand for the stone is for 
this purpose. It unites with the silica of the iron ore and the ash of the 
coke, forming a fusible slag which is drawn from the furnace at regular 
periods. For use in making pig iron the limestone must be low in 
phosphorus because that element makes the iron brittle. Silica and 
sulphur also should be low. Not all of the beds can be used for this 
purpose, and at present the upper limit is the "Gray Rock." All below 
this layer is available, though some beds are better adapted than 
others. The demand for the Columbus limestone for making pig iron 
is very large and bids fair to continue so many years. At present the 
market extends as far as Wheeling, Cleveland, Cincinnati and Ironton. 


Other Uses* — The stone has a small market at Barberton where 
it is used in making soda ash. When ground to a powder it is a con- 
stituent in glass manufacture. A smaller use is for fertilizing, serv- 
ing to neutralize the excess of acids in certain soils and to suppty 
lime in others. Pieces. that cannot be used for other purposes are 
crushed for ballast on railroads, for concrete and for making roads and 

Formerly it was extensively burned for lime and the last of the 
old kilns at Marble Cliff has recently been torn down. In fact it is 
still occasionally burned in a very small way at Dublin. The stone 
makes a good lime and the decline of the industry is due in part to the 
sharp competition of other localities, but more largely to the fact that 
the stone can be used with more profit in other lines. 

The Delaware Limestone . 

While in other parts of the State this stone may be classed as a 
limestone, in the territory near Columbus it is represented by shales. 
These have to be removed to reach the Columbus limestone, and being 
unsuitable for other purposes are crushed and sold for ballast, road- 
making, walks and concrete. The Pennsylvania Railroad uses it for 
ballast as far east as Pittsburgh and west to the Indiana line. 

The Berea Grit. 

As the Areal map shows, the Berea grit outcrops across the 
eastern part of the territory, along a north and south belt. The forma- 
tion is drift covered, but exposures are found along streams. It is of 
very little importance and is nowhere worked regularly. At the village 
Harlem the stone has been quarried in recent years for road making. It 
is crushed and covered with a layer of limestone, but is soft and crumbly 
and does not make a good road, even when covered with better material. 

A few pieces of stone are occasionally taken out for building pur- 
poses along Rocky Fork near Gahanna, and the presence of an old pit 
at that place , suggests that it w r as formerly worked in a little more 
pretentious way. 

The Cuyahoga Formation. 

This formation, which underlies the eastern part of the area, con- 
tains a few layers of sandstone. It is of very little importance, but is 
worked with some regularity in tw r o quarries. One of these is at Litho- 
polis where the stone is said to have been quarried in a small way forty 
years. The principal stratum measures nearly four feet in thickness 
and a little higher is one of two feet. The remainder of the stone in the 


quarry is of little or no value. The two layers are worked in large 
blocks, hauled on wagons to Canal Winchester and then shipped to 
Columbus where they are sawed to desired sizes and used in door sills 
and window caps. The available supply, however, has been largely 
worked out. It has a light color and is of good quality. 

The other quarry is near Reynoldsburg and has been worked many 
years. The quality is similar to that at Lithopolis, and the supply is 
larger. The desirable layers range from 3 to 48 inches in thickness, 
and are separated by beds of shales that vary ordinarily from one to 
five inches. The total thickness of the workable stone and included 
shales is about 18 feet, but this may vary from place to place. Nearly 
the whole output is sawed into pieces of suitable sizes and hauled to 
Columbus. It is used for flagging and for purposes similar to that 
from Lithopolis. The stone is reported to have been used for culverts 
and bridges in building the National Road. 

Years ago the stone was quarried along the creek just east of Black 
Lick station. It generally occurs in thin even beds, but sometimes this 
character is wanting. Often the grains of sand are not strongly ce- 
mented, and the rather large proportion of clay present absorbs water 
which may cause cracking on freezing. The layers vary much in value, 
the best being of fair grade and the poorer worthless. They are often 
separated by beds of shale which increase the expense of quarrying. 
The stone forms the walls of the Institution for the Blind at Columbus 
and has been used in many other structures. 


The term clay is rather loosely used. Popularly it refers to the 
fine material found nearly everywhere on the earth's surface. Since, 
however, shales are in most cases simply mud that was deposited under 
water and then more or less solidified, they too are often classed with 
clays. Strictly speaking clays consist of kaolin mixed with various 
substances such as silica, silicates, carbonates, oxides and hydrates. 
Kaolin is formed in the main by the decay of feldspar which is a common 
mineral in granite and many other igneous rocks. Pure kaolin is not 
often found in large quantities, but when mixed with the various materials 
just referred to, it almost covers the earth's surface. 

The nature and quantity of materials mixed with kaolin have an 
important effect on the clay. Thus iron colors it, and when the clay 
is burned gives a characteristic red which grows darker and may become 
black if the heat is sufficiently high. If the iron present is very small 
the clay may burn buff, and the same color results when lime is abun- 
dant, since it serves as a bleaching agent. The iron, magnesia, potash 
and lime (known as fluxes) lower the melting point of clay. The best 
fire clay is a variety having but little of these substances and so fuses 

1000— G. B. 14. 


only at a very high temperature. This variety is commonly found 
underlying coal seams for the reason that the vegetation of which the 
coal was made removed the iron, magnesia, lime and potash contained 
in the clay, thus changing it to fire clay. Clays high in kaolin and low 
in other minerals are used in the manufacture of the finer wares such 
as pottery, while the more common varieties serve for bricks, tile and 
sewer-pipe. The clays found in the territory included in this bulletin are 
all of low grade, and occur at three horizons as follows: 

Ohio Shales* — These extend across the middle of the territory 
from north to south and are inexhaustible in quantity. Fine exposures 
may be seen at many places, notably along the Olentangy River and 
many of the small tributaries to it. 

While these shales may be used for the more common products 
such as bricks, drain-tile and sewer-pipe, they are not well adapted 
for any. The composition may vary rapidly in vertical section and 
areally; making the product hard to control in the kiln and the result 

Frequently considerable carbon is present, the residue of marine 
plants of the Devonian sea. The combustion of this, while the clay 
is burning, may, under certain conditions, produce too high a tem- 
perature, fusing the clay, and of course warping the tile or brick. 
Sulphur also is present in varying quantity, and sometimes concretions 
of pyrites (sulphide of iron) are common. The effect of sulphur depends 
quite largely on its condition, that is, whether it is free or combined with 
other elements. Often it appears on the surface of the finished product 
as a white coating that is unsightly and of course injures the sale. 

Calcium carbonate is another substance that is nearly always if not 
always present. In certain layers this may comprise a large part of 
the mass while in others it may be very small or possibly wanting. 
Tlie effects of this are various, depending in part on the proportion and 
pa the other substances present. It may promote fluxing, and if abun- 
dant acts as a bleaching agent, so that the product has a buff color. 

The iron present is in the form of carbonate, sulphide and oxide, 
and the proportion of these varies notably in different parts of the 
shales. Iron promotes fusion and influences the color. The latter, 
however, is not dependent entirely on the amount of iron, but also on 
the form in which it exists, the other substances present, the degree 
of heat, and the physical state of the clay. 

These shales were formerly used in a large way at North Columbus 
in the manufacture of sewer pipe. The plant was established about 
1869 and soon became a large producer. The market extended from 
Maine to Mexico, and it is said that sewer pipe from this factory was 
laid in every state east of the Mississippi River. The shales were 
ground and moistened and then moulded into the desired shapes and 


Jul 1 " i 


A. — Brick yard at Taylors. 


:: IT 

5 ,- ' ' -J*' 



■■^ ->^^^ PL* J.* J '■ 

* . ' ■* 

. tt' 'IdtJWIN 

B. — Artesian well near Harrisburg. 


sizes. The material shrank greatly on drying and burning, making it 
difficult to keep the larger sizes in shape. Salt and manganese oxide 
were thrown in the kiln, the former for a glaze and the latter to give 
the product a dark color. In 1900 the plant was sold to the American 
Sewer Pipe Company which operated it a short time and then for busi- 
ness reasons closed it. Later the plant was leased to a brick company 
which ran it for a short period. 

The plant of the Fish Pressed Brick Company was located at the 
intersection of East Fifth Avenue and the Big Four tracks. For many 
years its product found a large market both at home and at more dis- 
tant places. Financial difficulties finally closed the works. Products 
made from these shales burn to a light red, but a higher temperature 
darkens the shade somewhat. 

Bedford Shales* — These outcrop as a rather narrow strip along 
the eastern border of the Ohio shales. Exposures are much less common, 
but the dark red color makes them conspicuous. At present these 
shales are used for bricks or drain-tile at two places, Canal Winchester 
and Taylors. At the former the use is so small as to be hardly worth 
mentioning, but the two plants at Taylors are more important. The 
bricks are used in buildings, sewers and to a small extent for paving. 
Only the more common varieties are made. 

Glacial Drift* — This covers practically the whole area and is often 
suitable for common bricks and drain-tile. The latter is made at many 
places, in truth "too numerous to mention. " Brick kilns also are 
found. Probably the largest plant of this sort is at Grovepbrt where 
a clay from the valley of Big Walnut Creek is used. This gives a color 
that ranges from light red to black and the product finds a market as 
far distant as New York. A plant at Westerville has been in con- 
tinuous operation since 1876, making at present building bricks and 
blocks and drain-tile. A clay from the valley of Alum Creek is used. 

From what has been stated it is clear that the territory considered 
in this bulletin contains a vast quantity of clay that may serve in the 
manufacture of the most common products, though the output at pres- 
ent is small. 


Large deposits of these are not widely distributed in the vicinity 
of Columbus. Especially is this true of the northern half of the terri- 
tory. Farther south sand and gravel are more abundant. They 
occur in the valleys and channels of streams, and also outside of them. 
All of these deposits are due quite largely to glacial and fluvio glacial 
action. In the valleys the glacial materials have been worked over by 
running water, but outside they usually lie as the glacier or glacial waters 
left them. Generally the sands and gravels are distinctly stratified. 


A large deposit of gravel is found on the east side of Walnut Creek, 
where the Columbus Buckeye Lake and Newark traction line crosses, 
and has been extensively used in road building by that company. 
Baker's Hill, south of Columbus, is essentially a mass of sand and gravel. 
Much of it has been used by the Scioto Valley traction company in 
making the fill near Obetz Junction. Other hills of these materials 
are found on the Hartman farm south of Columbus. 

Within the past few years a unique industry has developed at 
Columbus. This consists of dredging the channel of the Scioto for 
sand and gravel. Two styles of dredges are used. One lifts the materials 
in buckets while the other sucks it up. Once on board the dredge, the 
material is screened, the finer forming sand and the coarser gravel. 
Boulders secured in the process are crushed and mixed with the gravel. 

It might be expected that the sand and gravel removed in this way 
from the bed of the river would be replaced promptly by high water. 
This is quite true, but the substance is mud, showing that the Scioto 
transports only fine material in this locality. Above the city this river 
flows over bed-rock. Possibly large beds of sand and gravel may be 
found in the channel below the city. 

The valley of the Scioto from Columbus south contains in places 
important deposits of gravel. These are at present worked at one or 
more points on the west side of Columbus. Probably many residences 
in that part of the city stand on beds of this material. 

The uses of sand and gravel are well known. Probably the most 
extensive one of gravel is road building, but it is used also in making 
walks, in concrete and in certain kinds of roofing when tar is used and 
protected with a light cover of gravel. Sand has a large demand for 
making plaster and in cement work. 

Where gravel is lacking the farmers are much handicapped in build- 
ing good roads. Northwest of the city, crushed limestone from the quar- 
ries along the Scioto is used, but to the northeast this is lacking. As 
might be expected, the roads there are poor, but within the past few 
years the farmers have begun building pikes with crushed stone. This 
is commonly sandstone in part, obtained in nearby quarries and is cov- 
ered with limestone from the Scioto Valley. 


The discovery of natural gas in the Trenton limestone at b'indlay 
in 1884 and of oil a year later encouraged drilling in many parts of the 
State. Columbus citizens were quick to see the benefits that would 
result from the discovery of oil or gas, and in 1886 ^drilled a test well 
in the valley of the Olentangy near Buttles Avenue. The stratum 
sought was the Trenton limestone which was yielding such surprising 
results in Northwestern Ohio. This was reached at a depth of 1,915 
feet and drilling ceased at 2,020. Not a trace of either fuel was found. 


Glacial drift 


Delaware limestone 
Columbus Umestone 


JMonroe and 
Niagara limestones 


, Clinton limestone 


Dark gray shales, unclassified 
■&/5' Place of Clinton" oil and gas sand 
t Medina ? shales, drown 



Richmond, Dorraine, J&den and 
Zftica shales and limeslo7zes 


Trenton limestone 

Section of the Kilbourne & Jacobs well, Columbus. 


Not satisfied with this test, the Kilbourne & Jacobs Company 
drilled a well on their grounds in 1891, the object being a supply of nat- 
ural gas for their shops. The Trenton was reached at a depth of about 
2,027 feet, but contained neither oil nor gas. A record of this well, 
showing the formations drilled through and their thickness, may be 
seen on Plate XXXVII. 

While these wells are the only ones drilled in Columbus for oil or 
gas, neither was the pioneer. Many years ago (1857-1860) a well was 
sunk on the State House grounds to secure an adequate supply of pure 
water for the Capitol. The drill did not come to rest until it had reached 
a depth of 2,775 feet. This well too was a failure, for at a depth of 180 
feet sulphur water was found, and at 675 feet a brine. 1 The Trenton 
was shown to be 475 feet thick and below this was found 316 feet of 
white sand-rock. 

The deepest well drilled in the vicinity of Columbus was on the 
Hartman farm south of the city. It reached the unusual depth of more 
than 3,100 feet, but like the rest was a failure. 

About 1896 a determined effort was made to secure oil or gas in 
the valley of Big Darby near Harrisburg. Three wells were sunk, each 
reaching a depth reported at about 1,680 feet. Like most wells drilled 
at that time, the objective rock was the Trenton which should be found 
at a depth approximating 1,825 feet. At depths reported from 388 to 400 
feet a large supply of fresh water was secured which still flows to the 
surface. (Page 314.) 

Some years ago a well was drilled on the Rohr farm in Madison 
Township near the junction of Alum and Big Walnut creeks. The 
Trenton limestone was struck at 2,140 feet, but work continued until 
a depth of 2,675 had been reached. Neither oil nor gas was secured. 
A test was made in the valley of Alum Creek about three miles north- 
east of Linden. The Trenton was reported at 2,170 feet and the drill 
was kept at work until the formation had been penetrated to a depth 
of 159 feet. The failure of the well was complete. About the same 
time a well was drilled on the William Morrison farm, one mile east of 
Blacklick. It reached a depth of 2,153 feet ending in the red shales 
called Medina. The "Clinton" sandstone was absent, its place being 
occupied by shales. Neither oil nor gas was found. 

Early in 1911 a well was completed in the extreme southwest cor- 
ner of Mifflin Township near the northeastern corner of Columbus. The 
top of the Devonian limestone was found at 274 feet and the base of 
the Clinton limestone at 853. The Trenton was struck at 2,110 feet 
and the drill was kept at work until a total depth of 2,630 feet was 
reached, but neither oil nor gas was found. 

In 1909 a well was sunk to the horizon of the "Clinton"* sand- 

1 Orton, Edward, Geol. Surv. of Ohio, vol. 6, pp. 107, 108; also, vol. 1, 
pp. 113, 114. 


stone in the valley of Little Walnut Creek near Canal Winchester, but 
the desired rock was absent and the well was a total failure. About 
the same time a test was made on the Oyler farm a short distance 
southwest of Lithopolis, the result being similar to that near Canal 

Other wells were drilled many years ago in search of oil and gas, 
but the records have been lost. Among the places where tests were 
made may be mentioned Canal Winchester, Westerville and Sunbury. 
Probably all these reached the Trenton limestone. The numerous wells 
drilled on the territory included in this bulletin seem to demonstrate 
that oil or gas in commercial quantity is wanting. 

It may be worth mentioning that the rock from which gas in great 
quantity is secured in central Ohio is absent in the Columbus territory, 
its place being taken by shales. The gas is derived from a bed of light 
colored sandstone about 25 feet in thickness. The position of this rock 
varies from about 105 to 200 feet below the Clinton limestone, and it 
is covered and underlain with shales. It is commonly called the Clinton 
sand, but its age has not been definitely determined. The location of 
the deep wells in the vicinity of Columbus is shown on the map. (Plate 

The absence of the Clinton sandstone explains why oil and gas are 
not found in that formation, but the reason for failure in the Trenton 
is unknown. It may be due to smallness of porosity or to the absence 
of folds or anticlines which many think are essential to these fuels in 
large quantity. Possibly the failure may be a result of unsuitable con- 
ditions for preserving the life of the Trenton or to the formation of oil 
or gas from it. 


These depend chiefly on the precipitation in the form of rain and 
snow, nature and thickness of the surface material or mantle rock, 
and the porosity and structure of the bed-rock. 

The importance of precipitation is self-evident and so will not be 
discussed here. The quantity of water that may be stored in the mantle 
rock depends on its thickness and its porosity. When the mantle rock 
is of fine material like clay, the porosity is small and little water can be 
stored. In fact such material is sometimes quite impervious; but when 
it consists of coarser materials and especially when it contains much 
sand or gravel the porosity is large and the quantity of water that may 
be stored is in proportion. It is apparent therefore that the amount 
of water that may be found in the mantle rock varies from place to 
place. Especially is this true in drift covered areas where the texture 
changes rapidly. 

Much the same may be said of the bed-rock. It may be porous 
and capable of storing a large amount of water or it may be fine and 



Wells to Trenton + 
Wells to Clinton A 

* e %Cafffawa. 

Deep wells drilled on the Columbus quadrangle. 


quite impervious. Cracks, joints and bedding planes in the bed-rock 
are another factor, for they too may serve to store the water. Our ter- 
ritory well serves to illustrate these points. Thus the limestones which 
underlie the western half of the area are porous and much broken by 
cracks and joints. Often these have been enlarged near the surface 
by solution. Further the bedding planes are well marked, making the 
formation as a whole capable of storing a large supply. 

The shales, on the contrary, are fine grained and quite impervious. 
They are cut by many cracks and joints, but the faces of these fit closely. 
The bedding planes are innumerable, but so compact are the layers that 
there is little or no room for water. Manifestly large supplies cannot 
usually be secured from such rocks. 

Underground water always contains mineral matter in solution. 
The nature and quantity of this is determined largely by the composi- 
tion and solubility of the rock through which the water has flowed and 
in which it is stored. Thus on those tracts underlain with limestone 
the water contains much of that substance in solution and is "hard." 
This applies whether the well penetrates bed-rock or stops in the man- 
tle rock, for the nature of the latter is commonly quite largely deter- 
mined by the former. On the shale covered areas the water con- 
tains less mineral matter because the underlying rocks are less soluble. 
However, the glaciers left some limestone in the drift of those areas, 
and that of course modifies the water. 

Iron is another common constituent of water. Usually it is in the 
form of ferrous carbonate (FeC0 3 ) arid is not visible when the water 
first reaches the surface. The atmosphere rapidly oxidizes the iron to 
limonite (2Fe 2 3 , 3H 2 0), an insoluble body of yellow brown color which 
settles to the bottom. In this form it is frequently seen along the 
channels of streams and on the beds of ponds. Sometimes the iron 
accumulates in this way in sufficient quantity to warrant mining and 
is known as bog ore, though no such deposits are found on the Columbus 
area. However, iron is commonly present in the springs and wells of 
this locality. 

Occasionally water from springs and. wells has the disagreeable 
odor of hydrogen sulphide. The source of this gas in such cases is not 
quite clear, but it probably results from the action of water on iron 
pyrites (FeS 2 ). The Ohio*shales contain much of this mineral and it 
is on such areas that water with this odor is usually found, The best 
known springs of this kind in Ohio are at Delaware. 

"Wells* — Except in a few small areas, mostly along streams, the 
mantle rock has a depth adequate to hold a large volume of water, but 
often it is too compact. Wells in such places may give an inadequate 
supply and fail in time of drouth. Farmers meet the difficulty by dig- 
ging deeper. The depth at which a satisfactory supply is found varies 



greatly even where the surface is level or gently rolling. This results 
from the water bearing horizon rising or falling independently of the 
surface, as shown in Figure 22. Wells in the vicinity of Columbus 
commonly range from 15 to 50 feet in depth. 

Quite often wells are drilled, the work being done by machines. 
Such wells are deeper and may penetrate the limestone where it lies 
immediately below the drift. They may exceed a hundred feet in depth 

Fig. 22 — Showing why the depth of wells varies on a flat surface. The let- 
ters A represent three wells. The bed of clay is fine grained and con- 
tains very little water, but the underlying bed of sand and gravel 
is porous and may be charged with water. 

and usually give a large supply. Many wells of this kind exist in Colum- 
bus, supplying manufacturing plants or other industries requiring a large 
volume. Water obtained in this way is less likely to be contaminated 
with organic matter, but it is usually very "hard." 

Artesian "Wells* — A few artesian wells are found. Two fine ones 
may be seen just east of Harrisburg, one of them supplying the farm 
of the Columbus Hospital for the Feeble-minded. These wells were 
drilled for oil or gas (page 311), the supply of water being obtained at 
reported depths of from 388 to 400 feet. The artesian flow is due to 
the water bearing rocks rising to the west and being covered with an 
impervious layer of clay or shale. The water at depth is under "head" 
or pressure and flows to the surface wherever an opening is found. A 
precipitate of iron along the stream leading from the well indicates 
that the water contains some of that metal. 

Near the corner of East 11th Avenue and Summit Street, Colum- 
bus, is another artesian area, but in the past few years so many wells 
have been drilled that the flow has weakened. The water was formerly 
found at a depth of a few feet and in several instances was encountered 
in digging cellars. Here the phenomenon seems to be restricted to the 
drift, but the general principle of "head" or pressure stated above holds. 

Springs* — Springs are common, especially along the west side of 
the Scioto River where it cuts through the limestone, offering an out- 
let for the waters which have been stored in the rock. The Wyandot 
Spring, now submerged by the storage dam, is the best known of these. 
Tradition has it that Indians formerly camped in that locality on ac- 
count of the water. 


The hills around Lithopolis have many springs, a few being large. 
The water-storing rock is mostly sandstone which is comparatively 
insoluble, and hence the water contains little mineral matter. One of 
the springs, "The Jefferson," is used in a commercial way; the water is 
bottled and shipped to Columbus where it is used for drinking purposes. 

However, the most valuable spring on the area considered in this 
bulletin, is located on the grounds of the State University. A visit at 
almost any time, but preferably on a warm day, will show its popularity. 
Interesting too, it was a factor in determining the location of the 
University. After the generous offer of a large sum of money, made 
by Franklin County to secure the institution, had been accepted, various 
tracts were offered for sale to the trustees, and among them the Neil 
farm on which the University now stands. Naturally the trustees 
gave careful consideration to so important a question. After much 
discussion the situation was finally cleared by the remarks of a German- 
American member. "When at last he reached in his review the Neil 
farm, while extolling the character of the land as equal to any they 
had seen, he declared that 'dot sphring' settled the question for him." 
The trustees voted with the speaker, and so the University is by the 
spring. 1 

About twenty years ago a sewer was constructed along the south 
edge of the lake and hence near the spring. It was supposed that the 
water feeding the spring came from the higher land to the north and 
hence would not be intercepted. However, the water flowed into the 
sewer and the spring went dry. Later the sewer was torn out and re- 
built in such a manner that water could not flow through its wall, and 
in consequence was compelled to resume its old course. Since that 
time the spring has pursued an unsteady way. The flow has varied 
greatly and occasionally has ceased. Lowering the lake level a few 
inches will stop the flow of the spring at once. This indicates that 
the sand and gravel underlying the valley and the lower part of its slopes 
are charged with water and whenever the level of the lake falls, that 
in the slopes likewise drops and may fall below the outlet of the spring . 
In the latter event it, of course, ceases flowing. The drift outside of 
the valley to the north, east and south contains much sand and gravel 
which stores a large volume of water, and this flowing toward the 
valley maintains the supply that feeds the spring. 


Sources* — In an unglaciated region the character of the soil de- 
pends on the underlying bed-rock, for the soil was formed from it. 
Along streams, however, the soil may have been transported some 
distance, and so may show marked differences from the bed-rock. 

1 Address by Dr. Edward Orton. Twenty-fifth anniversary of the estab- 
lishment of the University. Published by the University. 


In glaciated regions the soil is derived partly from the underlying 
rocks, but more largely from those a short distance in the direction 
from which the ice came, and to a much smaller extent from more dis- 
tant places. Thus the soils in the area discussed in this bulletin, being 
glacial, have been formed largely from the limestones, shales and sand- 
stones which underlie the area, but they contain materials from the 
counties to the north and to a much less extent from the territory 
north of the Great Lakes. 

As has been shown in Chapter I, the bed-rocks in this vicinity 
form usually rather narrow strips that extend north and south. The 
glacier in this territory moved south, and hence the soil of any locality 
is much the same as if it had been formed from rocks just below, and 
had added to it materials from the comparatively distant north. In 
other words, where the bed-rock is a limestone, it is usually overlap 
with a limestone soil; and where it is a shale, it is covered with a shale 
soil. However, along or near the line of junction of the shales and 
limestones, the soils may contain materials derived from each. 

Varieties* — The soils of this area consist of loams, that is, clays 
containing sand or gravel. Depending on the proportions of these the 
following varieties are recognized: 

Soil. Square miles. 

Miami clay loam 767 

Miami black clay loam 72 

Miami loam 71 

Miami gravelly loam 35 

These form irregular patches so that when they are shown by dif- 
ferent tints, the map has somewhat the appearance of "Joseph's Coat." 
These variations result from glacial deposition and the work of 
streams. 1 

As shown above, the Miami clay loam is by far the most abundant. 
In fact, it covers the entire area, except along streams and numerous 
but usually small patches on the uplands. Its value is nofr uniform, 
for it is dependent in large part on the bed-rock, as will be explained 

The Miami black clay loam differs from the preceding variety 
chiefly in its color. Nearly always it is found on tracts a little lower 
than the surrounding land. Its color is due to an accumulation of 
vegetable matter which in part grew on it and in part was carried from 
the higher land, wind and water serving as the transporting agents. 
Such tracts are usually small and are most abundant in the southern 
half of the territory. When drained, they are more fertile than the 
surrounding Miami clay loam. 

The Miami loam is of finer texture than the preceding varieties. 

1 For maps, see Bureau of Soils, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1902 and 1905. 


In other words, it contains more material like silt and clay. It is found 
in valleys and so forms narrow strips, the widest being along the Scioto 
south of Columbus. It is a deposit made by streams, and usually over- 
lies a bed of gravel. The dark color is due to the presence of vegetable 
matter scattered through it. As a rule it is very fertile. 

The Miami gravelly loam, as its name indicates, contains pebbles 
or gravel, but the percentage of this need not be large. Such areas are 
found along or near streams and sometimes form the second bottoms 
or terraces. They are largely the work of glacial waters, and are more 
extensive on the southern half of the territory. 

Fertility* — The classification just given is based almost entirely 
on fineness of grain. Fertility, however, is not wholly dependent on 
the physical state. It is modified to no small extent by the chemical 
composition, which in turn depends (1) on the rock from which it was 
derived, and (2) on the organic matter present. 

Considered from the standpoint of bulk, soils consist largely of 
clay and sand, but these alone would not support vegetation. In fact 
it can scarcely be regarded as settled just what is necessary to form a 
soil, but most authorities include lime, magnesia, iron, potash, sulphuric 
and phosphoric acids. 

Soils formed from limestones are usually more fertile than those 
from shales or sandstones, because the rock and hence the soil is richer 
in the essentials to plant growth. Practically all limestones contain 
both lime and magnesia. The iron present may be in the form of the 
sulphide and this on decomposition may yield iron and sulphuric acid. 
Another common constituent, though usually in small quantity, is 
calcium phosphate and this supplies the phosphoric acid. 

As a rule the limestone soils of Ohio are notably richer than those 
formed from sandstones and shales. This is best shown in those parts 
that were not glaciated, the farmer stating with pride that "my 
land is of limestone origin.' ' It is also demonstrated by the glaciated 
parts of the State, for the western half which is underlain with lime- 
stones is much more fertile than the northeastern, which has a floor of 
shales and sandstones. 

It is unnecessary, however, to go so far from home for illustrations 
uf this kind. Thus a large part of the western half of the territory 
discussed in this bulletin has a limestone floor while the remaining portion 
is underlain with shales or sandstone. Usually a single trip will show 
the superiority of the soils in the former area. This is best shown 
by crops which require a strong soil, such as corn. 

Eastward from the Scioto River the bed-rock is largely shales which 
nave yielded a soil poorer in plant food. Besides it is fine grained and 
does not freely permit of atmospheric circulation or the escape of an 
excess of water, such as is present in springtime or after heavy rains. 


In times of drouth the soil is hard. The best examples are found in 
the northeastern part of the territory. 

The production of the soil in such places would be notably augmen- 
ted by draining. This may be in the form of open trenches, or better 
of tiling or of both. Two farms, side by side, one well drained the 
other not, give very different results, especially during a wet season. 
Probably no one thing would so greatly increase the productiveness of 
such areas as draining. It is expensive, but the yield more than com- 

In the southeastern quarter of the territory, that is from Columbus 
to Greencastle, the character of the soil has been modified more by the 
glacier than in the area referred to in the last paragraph. The soils 
contain more sand and gravel, and in places are of superior quality. 

The valleys, as might be expected, are more fertile than the upland. 
Their soils contain more sand and gravel, and hence have better natural 
drainage and work more readily. In addition they appear to be richer 
in plant food, having a larger variety of minerals and also more organic 
matter. Much of these may have washed from the adjacent uplands. 
In fact this transfer is the principal reason for the general superiority 
of valley soils. 

These soils are a valuable asset of the Columbus territory. The 
Scioto Valley south of the city has a maximum width of a mile, but 
north of the city it is much smaller. The valley of Big Darby in the 
vicinity of Harrisburg varies from one-half to three-quarters of a mile 
in cross section, but is much narrower to the north. The third important 
valley in the western half of the territory is that of the Olentangy, 
whose width usually ranges from a quarter to a half mile. The soils of 
these are of marked fertility and are especially well adapted for corn 
and alfalfa. Probably those parts near the city will be more largely 
used in the near future for gardening. 

On the eastern half of the territory the valleys are smaller and on the 
average less fertile, the soils having been derived more largely from shales. 
The valley of Alum Creek varies from a quarter to a half mile in width 
and that of Big Walnut averages less, except below its junction with Alum 
and Blacklick Creeks, where it is wider and notably fertile. The valleys 
of Blacklick and Little Walnut are still narrower. That of the latter 
has a rich soil and yields large returns, especially from corn. 

All the valleys in the territory covered by this bulletin are subject 
to overflow and the damage to farmers resulting therefrom is sometimes 
large. The control of these floods is attempted by levees, but the result 
has been only partially successful. Sometimes the waters leave a 
deposit of material that adds to the fertility. At other times sand 
and gravel are deposited. Occasionally the waters erode and then 
may sweep away the soil. 

As a summary it may be stated that the soils are fertile but vary 


from place to place; that those overlying the limestones are generally- 
richer than those over shales, and that those in the southern half of the 
territory are better than those in the northern half. 


Outside of Columbus, agriculture is the principal industry. General 
farming is practiced, but the numerous branches of this vary somewhat 
in importance in different localities. Thus in the northeastern quarter, 
the clay soils are best adapted to grazing, and dairying is an important 
industry. Nearly every village has a creamery and Sunbury a fine one. 
This phase of the industry is practiced in other areas, but is less impor- 
tant. Columbus is an excellent market for these products. 

Except in the northeastern quarter, corn is the principal product 
of the farms. The rich soils are well adapted to this grain and yield 
excellent results. The broad valley of the Scioto River south of Colum- 
bus is perhaps unsurpassed in the State for this crop. Wheat and oats 
also are extensively grown, especially on the upland. On the north- 
eastern quarter these grains do better than corn, and with dairying, 
form the principal industry of the farmers. The southeastern quarter 
also is a large grower of wheat and oats, these grains dividing honors 
with corn. The soils in this area vary considerably in fertility, corn 
flourishing in the richer parts, wheat and oats in nearly all. 

With so good a market gardening is naturally an important industry, 
though the soil cannot be regarded first class for this, being usually 
too clayey and hard to work. The largest gardens are found south 
and southeast of Columbus, and also in the valley of the Olentangy 
from Third Avenue to the northern limit of the city. 

The hills in the vicinity of Lithopolis are comparatively poor and 
not well adapted to grains, especially corn. They yield excellent results, 
however, with fruits. Berries are extensively grown and to a lesser 
extent, the larger fruits. The soils are suitable, and the high land gives 
excellent water and air drainage. Late spring frosts are not common 
because the cold heavy air slips down the hillsides on the lower 
tracts. The land along the Olentangy north of Columbus is also well 
adapted to fruits. The industry there has only been started, but 
should grow in importance. 






December, J9J2 


2— G. B. 15— per V. 

Dr. John A. Bownocker, State Geologist: 

Dear Sir:— I herewith transmit the manuscript for a Bulletin on 
the stratigraphic geology of a part of this State entitled "The Devonian 
and Mississippian Formations of Northeastern Ohio." The collection 
of data for this report and others relating to the stratigraphy of Ohio 
began in 1901 under Professor Edward Orton, Jr., then State Geo- 
logist, and since 1907 has been continued under your administration. 
In the field work the writer has been assisted by several students of 
Ohio State University, the names of whom are given in the introduction. 
It is regretted that the completion of this report has been greatly de- 
layed by other duties. The material is partly in hand for farther re- 
ports of this character and it is hoped that this may be the first one of 
a series of bulletins, by the writer, devoted to the stratigraphy of Ohio. 

With assurances of my high appreciation of your cordial support 
of the continuation of this line of geologic investigation, I remain, 

Respectfully yours, 

Charles S. Prosser. 

Ohio State University, Columbus, March 30, 1912. 




Introduction 333 


The Cuyahoga Valley T . 335 

Lake Erie bluff west of Edgewater Park :--- 335 

Newburg Falls and quarry _..__ ___---. 338 

Big Creek sections _ __- — -_-__—-- 349 

Section near Kinsman Street Reservoir __-_--_.-_- 355 

Doan Brook sections ___.-__ ----? 357 

Euclid Creek and Township sections . - ---- 362 

Older formations beneath Cleveland -^ 357 

Skinner's Run sections --- 385 

Sections near South Park 396 

Tinkers Creek sections near Bedford 401 

Sagamore Creek sections _ 422 

Chippewa Creek sections .-_: .-_- ; - 428 

Section near North Royalton 450 

Brandywine Creek sections - 453 

Section west of Boston Mill .._.___ 466 

Boston Ledges - __. _-.. --- 467 

Boston Run section _ 468 

Slipper Run section _^ -_ 469 

Peninsula quarries --' 471 

Sections north of Everett _. _.- 474 

Furnace Run and branches 476 

Yellow Creek sections _--.-_ 479 

Section of Mud Brook „ 485 

Section in the Cuyahoga Gorge .-- 486 

Akron section ._ 493 

Well sections in the Akron-Barberton district ._---_ 494 

Barberton well No. 11 -._. u..-- 500 


The Chagrin Valley_„_ 503 

The Chagrin bluffs above Willoughby — 503 

Wilson Mills sections . 505 

Gates Mill sections . : 509 

Chagrin Falls sections . 518 

Sections on Aurora Branch of Chagrin River ____.-_- 528 


Lake and Geauga Counties ^ 535 

Section of Penitentiary Glen _ 536 

Section near Mitchells Mill ._ .-_. 536 

Stebbins Gulch . . .. 540 

Gloin Gulch - — 550 

East Branch of Chagrin River near North Munson -_ _._ 552 

Little Mountain sections - 554 



Lake and Geauga Counties— -Concluded. Page 

Outcrops on Char don-Concord and State roads 563 

Sections on Big Creek -- 567 

Outcrops near Painesville 576 

Chardon outcrops _ _ 577 

Griswold Hollow 579 

Hambden Township _ .-- 584 

Bates Creek sections 587 

Phelps Creek section _ 597 

Section on branch of Paine Creek 602 

Madison Township _ 603 

Thompson Ledge and vicinity 608 

Nelson Ledge 614 


Ashtabula and Trumbull Counties and Crawford County, Pa 615 

Trumbull Township ___ 616 

Indian Creek section and quarry -. -- 621 

Phelps Creek section ---- 623 

Mill Creek and well sections 638 

Traction cut and Andrews Creek section 642 

Sections near Warren --- 645 

Walnut Creek section 655 

Cortland well 659 

Mecca Township --.- 662 

Orangeville sections 663 

Orangeville well 668 

Section west of Sharon, Pa. _ _ 670 

Vernon Township 673 

Kinsman Township 684 

Williamsfield Township 692 

Greene and West Shenango Townships, Pa 700 

South Shenango Township, Pa __ 702 

West Fallowfield Township, Pa 704 

Andover Township 705 

Andover wells 709 

Richmond Township, Ohio, and Conneaut Township, Pa. 711 

Summer Hill Township, Pa _ 718 

Hayfield Township, Pa 721 

Meadville, Pa., sections _ 727 

Well records in Spring and Beaver Townships, Pa 729 

Erie, Pa., well record 734 

Cherry Valley and Wayne Townships 745 

Orwell well 756 

Rock Creek section 757 

Jefferson and Austinburg Townships 758 

Conneaut and Monroe Townships 770 

Correlation of the Ashtabula County Chagrin 784 


The Rocky River Valley 787 

Rocky River 788 

Sections near Olmstead 796 

East Branch and Berea „ 801 

East Branch and Strongsville Township 808 


The Rocky River Valley—Concluded. Page 

Southwestern part of Royalton Township __ ___ 814 

Olmstead Falls on West Branch _ 815 

West Branch and Baker Creek _ _ 818 

North Branch -_-_ - ---- 828 


Correlation ___- ___ _ 831 

Introduction , _ 831 

Cleveland shale east of Cleveland ___ ... 831 

Chagrin formation __ 832 

The Bedford-Berea disconformity ____ 833 

Devono-Carboniferous line ______ 833 

Dr. Orton's Devono-Carboniferous line _ _ . 834 

Cleveland shale west of Cleveland ------- - - 834 

Fossils of Cleveland shale ___ 835 

Huron shale ,_ 836 

Chagrin in general synchronous with Huron 837 

Sections on Huron River 838 

Dr. : Kindle' s Huron-Chagrin correlation _ _ , 840 

Dr. Orton's Huron-Erie correlation .__ _ 840 

Professor Branson's description of the Ohio shale _-_-___-_- 841 

Fossil fish and wood of Huron shale _________________ 841 

Dr. Eastman on fossil fish of Ohio shale ___ _ ___..__ 843 

Catamites of Ohio shale 844 

Protosalvinia of Ohio shale ______ _ 845 

Dr. Orton on plant fossils of Ohio shale 845 

Professor Branson on fossils of Ohio shale __________ 1 ,846 

Professor Herrick and Dr. Girty on Devono-Carboniferous line 847 

Opinions of Drs. Ulrich and Kindle 848 


Paleontology _ __ ___ 852 

Introduction 852 

Description of species _ _ _-__ 852 

Dalmanella tioga (Hall) Wms. var. elmira Wms. 852 

Camarotcechia orbicularis Hall. 854 

Liorhynchus ohioense n. sp 854 

Liorhynchus globuliforme Van. chagrinanum n. var.___ 855 

Spirifer disjunctus Sowb. _ 856 

Reticularia prematura (Hall) Schuchert _ _ 857 

CyrtiaaltaHall 858 

Syringothyris texta (Hall) Schuchert chemungensis Cushing n. var 859 

Ambocceliaumbonata (Con.) Hall var. gregaria Hall 861 

Athyris polita Hall 862 

Chonetes minutus n. sp. . _ 862 

Chonetes scitulus Hall 863 

Strophalosia muricata (Hall) Beecher 864 

Camarotcechia contracta Hall _, 866 

Liorhynchus clarkei n. sp. 867 

Liorhynchus ashtabulense n. sp. _ 868 

Liorhynchus newberryi Hall __ 868 

Productella hirsuta Hall 869 

Product ella hirsuta Hall var. rectispina Hall 870 

Explanations of plates _ _ 872 

Plate XL. 

PI te XLI. 

Plate XLII. 

Plate XLIII. 

Plate XLIV. 

Plate XLV. 



Plate XLVI. 



Plate XLVII. 

Plate XLVIII. 

Plate XLIX. 

Plate L. 


Plate LI. 



Plate LII. 

Plate LIII. 

Plate LIV. 

Plate LV. 




Headland of Chagrin shale on Lake Erie to the west of Edger 

water Park and Cleveland „.-. ^ 336 

East bank of Euclid Creek showing Chagrin shale capped by 

Cleveland shale-. — __ 364 

Southern wall of Maxvill and Rolf quarry showing top of 
the massive stratum, top of Euclid sandstone and super- 
jacent bluish shale _.-_ 370 

Upper zone of black shale and concretionary sandstone of 

Bedford formation ( ?) on Skinner's Run ___. 390 

Disconformity between Bedford and Berea formations on Skin- 
ner's Run. Lower bank 398 

. — Disconformity between Bedford and Berea formations on 

Skinner's Run. Middle bank. 
.—Thin-bedded sandstone of upper Berea on Broadview Road 

south of Skinner's Run __ -_ 394 

.—Euclid lentil of Bedford formation with overlying till as 

shown in Independence quarry near South Park. 
. — Contact of Bedford and Cleveland shales below Independence 

quarry near South Park _ _. 398 

Cliff in Bedford Glen on Tinkers Creek, showing Bedford 

formation capped by Berea grit 408 

The Sunbury shale and overlying Aurora sandstone above 

Bere a on bank of Tinkers Creek, Bedford __-. 418 

Bank showing Sagamore lentil and superjacent shale in second 

cut above the railroad culvert on Sagamore Creek. Mr. 

Morse marking top of 2-foot course 426 

. — Cross-bedding in lower part of Berea sandstone as shown in 
Lake Erie and Pittsburgh Railroad cut south of Sagamore 

. — Disconformity between Bedford and Berea formations as 
formerly shown in Lake Erie and Pittsburgh Railroad cut 
south of Sagamore Creek . — 428 

. — Cliff on Tinkers Creek showing contact of Cleveland and 

Chagrin shales.- - ---- 438 

. — The Berea grit in quarry No. 16 at Peninsula 
Bank of Chippewa Creek above Brecksville showing Aurora 

sandstone and superjacent Brecksville shale _. _ 444 

Old Maid's Kitchen near Big Falls of Cuyahoga River, show- 
ing lower part of Sharon conglomerate 

Independent quarry on Aurora Branch showing upper part of 
Berea grit, Sunbury shale, Aurora sandstone and lower 
part of Brecksville shale 530 

— Cliff of the Chagrin formation on the Chagrin River one 

mile below Pleasant Valley. 
—Near view of Sharon conglomerate on Little Mountain 

showing the white quartz pebbles _ 558 





Plate LVI. 

A. — Anticlinal fold and overthrust fault in Bedford formation 

on Bates Creek, southeast of Painesville. 
B. — Disconformity between Bedford and Berea formations on 

Phelps Creek, southeast of Painesville 596 

Sharon conglomerate of Thompson Ledge showing cross-bed- 
ding and differential weathering. _-_ 608 

Joint in Sharon conglomerate at Thompson Ledge 610 

Cliff of Sharon conglomerate at Nelson Ledge showing peb- 
bles, differential weathering and cross-bedding 614 

Disconformity between Bedford and Berea formations in War- 
ner Hollow, below Windsor Mills . 634 

A. — Bank on Phelps Creek at Windsor Mills showing upper part 

of Berea formation. 
B. — Bank of Mahoning River above Warren showing Sunbury 

(?) shale and overlying sandstone 646 

Contact of Orangeville formation and Sharpsville sandstone 

on Walnut Creek in Cortland 658 

Cleveland shale at end of divide (Cedar Point) above junction 
of East Branch and West Branch of Rocky River at 

Olmsted . ~- 796 

Cleveland shale in point below junction of East Branch and 

West Branch of Rocky River at Olmsted 798 

A. — The Chagrin shale on Conneaut Creek, about six miles south- 
west of Conneaut. 
B. — Base of Royalton formation on Willow Brook. Mr. Morse 
stands on the basal sandstone, marks the second one, and 

still higher is the Spirophyton sandstone 812 

Plate LXVI. Channel fillings in Bedford shale on West Branch of Rocky 

River below Olmsted Falls 816 

LXVII. Illustrations of fossils 872 

LXVIII. Illustrations of fossils . - 874 

LXIX. Illustrations of fossils . 876 

LXX. Illustrations of fossils 878 

LXXI. Illustrations of fossils r — 880 

LXXII. Illustrations of fossils . 882 

Plate LVIL 

Plate LVIII. 
Plate LIX. 

Plate LX. 

Plate LXI. 

Plate LXII. 
Plate LXIII. 

Plate LXIV. 
Plate LXV. 



Fig. 23. Sketch of mud cracks in lower shaly zone on Bates Creek, southeast 

of Painesville 1 .. - 589 


Since 1901 the writer has devoted considerable time to the study 
of the stratigraphy;, classification and correlation of the Devonian and 
Carboniferous formations of northern and central Ohio. The larger 
number of these formations were first described from exposures occur- 
ring in Cuyahoga County, hence this county has become a classic one 
for the study of these rocks in Ohio. For this reason a number of 
sections in Cuyahoga County and the adjoining county of Summit 
on the south are described, and then this belt of formations is followed 
eastward to Pennsylvania, noting certain changes in that distance and 
their general equivalence with the formations of northwestern Pennsyl- 
vania as described by that State Survey. After this is accomplished 
the bulletin will return to Cuyahoga County and follow the formations 
along the line of strike for some distance to the southwestward. 

It was the intention after the strike changes to southerly to follow 
these formations to central Ohio, describing them in a similar way and 
noting the changes; but at present all of this territory has not been 
fully studied in the field and it seems advisable to present that part of 
the work which is essentially complete without waiting for further field 
work on another part of the area under consideration. Neither has it 
been possible to make a complete study of the fossils for this report; 
consequently only a few of the very common or most characteristic 
species are mentioned. In a future report it is hoped to give a much 
more complete account of the paleontology of these formations. 

This work was begun under the administration of Professor Edward 
Orton, Jr., as State Geologist, and has been continued under that of his 
successor, Dr. John A. Bownocker. Other investigations, and the 
urgent demands of university work, have left the writer far too little 
time for field work and the preparation of this report; but it is believed 
the matter here presented will add something to the exact knowledge 
of the stratigraphy of the Devonian and Carboniferous formations of 
northeastern Ohio. It is thought that this new and more detailed in- 
formation will be of use not only to the geologist interested in the systems 
under discussion or the geology of northeastern Ohio, but also to the 
business man who may desire information concerning the geological 
formations and structure of that portion of Ohio herein discussed. 

The author's acknowledgments are due Professors Edward Orton, 
Jr., and John A. Bownocker, who as State Geologists have, by their official 
support and interest, made the preparation of this bulletin possible. 
This has included in addition to field work some assistance in visiting 
several large museums where are to be found the type specimens of 
various characteristic fossils. Some of the results of this study are in- 



eluded in this report, although the descriptions and comparisons of the 
fossils are not here fully presented. In the field at various times Messrs. 
Charles H. Flory, John A. Wilkinson, William C. Morse and Clyde R. 
Miller have assisted greatly in the careful measurement of many of the 
sections and in other ways which are hereby gratefully acknowledged. 
The index has been prepared by Miss Gertrude S. Kellicott! 


From Cuyahoga Falls the Cuyahoga River, flowing in a general 
northwesterly direction across the central portions of Summit and 
Cuyahoga counties, has excavated a valley of considerable depth. At 
Cuyahoga Falls the banks are high and precipitous, below which it 
enters a pre-glacial valley and for many miles down this valley the river 
is bordered by fairly steep hills with occasional cliffs. Many of its 
tributaries have cut comparatively narrow valleys or gorges through 
these bordering hills in which the rocks are well shown. On account of " 
these favorable conditions for study a number of sections will be de- 
scribed on the Cuyahoga River and its tributaries from the Lake Shore 
to Cuyahoga Falls. 

Lake Erie Bitrff West of Edgewater Park* — The shore of Lake 
Erie for some miles to the northeast of the mouth of the Cuyahoga 
River is bordered by Pleistocene deposits. Opposite Cleveland the 
lower 60 feet of the bluffs was referred by Dr. Newberry to the Erie 
clay which he described as "a fine, homogeneous, stratified, blue, sandy 
clay, without fossils so far as, has been observed, and with no pebbles 
or boulders. m Superjacent to the Erie clay is a deposit of from "25 to 
50 feet of sand, gravel and clay, mostly coarse and porous material, dif- 
fering greatly in appearance from the underlying bed" which Dr. New- 
berry termed the Delta sand and stated that it "is intimately associated 
with the lake ridges and belongs to the same geological period." 2 In 
addition "Lake Ridges" were described by Dr. Newberry; the lowest 
and most northerly one, about 100 feet above the level of Lake Erie, 
was stated to be clearly marked in its course across the city and 
for many miles to the east and west of Cleveland. This is evidently 
the one which later was mapped by Professors Newberry and A. A. 
Wright as the "North Ridge" 3 and what Mr. Leverett has recently 
described as the beach of Lake Warren which "leads into Cleveland 
from the west along or near Detroit street, and after crossing the Cuya- 
hoga River lies near Euclid avenue to the east edge of the city." 4 This 
is obviously the beach described by Mr. Warren Upham under the name 

^eo. Surv. Ohio, Vol. I, 1873, p. 175. 
2 Ibid., p. 177. 
• 3 Ibid, Vol. II, 1874, "Map of Lake Ridges in Lorain and Cuyahoga counties/' 
op. p. 58. 

4 Mon. U. S. Geol. Survey, Vol. XLI, 1902, p. 764. 



of the "Fourth or Euclid Avenue beach" which he gave as ''passing 
through the city of Cleveland, nearly along the course of Detroit street 
and Euclid avenue." 1 

Apparently Mr. Leverett would refer most of the Pleistocene de- 
posit in the vicinity of Cleveland to the glacial lakes, their beaches, 
the sand and gravel delta of the Cuyahoga and the Wisconsin drift 
with its moraines. The above explanation of the origin of these de- 
posits is also in general harmony vfath that of Professor H. P. Cushing, 
of Western Reserve University. 2 Recently, "the raised beaches of 
the Berea, Cleveland and Euclid sheets, Ohio," have been minutely de- 
scribed by Professor Frank Carney, particularly those marking the 
levels of Lakes Maumee, Whittlesey and Warren. 3 

To the west of the Cuyahoga River a considerable portion of the 
lake shore is marked by cliffs of Paleozoic shales, which are the oldest 
rocks exposed on the surface in the vicinity of Cleveland. A favorable 
locality for studying an outcrop of these shales, which may readily be 
reached from the business center of Cleveland, is the bluff of Lake Erie 
just west of Edgewater Park arid to the north of Lake Avenue. At one 
point the cliff, which is 36 feet High, is composed mainly of bluish argilla- 
ceous shales, although to a considerable extent they are slightly sandy, 
and part of them are rather greenish in color. At intervals more or 
less concretionary, slightly calcareous layers occur and there are others 
which are mainly clay-iron in composition, weathering to a rusty color. 
The latter, broken up on the lake beach aiid worn to a more or less lentic- 
ular shape, occur in large numbers. Iii general these shales are com- 
paratively soft, and excellent examples of erosion with the formation 
of projecting headlands are shown. One of these headlands giving the 
general appearance of the cliffs is well shown in Plate XL, which is a view 
of the cliff a short distance west of Edgewater Park. The projecting 
lines on the cliff indicate the thin, harder layers, while the beach shtiws 
abundant specimens of these layers broken up by the waves and mixed 
with the more or less lenticular clay-iron concretions. In the distance 
to the east is seen the lower part of the city of Cleveland. From this 
locality for three miles westward to the mouth of Rocky River these 
strata form the cliffs of Lake Erie, and at many places they may be ad- 
vantageously studied. These rocks are comparatively unfossiliferous 
and at this locality no fossils were found. 

The strata composing these cliffs were named "the Erie shale" by 
Dr. Newberry in 1870/ who later stated that to this formation he gave 
"the name of Erie shale, because it forms the shore of Lake Erie nearly 
all the way from the mouth of the Vermilion to Dunkirk." 5 On account 

l Bull. Geol. Soc. America, Vol. 7, March, 1896, p. 343. 

2 In Brigham's Suggestions to Teachers designed to accompany a Text-Book of 
Geology, 1901, pp. 63, 64. 

3 Proc. Ohio State Acad. Science, Vol. V, pt. 4, 1909, pp, 225-253. 
4 Geol. Surv. Ohio,Rept. Prog, in 1869 (1870), pt. 1, p. 20. 
5 Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. I, 1873, p. 190. 


of the admirable exposures of these shales at hundreds of localities in 
the qliffs bordering Lake Erie this was a most appropriate name; but 
unfortunately it wag preoccupied. Vanuxem in 1842 named one of the 
divisions of the New York system the "Erie," which was eompq>sed of 
the formations ranging from the MarceUus shale to the Chemung in- 
clusive, 1 and this term was revive*! with a restricted meaijirig by Dr, 
John M. Clarke and Professor Schuchert in 1899, svhen they applied 
the term Erian to the New York series composed of the Marcellus shale 
and the Hamilton beds. 2 In the "note regarding Erian they made the 
following explanation concerning the origin of the term: "The f Er|e di- 
vision' comprised the formations from the top of the Onondaga lime- 
stone to the top of the Chemung. We propose to save the term to the 
New York nomenclature by reviving it with a restricted meaning." 3 
In the second place the term Erie was again preoccupied before its use 
by Newberry, because Logan in 1863 named one of the Quaternary 
formations of Ontario the "Erie clay." 4 Finally, the name "Girard 
shale" was applied by Dr. I. C. White in 1881 to a mass of Devonian 
shales in Erie County in northwestern Pennsylvania; 5 but as these shales 
are only equivalent to a portion of Newberry's Erie shale the term could 
not be used for the Ohio formation. For the above reasons the writer 
in 1903 proposed for this mass of argillaceous and arenaceous shales with 
calcareous and iron-rbearing layers or concretions, and thin sandstones, 
the name Chagrin formation on account of the excellent exposures on the 
banks of this river extending from Willoughby nearly to Pleasant Valley. 6 
The Chagrin River enters Lake Erie about nineteen miles northeast 
of the Cuyahoga and, with perhaps the exception of the cliffs on the 
shore of Lake Erie, there are probably no finer outcrops of the forma- 
tion to be found than those forming its steep banks. Later, in its appro- 
priate place, the outcrops of the Chargin River will be described in detail. 

Dr. Newberry's best description of the Erie shale (Chagrin for- 
mation) was published in 1873, in which he divided the exposures in 
the vicinity of Cleveland into two beds or groups. The most character- 
istic part of his description is as follows: 

"The prevailing lithological character of this deposit is very well 
shown in the sections of the cliff bordering the Lake in the vicinity of 
Cleveland; and it is here seen to consist of green, gray and blue 
shales, generally very soft and fine, interstratified with sheets of 
micaceous, silvery sandstone from half an inch to two inches in thick- 
ness, with flattened, lenticular masses of argillaceous iron ore. * * * 

"West of Cleveland the Erie shales are seen to form two beds or 
groups of strata, of which the upper, nearly 100 feet in thickness, con- 

^eol. New York, pt. 3, pp. 13, 170. 

Science, N. S., Vol. X, Dec. 15, pp. 876, 877. 

3 Ibid., p. 877. 

4 Geol. Survey Canada, Rept. Prog, from Com. to 1863, pp. 896, 897. 

5 Second Geol. Surv. Pa., Q 4 , pp. 117, 118. 

6 Jour. Geology, Vol. XI, pp. 521, 533. 


sists of shales such as I have described, with thin bands of sandstone 
which sometimes are sufficiently thick and firm to be used as flagging 
The lower series consists almost exclusively of blue and green shales, 
with thin strata of iron ore, the whole weathering in smooth homogene- 
ous cliffs of which the prevailing color is a greenish gray. These two 
groups are well exposed in the cliffs which form the lake shore between 
the Cuyahoga and Rocky River[s]; the lower beds composing that 
cliff for about three miles west of the Cuyahoga." 1 

The exposures which we have described in the cliff to the west 
of Edgewater Park belong to the lower beds of the above description 
of Newberry. 

Various wells have been drilled for natural gas in the northern part 
of Cleveland west of the Cuyahoga River down to the Devonian lime- 
stone. The following record of one of these located north of De- 
troit Street was furnished the writer by Mr. S. S. Hulse: 

Record of Cleveland Well North of Detroit Street. 

Description. Thickness. 


Erie shale __.. 300— 350 

Light colored shale at top which gradually changes to black 

shale like the Cleveland 100— 150 

Very light gray shale which looks like the Erie 75 

Dark colored shale; but near the center is a zone of from 5 to 10 

feet of light colored shale 60 

Very dark colored shale, like the Huron ; ___ 200 

"Soapstone" . 200 

Top of Devonian limestone at : 1,050 — 1, 100 

Newburg Falls and Quarry* — Succeeding the Chagrin formation 
is a very bituminous, black and rather massive shale when freshly ex- 
posed, but weathering to a fissile one, which is more or less favorably 
exposed at various localities in and about Cleveland. For the 'above 
reason it was very appropriately named the Cleveland shale by Dr. 
Newberry in 1870; 2 but in this report his description was of the briefest 
character consisting simply of the statement that it is a "black bituminous 
shale" from 20 to 60 feet in thickness. The "Report on the Geology 
of Cuyahoga County," however, published by Dr. Newberry in 1873, 
Contained a more extended account of the Cleveland shale and stated 
that "this name has been given to the black bituminous shale found in 
most of the counties of the Reserve, from the Vermillion River to the 
Pennsylvania line. ' ' 3 

Dr. Newberry considered the Cleveland shale as of Carboniferous 
age and in the 1873 report gave it as the basal formation of the "Waverly 

^Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. I, p. F 163. 

2 Geol. Surv. Ohio, Rept. Prog, in 1869 (1870), p. 21. 

3 Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. I, p. 189. 


Group." 1 It must be remembered, however, that Dr. Newberry drew 
the line of separation between the Carboniferous and Devonian systems 
considerably lower than is the custom of most American geologists, so 
that in the standard New York section the Chemung and Catskill 
formations of the upper Devonian were in the Carboniferous. 2 In fact, 
in Dr. Newberry's article on the "Circles of Deposition in American Sedi- 
mentary Rocks," published in 1874, he stated that "In all our works on 
geology the Portage, Chemung and Catskill formations are included in 
the Devonian system, but in my judgment it would be better to con- 
sider the Portage sandstones — the upper half of the Portage group — as 
the true base of the Carboniferous system. Drawing the line at this 
point, we find the Portage and Chemung forming an indivisible mass 
of mechanical sediments, which, both in fossils and lithological char- 
acters, contrast strongly with the underlying Hamilton, and is evidently 
the record of a new era in the geological history of the continent. This 
new group I have called the Erie, and I think it will be found to belong, 
both by its fossils and its physical relations, rather with the Carboni- 
ferous than the Devonian system." 3 In Dr. Newberry's "Review of 
the Geological Structure of Ohio," published four years later, we find 
the Erie shale given as the oldest formation of the Carboniferous system. 4 
In support of this classification Dr. Newberry wrote as follows: 

"It is evident that the Erie group is the record of the introduction 
of a new geological age; and that there are, therefore, reasons for re- 
moving it from the Devonian system, where it has hitherto been placed 
and attaching it to the Carboniferous. This change of classification 
is also favored by the character of the fossils of the Erie, which are 
generally different from those of the Hamilton, and resemble and prob- 
ably shade into those of the Carboniferous system. Hence, it seems 
that the geological record would be best interpreted by considering the 
Erie group as the base of the Carboniferous." 5 

In 1880 Dr. Orton reported that the Huron, Erie and Cleveland 
shales of northern Ohio taken together represented the "great black 
shale" of central and southern Ohio and argued that it ought to be 
left undivided in the Devonian. He wrote as follows: 

"If the true interpretation of the facts is given in these statements, 
it is apparent that the Cleveland shale, and the Erie shale as well, 
makes a very inconvenient boundary between Devonian and Car- 
boniferous time. This boundary would be found at an uncertain 
depth below the summit of the black shale, and there would seem to 
be no possibility of saying more than this, that the bottom of the black 
shale is Devonian and the top Carboniferous. But inasmuch as the 

qbid., p. 184. 

2 Mon. U. S. Geol. Survey, Vol. XVI, 1889, p. 77. 

8 Proc. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci., Vol. XXII, pt. 2, p. 192. 

4 Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. Ill, 1878, p. 18. 

5 Ibid. ; p. 19. 

3— G. B. 15— Per. V. 


fossils upon which the reference of the Cleveland shale to the Carbon- 
iferous mainly rests (Geological Survey of Ohio, Vol. II, page 94), do 
not come from this formation at all, but from the Waver ly black shale 
of southern Ohio, which lies one hundred and twenty-five feet to one 
hundred and fifty feet higher in the scale, it is to be hoped that the great 
black shale will be left undivided in the Devonian series. If there 
is confusion in regard to the name, we can revert to the old designation, 
viz : Black shale, or we can adopt the name applied to the formation in 
Kentucky, by Professor Shaler, of the recent geological survey, viz., Ohio 
shale. On the whole, this last designation seems most appropriate." 1 

Dr. Newberry did not change his opinion concerning the age of 
the Cleveland shale, for in 1889 he still gave it as the oldest formation 
of the Waver ly group. 2 In discussing the age of the shale in this mono- 
graph Dr. Newberry gave his views clearly and positively in the follow- 
ing language: 

"As a general rule the Cleveland shale is very barren of fossils, many 
of its exposures having yielded nothing but the imprints of sea weeds. 
Aside from the great fishes which are its characteristic fossils, and which, 
being all new species, do not decide this question, we have not a great 
array of evidence. In the excellent exposures at Bedford, Ohio, ex- 
cept millions of Conodonts, having no geological significance, the only 
fossils found are the spines and teeth of three species of Elasmobranchs, 
HdpldridhuSj Orodus, and Polyrhizodus. These three genera are char- 
acteristic of the Carboniferous system, and have never been found 
irt the Devonian; but they will hardly be accepted as decisive, being 
specifically new. To solve this problem, Mr. M. C. Read and Prof. H. 
P. Cushing have within the last year made diligent search through- 
out northeastern Ohio for molluscous fossils in the Cleveland shale. 
Their efforts have been reasonably successful, as they have found large 
numbers of four species of Brachiopods, three of Lingula and one of 
Discina. In order to make the specific determination of these shells as 
certain as possible, they were submitted, without information as to 
their origin, to Prof. R. P. Whitfield, whose accuracy and palseontologi- 
cal knowledge are proverbial. He reports them to be Lingula Cuyahoga, 
Hall; L. meliej Hall; and Discina Newberryij Hall; all well-known species 
of the Cuyahoga shale (Upper Waverly). The fourth species, not 
identified by Professor Whitfield, is a pointed Lingula, apparently 
undescribed, but found in the Bedford shale, which overlies the Cleve- 
land, and is full of Waverly fossils. 

"The evidence, then, that the Cleveland shale is the basal member of 
the Waverly and a part of the Carboniferous system, as stated in the Ohio 
reports, though not overwhelming, may be considered as satisfactory. 

1 Ann.Rept. Secretary of State [Ohio] for 1879 (1880), p. 594. 
2 Mon. U. S. Geol. Survey, Vol. XVI— The Paleozoic Fishes of North America— 
p. 120. 


"Prof. Edward Orton, the present State geologist of Ohio, has in 
several of his recently published papers united the Cleveland, Erie, 
and Huron shales, and called them collectively the Ohio shale. This 
seems to me unwarranted, as these strata are essentially distinct in 
their fossils, and the upper and lower members of the trinity are sepa- 
rated on the eastern border of the State by an interval of at least one 
thousand feet. m 

Dr. Orton apparently adhered to his opinion and retained the Cleve- 
land shale in the Devonian, drawing the line separating the Devonian 
and Carboniferous systems between the Cleveland and Bedford shales. 2 
This correlation has also been followed in the later reports of the Geo- 
logical Survey of Ohio. 3 

The same year Dr. Girty in elucidating" the Bradfordian series, 
which he had proposed in an earlier paper, stated that "In Ohio it [Brad- 
fordian] is tentatively assumed to be represented by the Bedford and 
Cleveland shales, and probably by the Erie. Its age is a matter of 
some diversity of opinion, but I believe that its true relations are 
with the Devonian." 4 

Professor Schuchert in his "Paleogeography of North America' ' 
makes the Cleveland shale the basal formation of the Kinderhookian 
series of the Mississippic period emended 5 which equals the "Lower Mis- 
sissippian or Kinderhook and Osage of geologists." 6 The Bradfordian 
of Pennsylvania and New York is also put in the lower part of the 
Kinderhookian, although it is stated that Dr. Girty's correlations are 
followed in this table for the formations "in the column 'East of Cin- 
cinnati axis' " for Ohio and Pennsylvania. 7 

Dr. Ulrich in his "Revision of the Paleozoic Systems" gives the 
Chagrin formation as the highest Devonian one and the Cleveland shale 
as the basal one of the "Waverlyan system." 8 

In the summer of 1911 Dr. Edward M. Kindle carefully studied the 
Ohio shale at various typical localities across Ohio as well as south 
of the Ohio River in connection with his former field work in Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee, and some of his results, as recently published, 
are of great importance in determining the age of the Cleveland shale. 
Dr. Kindle's discussion in part is as follows: 

"When Professor Newberry found himself unable to substantiate 
his previously published statement of the occurrence of a Waverly 
fauna [Syringothyris typa, etc.] at the base of the Cleveland shale, 

*Op. cit., pp. 127, 128. 

2 Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. VII, 1893, pp. 4, 22, and "Geological Scale of Ohio" op. 
p. 4. 

3 As for example, see 4th Ser., Bull. 7, 1905, pp. 3, 4, 20-24. 

4 Proc, Washington Acad. Sci., Vol. VII, June 20, 1905, p. 7. 

•Bull. Geol. Soc. America, Vol. XX, 1910, p. 548. 

6 Ibid., p. 547. 

7 Ibid., pp. 548, 550. 

8 Ibid., Vol. XXII, 1911, pi. 28. 


he continued to maintain the Carboniferous age of the formation 
chiefly on the evidence of the occurrence in it of three genera of 
Carboniferous fishes, namely, Hoplonchus, Orodus and Polyrhizodus. 
Concerning this evidence it is well to recall that most of the 
fossil fishes described by Newberry were obtained for him by 
collectors on whom he depended for the correct designation of their 
geologic horizon. Since Professor Newberry had himself confused 
the Sunbury and Cleveland shales, the opportunities which existed 
for the collectors to confuse them are too evident to require dis- 
cussion. If these genera occur in the Cleveland shale at Bedford, as 
Professor Newberry believed, recent workers in this field should 
have found at least one or two of them. We have, however, the testi- 
mony of two paleoichthyologists, Dr. L. Hussakof and Prof. E. B. 
Branson, who have been persistent collectors in the Cleveland shale 
of northern Ohio, that they have never found any of these genera in 
it. Professor Branson writes as follows: 

" 'l have never collected any specimens of the genera mentioned 
in your letter, from the Cleveland shale, nor have I ever seen Carbonif- 
erous fish remains of any kind in the shales. * *■ We had quite a large 
collection of Cleveland shale material in Oberlin College Museum, 
but all of it indicated the Devonian age of the formation.' " 

"Dr. Hussakof indicates his experience in the following words: 

" 'in regard to your query about Hoplonchus } Orodus and Polyrhizodus 
— I have never found any of them in the Cleveland shale.' " 

"In view of this kind of testimony from paleontologists thoroughly 
familiar with the fish fauna of the Cleveland shale, both through ex- 
tended collecting and study of all the important collections made by 
others, we seem forced to conclude that the Carboniferous fishes which 
Newberry records from the Cleveland shale came probably from the 
Sunbury instead of the Cleveland." 1 

Since the publication of Dr. Kindle's paper, Professor Cushing has 
defended the accuracy of Dr. Newberry's statement concerning the 
occurrence of Hoplonchus, Orodus, and Polyrhizodus in the Cleveland 
shale. He apparently understands Dr. Newberry to state that he col- 
lected specimens belonging to all three genera in the Cleveland shale 
at Bedford. 2 The statements concerning this matter by Dr. Newberry 
are as follows: 

"At Bedford I obtained from this stratum [Cleveland shale] quite 
a number of fish teeth consisting of species of Polyrhizodus, Cladodus 
and Orodus; all Carboniferous sharks." 3 

^m. Jour. ScL, 4th ser., Vol. XXXIII, February, 1912, pp. 132, 133. 

2 Ibid., June, 1912, pp. 581, 582 and see particularly his statement on p. 582: "But 
the matter is finally settled for us by Newberry's definite pronouncement that he 
collected these fossils himself " 

8 Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. 1, 1873, p. 189. 


Later in his monograph on the Paleozoic Fishes of North America, 
he wrote that: 

"In this locality [Bedford] I also obtained small teeth of Poly rhizodus 
and Orodus (P. modestus, N., and 0. elegantulus, N. and W.") 1 

Also under the account of the "Fishes of the Cleveland Shale" is 
the statement that "In the excellent exposures at Bedford, Ohio, except 
million[s] of Conodonts, having no geological significance, the only fos- 
sils found are the spines and teeth of three species of Elasmobranchs, 
Hoplonchus, Orodus, and Poly rhizodus." 2 The single species of Hoplonchus 
reported from the Cleveland shale (H. parvulus Newb.) was originally 
described under the generic name of Ctenacanthus and its formation and 
locality given as "Cleveland shale, Bedford, Ohio." 3 There is apparently, 
however, no statement to the effect that it was collected by Dr. New- 
berry at Bedford. 4 

Dr. Kindle in the above mentioned article makes the following state- 
ment concerning the evidence furnished by the conodonts: "A prelimina- 
ry examination of the conodont fauna of the Huron shale shows that it is 
very similar to that of the Cleveland shale. The most important facts now 
available, as bearing directly on the question of the age of the Cleveland 
shale, relate to the known range outside of Ohio of the species which have 
been recognized in it. Only three of the Cleveland shale species of con- 
odonts have thus far been recorded from other formations. These are 
Prionides angulatus Hinde, Prionides erraticus Hinde, and Polignathus 
dubius Hinde. These species are recorded only from Hamilton and 
Genesee horizons elsewhere, so that the conodonts, so far as their evi- 
dence is recorded, indicate a Devonian age for the Cleveland shale." 5 

Finally, Dr. Kihdle's conclusions are as follows: "Briefly sum- 
marizing the discussion of the question of the age of the Cleveland 
shale, we may say that (1) the evidence of the Waverly fauna originally 
brought forward by Newberry and restated by Bassler should be elimi- 
nated from consideration, because neither Newberry nor any of his suc- 
cessors have been able to substantiate it by finding a similar fauna at the 
base of the Cleveland. (2) Later workers have failed to find any of the 
Carboniferous fishes claimed by Newberry to occur in it. (3) Some of the 
large fossil fishes which characterize the Cleveland are represented by 
identical species in rocks of demonstrated Devonian age. (4) The Cleve- 
land shale conodonts, so far as their range has been recorded, are known 
elsewhere only from Devonian rocks." 6 

Superjacent to the Cleveland shale is a formation generally com- 
posed of soft bluish and chocolate colored argillaceous shale, but in the 

X U. S. Geol. Survey, Mon. XVI, 1889, p. 123. 
2 Ibid., p. 128. 

3 Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. II, pt. 2, Palaeontology, 1875, p. 55. 
4 For Dr. Kindle's answer to Professor Cushing's remarks see Am. Jour. Sci., 4th 
ser., Vol. XXXIV, August, 1912, pp.196, 197 f. n. 

5 Am. Jour. Sci., 4th ser., Vol. XXXIII, pp. 134, 135. 
8 Ibid., p. 135. 


Cleveland region the lower and middle portions contain blue fine-grained 
sandstone alternating with shale and to the eastward similar sandstones 
are found in the upper part of the formation extending even to its top. 
This formation was named the Bedford shale by Dr. Newberry in 1870, 
and characterized as a "red and blue clay shale" 60 feet in thickness. 1 
The first careful description of the formation was published in the 
"Report on the Geology of Cuyahoga County" by Dr. Newberry in 1873 
in which he stated that "the best exposure of the Bedford shale is at 
Bedford, and it has received its name from this fact." 2 Later in this 
report the typical exposures of the Bedford shale in the gorge of Tink- 
ers Creek below the village of Bedford will be described. 

The later reports of the Indiana Department of Geology and 
Natural Resources contain the term "Bedford oolitic limestone" as 
the name of a formation of the Mississippian series of that state and 
the question has arisen whether Bedford should be retained as the name 
for the Indiana or Ohio formation. The claim of priority for the In- 
diana term rests entirely upon the occurrence of the term "Bedford 
rock" in Owen's report on Lawrence County, published in 1862, which 
was not used in the sense of a formation name and was not described. 
The sentence in which "Bedford rock" occurs is as follows: "The Bed- 
ford rock has long been celebrated for its excellent qualities as a build- 
ing stone, and is extensively shipped; additional localities are being 
opened, and only require the liberality of railroad directors to furnish 
switches aiid other facilities for still more extended sales." 3 The name 
of Bedford in the above sentence was used in the same sense as the names 
of hundreds of other towns have been applied to the rock quarried in 
their vicinity, bub without any intention to have them serve as the names 
of geologic units. In 1896, however, Messrs. Hopkins and Siebenthal 
formally described a formation of southern Indiana under the name of 
the "Bedford oolitic limestone." 4 On account of the prior use of Bed- 
ford for the Ohio formation Professor Cumings of Indiana University 
in 1901 proposed "the name Salem limestone for the rocks called Bed- 
ford limestone by Hopkins and Siebenthal." 5 The writer held that 
the Ohio use of Bedford was the one entitled to acceptance; but later he 
submitted the question to the Committee on Geologic Names of the 
United States Geological Survey, which has been organized for the con- 
sideration of similar questions in geologic classification and nomencla- 
ture, and the following decision was transmitted by the former Di- 
rector Hon. Charles D. Walcott: "(l)That Bedford rock was used by 
Owen in 1862 in a Report of Geological Reconnaissance of Indiana, 1859- 

^eol. Surv. Ohio, Rept. Prog, in 1869, p. 21. 
2 Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. I, p. 189. 
3 Rept. Geol. Reconnoissance IncL, p. 137. 

4 Twenty-first Ann. Rept. Indiana Dept. Geology and Nat. Res., pp. 291, 298. 
5 Jour. Geology, Vol. IX, April-May, 1901, p. 233. Also see Cumings in Am. 
Geologist, Vol. XXVII, March, 1901, p. 147. 


60, p. 137, but the usage is so indefinite as not to constitute a preemp- 
tion of the term for stratigraphic purposes. (2)Bedford shale is a term 
first employed by Newberry in Ohio Geological Survey Report of Prog- 
ress, 1869, p. 21, and this usage should stand. Furthermore, it is 
understood here that Mr. Cumings has recently proposed to drop the 
name of Bedford limestone of Indiana, and substitute for it Salem 
limestone. m Both sides of the question were pretty fully presented 
in the Journal of Geology in the April-May number of 1901/ and in the 
closing paper of the series the writer summed up his opinions as follows: 
"The Bedford shale of Ohio is as thick a formation as the Bedford lime- 
stone of Indiana; lithologically it is more sharply limited; it has, appar- 
ently, as great areal distribution; as the name of a definite geologic di- 
vision it has appeared in geological literature for a longer time and to a 
much greater extent; but it does not contain as valuable economic de- 
posits of building stone." 3 Since the above was written the writer 
has studied the Salem limestone in the field in southern Indiana and the 
only modification of the above statement he would make is to suggest 
that on account of the rapid increase in the use of Bedford shale for 
bricks and ceramic products, it is not impossible that in the future the 
economic value of the products from the Bedford shale of Ohio may 
equal that of those from the Salem limestone of Indiana. In the 
writer's judgment there is no sound basis for the claim that "Bedford 
oolitic limestone" should be retained in geologic literature as the name 
for the Indiana formation and he will continue to use Bedford as the 
name of the Ohio formation. Later Dr. E. 0. Ulrich proposed the 
name Spergen limestone for the Indiana formation, 4 stating that 
both Bedford and Salem "are objectionable as formation names, for 
they are widely and consistently employed as trade names of quarried 
stone." 5 

Salem limestone was published four years and eight months pre- 
vious to Spergen limestone, and concerning the point that Salem is 
used to some extent as a trade name, the same objection could be raised 
regarding many other well known formations, as for example the Berea 
grit of Ohio. If there be no other objection, instead of being a dis- 
advantage it is, on the contrary, an advantage that the scientific name 
of the formation is used for the trade name. 

Professor Weller also holds the opinion that Spergen ought not to 
be substituted for Salem limestone ; as may be seen from the following 
quotation: "Ulrich has rejected both the names Bedford and Salem, 
and uses the name Spergen limestone for the formation, but the sub- 
stitution of Spergen for Salem seems to be wholly unwarranted." 6 

Mour. Geology, Vol. X, 1902, p. 277, f. n. 

2 Op. cit., pp. 215, 232-236, 267-273. 

3 Ibid., p. 272. 

4 Prof. Paper U. S. Geol. Survey, No. 36, 1905, pp. 24, 28-31. 

6 Ibid., p. 30. 

6 Bull. Illinois State Geol. Survey, No. 8, 1907, p. 82. 


Dr. Newberry mentioned the falls of the stream at Newburg as 
one of the places where the Cleveland shale is well shown, and stated 
that at this locality "scarcely a fragment of it can be found which does 
not contain scales of fishes." 1 On the preceding page he also stated 
that the Bedford shale was to be seen at several places in Newburg. 

The extension of the city of Cleveland has rendered the gorge and 
falls at Newburg on Mill Creek less attractive than when studied by 
Newberry over 30 years ago. It is still, however, readily accessible 
and the falls are about opposite No. 2770 Broadway, Cleveland, on the 
A. B. C. division of the Northern Ohio Traction and Light Company. 
Limited time necessitated a rather hasty study of the falls when the 
following section was measured. 


Section at Newburg Falls. ™£~ l ^ 

No. Feet. Feet. 

3. Euclid lentil of Bedford formation. Top of sandstone as 
shown on bank of creek, which is much shattered. Just 
at the top of the falls some large, calcareous concre- 
tions occur. The upper portion of the falls is composed 
of massive, grayish sandstone alternating with shales. 
This zone belongs in the lower part of the Bedford 
formation and as Newberry stated "is the 'blue stone' 
of the Cleveland market' ' 19J 49 

2. Argillaceous, bluish-gray shale which is rather gritty, 
with a thickness of 5 feet 5 inches. Base of Bedford 
formation 5J — 29J 

1. Cleveland shale. Massive, black, bituminous shale which 
in the fall occurs in thick layers; but weathers into thin, 
even laminae. This black shale continues to the foot 
of the fall which is the lowest rock seen at this locality. 24 24 

In a letter to Prof. James Hall in 1861, Prof. R. P. Whitfield, at 
that time one of HalPs assistants, reported 58 feet of "black slate" in a 
section at Newburg. This black slate was overlain by 26 feet of "com- 
pact yellowish-gray sandstone" the upper part of which, however, was 
stated to be thinner bedded to shaly. The thickness of this part of the 
section is in close agreement with what the writer has given in his sec- 
tion of Newburg Falls. 

The Cleveland shale in all the outcrops seen in the Cleveland region 
on a fresh exposure is very compact and massive for a shale. On weather- 
ing, however, it splits up into thin laminae, which on banks where the 
talus is slowly removed are of a somewhat rusty color and not markedly 
different in appearance from the weathered outcrops of the Huron and 
Sunbury, the two other black shales of Ohio. 

The following section of a cliff on Mill Creek about one-fourth 
mile below Newburg Falls was measured by an assistant, Dr. John A. 

1 Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. I, 1873, p. 189. 


Section of Cliff on Mill Creek below Newburg Falls. 

Thickness. Total 

No. thickness. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

4. Heavy layer of "blue stone", or fine-grained 
sandstone. Euclid sandstone of Bedford 
formation 1 10 84 8 

3. Grayish shale containing some very thin 

sandstone layers 5 4 82 10 

2. Cleveland shale. Black, tough, bituminous 

shale 45 .. 77 6 

1. Chagrin formation. Bluish-gray, argilla- 
ceous shale containing occasional calca- 
reous layers 32 6 32 6 

Creek level. 

The lithologic character and thickness of the Cleveland shale in 
the above section agree well with Dr. Newberry's description in which 
he stated that "it is found outcropping in the hills which border the 
valley of the Cuyahoga, and good exposures of it are seen within the 
limits of the city of Cleveland. It is there fifty feet in thickness, a 
homogeneous mass of bituminous shale." 1 

In the Cleveland region the greater part of the lower portion of 
the Bedford formation is composed of a grayish to bluish fine-grained 
sandstone alternating with layers of shales, for which Dr. Newberry 
accepted the trade name and generally called it the "blue stone". 
Later it has been determined that there is another sandstone zone near 
the middle of the formation. Considering all the known facts regard- 
ing the sandstone zones of the lower and middle portions of the Bed- 
ford formation at Euclid, Cleveland, and in the lower Cuyahoga Valley, 
it appears that they are of lenticular shape and do not extend, so as to 
be clearly recognizable, for any very considerable distance. For 
these reasons it has appeared best to call them lentils and for con- 
venience in reference and description to give them geographic names. 
Dr. Orton in describing the Bedford shale stated that "especially about 
Cleveland, there are fifteen to twenty feet of valuable stone included 
in it. This stone is even bedded, very strong and durable, and it supplies 
a large quantity of flaggings, caps and sills, of the best grade. It is 
known as the East Cleveland, Euclid and Independence blue-stone." 2 
Much later Professor Cushing has briefly described the Bedford shale 
as "composed of soft blue or red shale" which "about Cleveland con- 
tains a 20-foot stratum of sandstone (the Euclid or Bluestone) near the 
base." 3 This lower sandstone lentil of the Bedford formation is well 
shown on Euclid Creek in Euclid Township to the northeast of Cleve- 

Mon. U. S. Geol. Survey, Vol. XVI, 1889, p. 126. 
2 Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. VI, 1888, p. 34. 

3 In Brigham's Suggestions to Teachers designed to accompany a Text-book of 
Geology, 1901, p. 62. 


land, where are the principal quarries, the outcrops of which will be de- 
scribed later, and the name Euclid is adopted for this sandstone lentil 
of the Bedford formation. 

The higher lentil is named the Sagamore from Sagamore Creek in 
the southwestern part of Bedford Township, on which it is well shown, 
the sections of which will be given later. 

There is some difficulty in denning the limits of these lentils at all 
the localities where shown; but the writer has applied the names as 
nearly as possible to those portions of the formation in which the lay- 
ers of sandstone are of sufficient thickness to be quarried or where 
sandstones predominate. With this explanation in mind it will be 
understood that the bottom or top of either lentil in different sections 
does riot necessarily mean that it is drawn at strictly the same strati- 
graphic horizon. 

The statement by Dr. Newberry in the "Report oil the Geology 
of Cuyahoga County" that the "blue stone is the precise geological 
equivalent of the 'Buena Vista stone' of the Scioto Valley" 1 is a mistake. 
The Buena Vista member in southern and perhaps central Ohio com- 
prises about the lower fifty feet of the second division of the Cuyahoga 
terrane for which this name has been revived and redefined 
by the writer. 2 Recently Prof. J. E. Hyde has studied the Waverly 
formations of southern Ohio and the results of his work necessitate 
some modification of the description which the writer gave of the Buena 
Vista member. Overlying the Bedford formation are the Berea 
grit and Sunbury shale before reaching the Buena Vista ; so that there is no 
possibility of the Euclid and Buena Vista sandstones being equivalent, 
although their lithologic characters are very similar. This mistake, 
however, arose from the fact that Dr. Newberry erroneously correlated 
the Cleveland shale of northern Ohio with the Sunbury shale (Waverly 
black slate) of southern Ohio. The story of this mistake, which for a 
number of years confused all correlations of these formations between 
northern and southern Ohio, has already been told by the writer. 3 

In the Newburg Falls section zone No. 3 is referred to the Euclid 
lentil of the Bedford formation, below which is 5 feet 5 inches of argil- 
laceous, bluish-gray shale. A zone of shale either argillaceous or are- 
naceous, but of variable thickness, usually occurs between the base of 
the Euclid sandstone and the top of the Cleveland shale. 

Not far from the fall is a quarry in Newburg in which the blue or 
gray fine-grained sandstone of the Euclid lentil of the Bedford for- 
mation is well shown. The exposure of 22l feet is composed mainly 
of fairly thick sandstone layers separated by shale. Some of the layers 
are not regular and there is evidence of rolled or concretionary struct- 

^eol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. I, 1873, p. 189. . 

2 Am. Geologist, Vol. XXXIV, Dec. 1904, pp. 341, 342, f. n. 

3 Jour. Geology, Vol. X, 1902, pp. 263-272. 


ure somewhat similar to that of certain layers of the Oneonta formation 
of New York, which have been compared by Dr. John M. Clarke 
with the "Kramenzel" of Germany. 1 This comparison is only intended 
to relate to the structure, for they have none of the red or green tints 
which also characterize the Oneonta and "Kramenzel" deposits. 

Section of Newburg Quarry. 

Thickness. Total 

No. thickness. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

11 . Gray sandstone at top of quarry _ _ 5 22 8 

10. Bluish, argillaceous shale ,. 8 22 3 

9. Massive layer of gray, fine-grained sand- 
stone 6 21 7 

8. Massive sandstone 2 9 15 7 

7. Mainly sandstone, but in some parts of the 

quarry there is some shale 2 2 12 10 

6. Massive sandstone 3 9 10 8 

5. Stratum varying from shale to sandstone. __ 2 3 6 11 

4. Massive sandstone 3 4 8 

3. Flaggy sandstone, upper layer 2 inches, 

lower one 8 inches 10 18 

2. Shale -- 2 _. 10 

1. Sandstone to base of quarry 8 8 

The entire exposure in this quarry belongs in the Euclid lentil of 
the Bedford formation, which Dr. Newberry called "the 'blue stone' of 
the Cleveland market.' ' 2 A single reading of the barometer gave a 
difference of 30 feet from the top of the quarry (No. 11 of the section) to 
the top of the Cleveland shale in the Newburg Fall. The distance is 
not far and the dip slight, so that probably 30 feet is not far from the 
actual thickness of the rocks included between these two horizons. 

Big Creek Sections* — On the banks of Big Creek below the Pearl 
Street bridge at South Brooklyn, as well as in railroad cuttings, are 
frequent exposures of the Chagrin formation. It consists principally 
of bluish-gray to gray shales, which on weathering are frequently much 
iron-stained, with numerous lenticular clay-iron concretions. Above 
Pearl Street bridge and Brookside Park there are frequent exposures 
of the Chagrin formation with banks 40 feet or so in height. The 
greater part of the rock consists of bluish to bluish-gray shales with 
some clay-iron concretionary layers and thin, micaceous sandstones. 
The top of the formation is apparently reached in the cliff on the south- 
ern side of the creek less than one-fourth mile above Brookside Park, 
where at 60 feet above creek level, barometrically, weathered black 
shale occurs in place. The barometer indicates that from the bed of 

thirteenth Ann. Rept. State Geologist, [N. YJ, 1894, p. 538, and N. Y. State 
Mus., Forty-seventh Ann. Rept., p. 732. 
2 Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. I, p. 188. 


Big Creek at the railroad bridge (the Pearl Street bridge) up to this 
horizon the upper 100 feet of the Chagrin formation is shown. Another 
reading from the level of Big Creek at the South Brooklyn railroad 
station to the base of the Cleveland shale on the bank of Big Creek at 
the railroad bridge near West Park Cemetery gave 90 feet of Chagrin. 
The transition from the Chagrin formation to the Cleveland shale 
may be studied to best advantage, however, on the northern bank of 
Big Creek at West Park Cemetery and just below the most western 
bridge of the Cleveland, Lorain and Wheeling Railroad shown on the 
Cleveland quadrangle. Immediately below the small cascade in the 
run leading from the cemetery the upper 15 feet of the Chagrin for- 
mation may be seen. This portion consists largely of thin, micaceous, 
grayish sandstone layers with somewhat varying thickness which alter- 
nate with thin layers of bluish or bluish-gray argillaceous shale, from 1 
to 10 inches thick. At the top is a sandstone, in places 3 inches thick, 
similar in lithologic appearance to the sandstone layers noted below in 
the Chagrin, but a little thicker than most of them. In the upper 4 
feet of the Chagrin are some bluish-black to brownish-black layers of 
shale which begin to have the lithologic appearance of the Cleve- 
land, and indicate the beginning of the physical conditions under which 
that shale was deposited. The larger part of the 4 feet, however, con- 
sists of rocks with the lithologic characters of the Chagrin, which is 
especially true of the upper sandstone, so that it has been left in that 
formation. It is probable, however, that this lithologic change from 
the typical character of the Chagrin formation is the commencement of 
that changed condition of deposition which farther west has led to a 
decided thickening of the black shale, produced in part by the changed 
lithologic character of the upper Chagrin and in part by a similar lith- 
logic change of the lower Bedford. It is not thought necessary, how- 
ever, to assign a new name to these shales, which are lithologically tran- 
sitional from the Chagrin to the Cleveland. A little farther west where 
the black color largely predominates they have been included in the 
Cleveland, and this reference appears to be in harmony with the prin- 
ciples of stratigraphic classification as elucidated by Bailey Willis of 
the U. S. Geological Survey. 1 The upper surface of the sandstone 
was taken as the dividing line between the Chagrin and Cleveland 
formations, succeeding which nearly if not quite all the shale is 
black with the characteristic lithology of the Cleveland. In the 
weathered banks the outside of certain layers is covered with 
grayish or whitish deposits of sulphate of iron; but on digging 
into the bank the shale is seen to be black. In this locality the 
line between the Chagrin and Cleveland shales is sharp and well 

*For his illustration of the way in which this particular type of a formation's 
boundary may change see Jour. Geology, Vol. IX, 1901, fig. II, on p. 565 and explana- 
tion on p. 563. 


marked and admits of a ready separation into two formations. The 
Cleveland shale is also shown in the C. L. & W. R. R. cut to the east of 
the bridge. The upper few feet of the Chagrin formation extend up 
the creek above the railroad bridge, where on the eastern bank of the 
bend in the creek the overlying black shale to the top of the cliff was 
measured. The top of the Cleveland shale was not shown, but the 
bank measured with steel tape gave 51^ feet of black shale, which is a 
little greater than the actual thickness, because the bank is not perfectly 
vertical. It, however, showed that there is some 50 feet of Cleveland 
shale in this bank. Farther up the stream where the upper sandstone 
and shale of the Chagrin formation make the floor of the creek, the 
almost vertical bank of black shale was again measured with steel 
tape, giving 56J feet, apparently all Cleveland. The shale very 
near the top of the bank as seen from the creek below is apparently 
all black, so that it appears perfectly safe to state that on Big Creek the 
Cleveland shale has a thickness of at least 55 feet. 

A little below the place just cited is an uplift and near the axis of 
the fold the shales are broken, forming a reverse fault. Another 
anticlinal fold with a reverse fault near its axis occurs farther up the 
creek and on the opposite side, where the throw is about 2 feet. Still 
farther up the stream, above the railroad cut and near the western 
line of the Cleveland quadrangle, is another sharp anticline which is 
also faulted. At this locality a gray micaceous sandstone with bluish- 
gray argillaceous shale below is brought up, both of which closely 
resemble the upper part of the Chagrin formation as shown farther 
down the stream. These rather frequent folds and faults in the 
shale render some care necessary in determining the thickness of 
the various sections. It is hardly safe to assume for any con- 
siderable covered distance that the same conditions continue as noted 
on each side, and even in following a continuous exposure it 
is necessary to watch for folding, rapid change in dip or faulting. 
The faults and anticlines on Big Creek would lead to an erroneous 
estimate of the thickness if determined by following the stream con- 
tinuously with a hand level or reading the barometer. 

Somewhat similar anticlinal folds in the Chagrin shales shown in 
the cuts of the Belt Line Railroad in Cleveland have been described and 
illustrated by Prof. Frank R. Van Horn. 1 The Professor's explana- 
tion of their formation is that they "were probably caused by pressure 
due to the nearly threefold increase in volume which results when iron 
sulfides alter to iron sulfate and alum-like compounds." 2 

A short distance up the creek from the anticline just described in 
the midst of fine black Cleveland shale, as weathered on the cliff, is an 
occasional layer of light gray, micaceous sandstone about one-half inch 

'Bull. Geol. Soc. America, Vol. XXI, No. 4, Dec. 1910, pp. 771-773, pis. 53 and 54. 
2 Ibid., p. 772. 


in thickness. There is also an occasional thin layer of bluish-gray 
argillaceous shale, showing that this part of the Cleveland is not com- 
posed entirely of black shale. In the bed of the creek not far below 
the first highway bridge above West Park Cemetery, is a layer of bluish- 
gray micaceous sandstone nearly two inches thick. According to the 
barometer this sandstone layer is 30 feet above the base of the black 
shale, while cliffs of black shale from 25 to 30 feet high rise above it. 
The grayish sandstone and shale, however, form so small a percentage 
of the total thickness of the lower black shales on this stream that it 
is believed they may be referred to the Cleveland shale in accordance 
with the definition of a formation by Bailey Willis and they are so 
included by the writer. 

The top of the Cleveland shale is reached on Big Creek some two 
miles south of North Linndale, south of the second east and west road 
crossing the creek and a few rods south of the brick schoolhousB on. the 
Linndale-Parma highway. Again the top of the shale is shown in the 
bed of Big Creek just below the house of Jacob Kraus. The barometer 
read at the base and top of the black shale gave a difference in altitude 
of 70 feet, which indicates the thickness of the Cleveland shale in this 
section. A little later it will be shown that in the Doan Brook section 
on Ambler Boulevard near Case School in Cleveland, between 8 and 9 
miles to the northeast, the Cleveland shale is only 37J feet thick. This 
thickening of the black shale as it is followed to the southwest is due 
largely to the downward encroachment of the black deposits upon the 
Chagrin, as is shown by the presence of thin sandstones and shales with 
the lithologic appearance of the Chagrin in the lower portion of the 
black shale deposits on this creek. There also may be some encroach- 
ment upward of the black shale deposits upon the Bedford formation. 

Section on Pig Creek. Thickness. Total 

No. thickness. 

Feet. Feet. 

8. Berea sandstone. From the outcrop in the highway gutter 
near the bridge over Big Creek northwest of Parma, 
where are cliffs of Berea sandstone. It is 20 feet 
lower according to the barometer to the base of the 
formation as shown some rods farther down the stream. 
This lower portion of the Berea is fairly coarse and 
more or less irregularly bedded, composed of coarse 
quartz sand, some of which is rather loosely cemented. 
When weathered there is a large number of iron spots 
and to some extent the surface of the cliff is covered 
withcalcite - 20 291 

7. Bedford formation. At the top is a zone of gray, argilla- 
ceous shale. Below this upper zone, so far as shown, 
the shale is chocolate colored, argillaceous and breaks 
up into thin small pieces as it weathers. The thick- 
ness of this pencil shale according to the barometer 
readings, is between 55 and 60 feet. The base of this 


Thickness. Total 
No. thickness. 

Feet. Feet, 

zone is shown on Big Creek about one-half mile below 

the first east and west road north of Parma and about 

opposite the house of J. Emrich on road west of the 

creek. The Berea rests unevenly on the Bedford with 

sags and arches similar to those on Skinner's Run in 

the eastern part of the township, 3| miles farther east, 

which are described farther on in this bulletin, only 

the vertical distance is not so great. At the 

northern end of this outcrop there is a sag of 3=*= 

feet in the base of the Berea into the Bedford shale 60 271 

6. Some chocolate colored shale; but mostly bluish-gray 

shales and thin sandstones 20 211 

5. Bluish to olive argillaceous and arenaceous shales with 
layers of thin sandstone in lower part of zone, some of 
which are ripple-marked. This zone is shown on the 
bank a few rods below the railroad bridge 11 =*= 191 

4. Bluish, fine-grained sandstone alternating with shale, 7 

feet 10 inches thick . 71 180 - 

3. The basal zone of the Bedford consists in the main of dark 
gray shale, part of which is gritty and some of which is 
argillaceous. At the base is a coarse, blocky, some 
what calcareous, very dark gray to blackish shale which 
is 2=±= inches in thickness. This shale is coarser and 
harder than that above, is fossiliferous and contains 
specimens of Orbiculoidea and a few other fossils. A 
little farther up the creek than at the place where this 
shale was first noticed, and on the opposite side, a pyri- 
tiferous sandstone, 4 inches thick, appears in the lowest 
shale. This sandstone is very inconstant, thinning out 
and reappearing. On Ambler Boulevard, Cleveland, 
between 8 and 9 miles to the northeast, there is 3 feet 
9 inches of blue shale at the base of the Bedford before 
reaching the base of the lowest sandstone layer 2t2 172 + 

2. Cleveland shale. Composed almost entirely of black shale; 
but with occasional thin layers of bluish-gray, argilla- 
ceous shale and light-gray, micaceous sandstone from 
i to 2 inches thick 70 170 

1. Chagrin formation. Bluish to bluish-gray shales and thin, 
micaceous sandstones with numerous lenticular clay- 
iron concretions. The upper 100 feet of the formation 
is shown from near the Pearl Street bridge at South 
Brooklyn up the stream to the Cleveland shale 100 100 

The Berea sandstone is shown on a branch of Big Creek at the 
three corners, three-eighths of a mile southeast of Parma, where it is 
strongly cross-bedded in structure. The Berea sandstone and higher 
formations are fully described later in this bulletin. From the top of 
this outcrop down to the base on Big Creek northwest of Parma the 
barometer gave a difference of 55 feet, which probably does not rep- 
resent the entire thickness of the Berea at Parma. At the four corners 


one and one-fourth miles to the east and between 65 and 70 feet higher 
the Brecksville shale outcrops. The base of the Berea is also shown on 
an eastern branch of Big Creek one and one-half miles northeast of 
Parma in the angle between the northeast road and the first east and 
west one north of Parma and one-fourth mile east of the house of Henry 
Williams. The chocolate colored shale is shown on the branch 10 feet 
lower than the sandstone and the base of this upper zone of chocolate 
shale on Big Creek is 55 feet lower than the sandstone. 

On Baldwin Creek in the southeastern part of Middleburg Town- 
ship and two miles southwest of Parma are banks of Brecksville shale 
from 15 to 20 feet in height. 

On the most northern east and west road in Royalton Township and 
about one-fourth mile east of the north and south road from Parma is 
fine-grained, bluish-gray, micaceous sandstone, which weathers to a 
rusty color. This horizon is approximately 150 feet higher than the 
highest outcrops of the Berea sandstone at the three corners southeast 
of Parma and is near the base of the Royalton formation. 1 This inter- 
pretation is supported by the section on Broadview Road between 
Parma and Independence townships, about 4 miles to the northeast, 
where it is 155 feet from the lowest sandstone of the Royalton formation 
down to the top of the Berea. This interval is that of the Orangeville 
formation, the thickness of which in these two sections is apparently 
in close agreement. From the locality just described in the northern 
part of Royalton Township on up the hill to the north and south road 
and then toward North Royalton thin-bedded sandstones alternating 
with shales to near the top of the hill are shown more or less frequently. 
These outcrops belong in the Royalton formation which was named 
particularly from the outcrops in the streams on the western slope of 
this hill. The top of the hill on the road about one-half mile north of 
North Royalton is by the barometer 245 feet higher than the lowest 
sandstone noted on the east and west road near the northern line of 
the township. The higher portion of the hill is well covered by drift, 
so that the older rocks are not shown and it is hardly safe to refer all of 
it to the Royalton formation. The Sharon conglomerate outcrops 
near Walling Corners, 3 miles to the northeast and some 90 feet lower, 
although the writer has not seen it on the North Royalton hill. 

In a gully about one-half mile west of this highest point on the 
North Royalton road and 185 feet lower (barometer) is an outcrop of 
an impure limestone, which is similar in lithologic appearance to the 
Meadville limestones of northwestern Pennsylvania and is described 
in the section northwest of North Royalton. 

The following diagrammatic section shows the thickness of the ex- 
posed formations from the Pearl Street bridge at South Brooklyn up 
Big Creek to Parma and then south to the top of the North Royalton 

J The Royalton is named and defined in Chapter V of this^bulletin (p. 725). 



hill. The thickness in part was determined from barometric read- 
ings : 

General Section from South Brooklyn up Big Creek 
to Top of North Royalton Hill. 

Top of North Royalton hill 

721 r 

170 ; 


150 ' 

55' + 




Drift. Royalton formation may not 
extend to upper part of section 

Royalton formation 

Orangeville formation 

Berea sandstone 

Bedford formation 

Cleveland shale 

Chagrin formation 
(upper part) 

Big Creek at Pearl Street bridge 

Section Near Kinsman Street Reservoir* — The Kinsman Street 
or High Service Reservoir is on the plateau to the east of the end of the 
Kinsman and Fulton streets car line about four miles south of Lake Erie, 
325 feet above it, and five miles from the Public Square, Cleveland. The 
plateau is underlain by the massive Berea grit, while the small stream, 
quarry and street cuttings below afford some opportunity for examin- 
ing the Berea and Bedford formations. The red Bedford shale is shown 
on the street near the foot of the sharper rise and its base in the run to the 
north of Kinsman Street on the Huron property and its contact with 
the Berea grit in the old quarry. The sewer on Woodland Hills Avenue 
and the Dean quarry show the sandstone or Euclid lentil of the Bed- 
ford formation. The following somewhat composite section has been 
prepared from the reservoir down to the base of the Dean quarry: 

Section from Kinsman Street Reservoir to Base of Dean Quarry. 

Thickness. Total 



Reservoir walk, 325 feet above Lake Erie. Covered 
interval 52 

4. Coarse, gray sandstone which is very much cross-bedded 
and shattered.. Apparently the Berea grit, some of 
which is fairly massive and has been quarried to a slight 
extent 13J 

4— G. B. 15— Per. V. 




Thickness. Total 
No. Thickness. 

Feet. Feet. 

3. Bedford formation. Gray, argillaceous shale at contact. 
Lower is chocolate colored, very fine-grained, argilla- 
ceous shale which breaks up on weathering into small, 
pencil-like pieces _• 14| 69| 

2. Olive and bluish, argillaceous shale below which are bluish- 
gray sandstones and shales. In the run, at the side, of 
the street before reaching the corner where the Kins- 
man Street car line stops, are thin-bedded, bluish-gray 
sandstones which show frequent ripple-marks, mud- 
flows and apparently other evidence of shallow water. 
Some of the blocks weather to a very rusty color. In 
the sewer on Woodland Hills Avenue, bluish-gray sand- 
stone and shale are well shown in excavation 41 55 

1. Bluish-gray sandstone and bluish shale, mainly sandstone 
with shale partings. This zone extends to the floor of 
the Dean quarry and with the lower part of the super- 
jacent one belongs in the Euclid lentil of the Bedford 
formation 14 14 

The following more detailed account of Dean's quarry, which is 
just east of Rockland Avenue, will be given: 


Ft. In. 







Section of Dean's Quarry. 

M. In. 
6. Till to top of bank 10 

5. Euclid lentil of Bedford formation. Sandstone 
with blue shale partings, two principal 
sandstone layers 4 

4. Thick layer of bluish, fine-grained sandstone 2 6 

3. Thin-bedded sandstone with blue shale part- 
ings 2 7 

2. Massive, bluish-gray, fine-grained sandstone 3 2 

1. Thin layer of shale at top; below is a 10-inch 
sandstone layer with a 5-inch one at the 
bottom 19 19 

The floor of Dean's quarry is a bluish-gray, somewhat arenaceous 
shale; but Mr. Dean told me that a little deeper is a black shale which 
evidently is the top of the Cleveland. It was seen in an excavation a 
little lower down the street, and Mr. Dean said it continued to the rail- 
road track. It is shown in several places in the street cuttings and 
from the railroad track to its highest exposure the hand-level gave 21| 

The coarse sandstone mentioned in the small quarry below the 
Kinsman Street Reservoir and in street cutting, which is apparently 
the Berea grit, is the youngest formation outcropping in the immediate 
vicinity of Cleveland with the exception of the glacial and alluvial de- 


posits. The Berea grit was named by Dr. Newberry in 1870 from the 
large quarries at Berea to the southwest of Cleveland. 1 It was de- 
scribed in his "Report on the Geology of Cuyahoga County," where he 
stated that it "is a bed of sandstone something like 60 feet in thick- 
ness, varying much in character in different localities * * * * 
which, from the locality that has rendered it most famous, I have called 
the Berea grit." 2 

A general account of the distribution of "The Berea Sandstone of 
Ohio" was published by Dr. Orton in a Report of the Secretary of State 
of Ohio, 3 in which he described its course, stating that "it enters the State 
from Pennsylvania in Williamsfield, the southeastern township of Ash- 
tabula County 4 * * * and passes through Franklin, Meigs, Jeffer- 
son, and Green townships of Adams County to the Ohio River, which 
it overhangs in bold highlands, between the mouth of Brush Creek 
and the village of Rockville." 6 A further account appeared in the 
Secretary's report for the following year, 6 which also contained a page 
map of "Eastern Ohio" on which the northern and western boundary of 
the Berea grit was shown by a black line running across the entire state. 7 

These two papers by Dr. Orton, on account of their publication 
in the reports of the Secretary of State, which are devoted mainly to 
the publication of the tables of statistics for that department, were 
practically buried and known to but few geologists. 

Doan Brook Sections* — On the bank of Doan Brook, just below 
the campus of Case School, may be seen perhaps 20 feet of bluish-gray 
argillaceous shale with an occasional layer of calcareous clay-iron con- 
cretions, which more infrequently forms a continuous stratum, belong- 
ing in the Chagrin formation. Thence up the brook outcrops of vary- 
ing thickness frequently occur; the most important of these is just 
above the New York, Chicago and St. Louis Railroad bridge, where a 
bank of Chagrin shale of bluish-gray or gray color, with an occasional 
thin sandstone layer, is shown. There is a strong southerly dip at this 
locality and probably 35 feet or more of the shales may be measured. 
This bank gives one a clear idea of the general weathered appearance 
of the Chagrin formation as seen on the higher banks of the Chagrin 
River or in other deeper streams both to the east and west of Cleveland. 

On the eastern side of Ambler Boulevard starting up the hill south- 
east of Case School and Adelbert College, is a conspicuous cliff, com- 
posed in large part of the Cleveland shale and capped at its southeast- 
ern end by the lower part of the Euclid lentil of the Bedford formation. 

^eol. Surv. Ohio, Rept. Prog, in 1869, (1870), pt. 1, p. 21. 

2 Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. I, 1873, p. 186. 

3 Ann. Rept. Secretary of State [Ohio] for 1878 (1879), pp. 591-599. 

4 Ibid., p. 595. 

5 Ibid., p. 598. 

6 Ann. Rept. Secretary of State [Ohio] for 1879, (1880), pp. 595-599. 

7 Op. cit., op. p. 592. 


At the northwestern end of the bluff there is a very strong dip to 
the south which decreases as followed southward along the bluff. It 
shows that the northwestern end is apparently on one side of a small 
but sharp anticlinal fold. These frequent small folds in the shale of 
this region indicate that caution must be exercised in measuring sec- 
tions that extend for any considerable distance, as has already been 
stated in the description of Big Creek. 

The rocks of this cliff were studied and measured and the section 
extended to the level of Doan Brook, although on the bank below Am- 
bler Avenue at this locality the rocks are mainly covered until the 
creek is reached. 

Section of Cliff on Ambler Boulevard. 

Thickness. Total 

No. thickness. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

10. Soil and drift to top of bank below house__- __ 

9. Euclid lentil of Bedford formation. Grayish, 

fairly thick-bedded sandstone 5 2 99 8 

8. Bluish shales which are arenaceous at the 

top and the remainder argillaceous vary- 
ing from 3J to 4 feet 3 6 94 6 

7. Gray sandstone stratum, about 8 inches thick __ 8=*= 91 

6. Bluish shales with some layers of thin, gray 

sandstone, varying in thickness from 4 

feet to 4 feet 1 inch 4 90 4 

5. Gray, medium-grained sandstone, varying 

in thickness from 13 to 15 inches. Base 

of Euclid lentil 1 1 86 4 

4. Blue, argillaceous shale which splits into 

thin pieces. Very near the base of the 

zone the shale is a little coarser and 

fairly fossiliferous 3 9 85 3 

3. Cleveland shale. Contact of Cleveland shale 

and Bedford formation is well shown. 

The shale is mainly black and on 

weathering splits into thin pieces that 

are often of rusty color outside, but black 

within. There are thin zones on surface 

of the shale bank which are grayish or 

light colored; but these are apparently 

mainly, if not entirely, due to weather- 
ing, since on digging into the bank the 

color is found to be black. The thickness 

of 37| feet is less than the usual thick- 
ness of the Cleveland shale in Cleveland 

and perhaps the entire thickness was not 

obtained in this cliff which is not easily 

measured 37 6 81 6 

2. Thin-bedded, micaceous sandstone in the 

lower part of the cliff near its north- 
western end which is considered the top 


Thickness. Total 

No. thickness. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

of the Chagrin formation. Below are 
grayish to bluish-gray, soft shales with 
an occasional thin layer of brownish- 
black to black shale, all of it alternating 
with thin, grayish, micaceous sandstone. 
At this end of the cliff about 5 feet is 
shown above the Boulevard, while below 
the rock is mainly covered until Doan 

Brook is reached •_ 5 __ 44 

1. The base of the section is the bed of Doan 
Brook about opposite the northwestern 
end of the cliff and most of this zone is 
concealed by soil until the brook is 
reached in which are typical exposures 
of the Chagrin formation 39 __ 39 

The base of zone No. 5 has been taken as the base of the Euclid 
lentil on account of its thickness, which is greater than a foot. The 
overlying 8 feet 2 inches consists largely of shales, with the exception 
of a sandstone stratum near the middle about 8 inches in thickness, 
and on this account perhaps it would be as well to consider the base of 
zone No. 9, which, so far as exposed, consists of fairly thick-bedded 
sandstone, as the base of the lentil. 

From the harder layer very near the base of the Bedford formation 
(near the base of zone No. 4 of the section) the following species were 
collected : 

1. Palseoneilo bedfordensis Meek (c) 1 

2. Orbiculoidea sp. (rr) 

Small form which has been referred to 0. newberryi Hall in the 
Bedford lists; but probably is more nearly related to 0. 
herzeri Hall and Clarke. 

3. Lingulasp. (rr) 

Large specimen badly crushed and distorted which is larger 
than!/, membranacea Winch. 

4. Chonetes sp (rr) 

Specimens too poorly preserved for specific identification. 

5. Cypricardella bellistriata (Con.) (rr) 

6. (?) Modiellasp • (rr) 

Two small and imperfect specimens which resemble some- 
what M. pygmace (Con.); but they are smaller than nor- 
mal specimens of that species. 

x In this list and the following ones the letter or letters following the name 
of a species indicate its abundance at that locality. The letters used with their 
significance are given below: 

aa= very abundant. 
a= abundant. 
c= common, 
r = rare. 
rr = very rare. 


7. Goniatites sp (rr) 

A single fragment; but apparently similar to the one from the 
Bedford figured by Herrick in Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. 
VII, pi. XX, fig. 5. 

A loose exfoliated specimen of Parallelodon hamiltonice Hall, 
apparently from the thin sandstones a little higher in the cliff was also 

Just north of the New York, Chicago and St. Louis Railroad, 
Cedar Avenue is followed by the Gates Mill cars of the Eastern 
Ohio Traction Co., and not far from the section just described, 
it affords fair exposures of the Chagrin formation, Cleveland shale and 
Euclid lentil of the Bedford formation as it passes from the lower to 
the higher ground. The soft bluish-gray shales of the Chagrin forma- 
tion may be seen on the banks of Doan Brook nearly opposite the south- 
ern part of the campus- of Case School and in the lower cuttings of 
Cedar Avenue. Next higher comes the Cleveland shale, which is best 
seen in the cuttings by the side of the avenue, while on the higher ground 
and capping the terrace is the Euclid lentil of the Bedford formation 
composed of shales and sandstones. The sandstones and alternating 
shales of the Euclid lentil are shown in the trench by the side of the 
avenue while on the higher ground a short distance from the street 
the Euclid sandstones have been quarried to some extent. These ex- 
posures of the Chagrin formation, Cleveland shale and Euclid lentil 
of the Bedford formation can be plainly seen from the cars of the East- 
ern Ohio Traction Co. en route to Gates Mill, Chardon or Middlefield. 

Above the Euclid sandstone is red Bedford shale as was clearly shown 
in the summer of 1906 in the grading by the Eastern Ohio Traction Go. 
for its Gates Mill division on Cedar Avenue and Mayfield Road. The 
red shale was shown for a considerable distance near the surface where 
the track was being lowered. On higher ground, and also on the high- 
way, the Berea grit occurs. 

Doan Brook was followed up stream and not many rods above 
the foot of the Ambler Boulevard cliff section, which has just been de- 
scribed, the top of the Chagrin formation is shown on the west bank of 
the brook capped by the Cleveland shale and a little farther up is a 
small cascade in the face of which the contact of these two formations 
occurs. The barometer gave the contact as 20 feet higher than the bed 
of the brook at the base of the Ambler Boulevard cliff section which 
would indicate a southerly dip of about 24 feet in that distance. The 
western bank is steep above the cascade and affords a good opportunity 
to measure the entire Cleveland shale, the top of which is reached a 
little below that street and Indian Fort. 



Section of Doan Brook Bank below Indian Fort. T nltf~ ^ess." 

No. Feet. Feet. 

Top of western bank at Indian Fort. 

4. Euclid lentil of Bedford formation. Partly covered, but so 

far as shown mainly medium-grained, light-gray sand- 
stone . 23 80 

3. Blue, argillaceous shale 3f 57 

2. Cleveland shale. Black, bituminous shale with the excep- 

tion that in the lower part is an occasional thin layer 

of light-gray, soft, argillaceous shale 51 4 53i" 

1. Top of Chagrin formation in face of small cascade in Doan 

Brook. Soft, argillaceous, bluish-gray shale 1J l\ 

Continuing up Doan Brook the banks are partly covered by soil 
and there is a completely covered interval for several rods extending 
nearly to the stone arch bridge where the street crosses the brook near 
Ambler Heights. Bluish-gray sandstones and shales are shown on the 
eastern bank just below and above the stone bridge. At the base is an 
8-inch sandstone which, if it be the lowest sandstone layer in the Euclid 
lentil, is 3 feet 9 inches above the base of the Bedford formation. The 
quarry stone of the Euclid lentil is well shown on the bank above the 
stone bridge, which also forms a small fall in the brook and a little 
farther up, on the western side, was formerly quarried. The upper 
part of the eastern bank at Ambler Heights shows the reddish, argil- 
laceous shale of the Bedford formation, which apparently underlies 
some portion of this territory. This section is interesting since it gives 
the approximate thickness of the Euclid lentil of the Bedford formation. 

Section of Doan Brook Bank from the Stone Bridge to Ambler Heights. 

Thickness. Total 

No. thickness. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

5. Reddish or chocolate colored, soft, argil- 

laceous shale of the Bedford formation, 
forming upper part of the bank. Lower 
part of zone also composed of soft, ar- 
gillaceous shale; but it weathers to a 
buff color 8 9 54+ .. 

4. Mainly bluish-gray, arenaceous shales and 

sandstones which are thin, none of them 

much more than 4 inches in thickness. __ 12 2 45 5 

3. Top of Euclid lentil of Bedford formation. 

Composed mainly of gray to bluish-gray, 
fine-grained sandstone or freestone. 
There are some thin shale partings 
principally in the lower part and the 
greater portion above the lower 2i feet 
is fairly thick-bedded, massive sand- 
stone. One layer near the top is 2 feet 8 


Thickness. Total 

No. thickness. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

inches in thickness. This zone is shown 

on the bank above the stone bridge 23 3 33 3 

2. Composed principally of bluish-gray, rather 

arenaceous shale containing thin layers 

of sandstone. Near the middle of the 

zone one layer of sandstone is 5 inches 

thick. Part of this zone is shown just 

above the bridge and all of it just below. 9 4 10 

1. Gray, sandstone layer which is perhaps the 

lowest sandstone in the Euclid lentil _____ 8 __ 8 

The above section gives 33 feet 3 inches of rocks belonging in the 
Euclid lentil below which, at least, is the zone of blue, argillaceous 
shale, 3 feet 9 inches in thickness in the lower sections of Doan Brook, 
before reaching the Cleveland shale, which indicates that at least 37 
feet of the Bedford formation is shown on Doan Brook. The top of 
the Euclid lentil is drawn where the massive sandstone ends and the 
superjacent zone, containing more shale than sandstone, begins. This 
line of division between the massive sandstones and the succeeding 
bluish-gray arenaceous shales containing thin sandstones, none of which 
is more than 4 inches in thickness, is drawn at a lithologic change 
which at this locality is fully as marked as the boundary between many 
formations. Likewise the bottom of the Euclid lentil is drawn at the 
base of the lowest sandstone of any considerable thickness, below which 
is a blue argillaceous shale of variable thickness in the Cleveland region 
extending down to the top of the Cleveland shale. 

Euclid Creek and Township Sections* — Euclid Creek, like Doan 
Brook, is not a tributary of the Cuyahoga River, but flows into Lake 
Erie. This creek has cut a deep gorge in which the upper part of the 
Chagrin formation is admirably shown together with the Cleveland 
shale, Bedford formation and Berea grit. On account of these excellent 
outcrops which admirably supplement the exposures already described 
in Cleveland, the gorge of Euclid Creek and Township will be considered 
before continuing with the Cuyahoga Valley southward from Cleveland. 

The study of the rocks exposed on Euclid Creek began at the 
lower end of the gorge at the stone viaduct just west of Euclid. Accord- 
ing to the Euclid sheet of the U. S. Topographic Atlas the bed of the 
creek at this locality is some 45 feet higher than Lake Erie. The creek 
has cut a trench about 7 feet deep just below the viaduct in the blue, 
soft, argillaceous shale of the Chagrin formation. The usual calcare- 
ous lenticular concretions are present. This small trench, and the 
high banks farther up the creek, afford an excellent opportunity to 
examine and study typical outcrops of the Chagrin shale at a locality 
which is readily reached from the traction cars of the Cleveland, Paines- 
ville and Eastern Railroad. 


If one follows the lower road leading up Euclid Creek a bank of 
Chagrin shale some 60 feet high is soon reached on the western side of 
the stream, a short distance above the first iron bridge. The bank is 
composed almost entirely of blue, very soft, argillaceous shale with an 
occasional layer of lenticular concretions which are somewhat cal- 
careous and on weathering become rusty in color on the outside. The 
bank is steep with almost smooth surface, which is broken only by the 
calcareous layers. Apparently all the rock of this bank belongs in the 
upper part of the Chagrin formation, with the exception of the over- 
lying drift and soil. 

On the eastern side of the creek above the second iron bridge cross- 
ing it and below its principal eastern branch is a still higher bank of the 
Chagrin shale capped by the tougher Cleveland shale. This is an ad- 
mirable exposure showing fully 70 feet of Chagrin shale conspicuously 
capped by 5 feet or more of the Cleveland shale. The topographic 
map apparently gives the height of this cliff as some 120 feet; conse- 
quently the above estimate, not measurement , of the thickness of the 
shales is probably too small. The Chagrin, like that of the lower 
cliff, is composed of soft shales with an occasional thin, harder layer. 
These banks, although probably not so high as those of the Chagrin 
River from which locality the formation has been named, nevertheless 
furnish fully as good an opportunity for studying its characteristics. 

Another excellent outcrop is farther up the creek on its eastern 
bank, below Dr. Corlett's house, where there is a steep cliff showing 
110 feet of Chagrin capped by 33 feet of Cleveland shale as measured 
by an assistant, Mr. William C. Morse. As the Cleveland shale is 
tougher than the Chagrin, when it overlies the latter it usually forms the 
steeper part of the cliff which also projects slightly at the sharp line of 
contact. These characteristics are beautifully shown in this cliff and 
may be seen in the accompanying half-tone of this bank in Plate XLI. 

The base of the Cleveland shale occurs near the bottom of the 
western bank of the creek about 2J miles above the stone viaduct at 
Euclid and a short distance below the C. H. Burgess quarry, which is 
the northern one of the series of quarries located on its bank. The 
barometer gave the contact of these two formations as 160 feet higher 
than the bed of .Euclid Creek at the stone viaduct, all of which belongs 
in the upper portion of the Chagrin formation. The top of the Cleve- 
land formation occurs only a few rods farther south on the same bank 
and it is composed essentially of rather thick bituminous black shale. 
The barometer gave a thickness of 60 feet for the Cleveland shale on 
this bank, while by hand level Dr. Wilkinson made it 58 feet 3 inches. 
Dr. Newberry in his "Section on Euclid Creek' ' gave the thickness of 
No. 4 as 60 feet which he described as "Black bituminous shale (Cleve- 
land shale), source of oil and gas. m Within about two feet of its top, 

iGeol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. I, p. 198. 


specimens of Lingula were found, although not in any particular 
abundance. Some of them are probably identical with those re- 
ported from the Cleveland shale by Prof. R. P. Whitfield as Lingula 
melie Hall. 1 After studying a large number of specimens of this species 
from the typical localities of Chagrin Falls and Berea the writer is 
convinced that these specimens from Euclid Creek can not be dis- 
tinguished from L. melie Hall. They clearly show the flattened space 
which extends from the umbo, gradually widening, to the ventral mar- 
gin. Exfoliated specimens also show the radiating striae and other 
characters which Hall gave in the description, and again the size and 
outline agree with the majority of the Chagrin Falls specimens. It is 
to be remembered, however, that Professor Williams reported "Lingula 
spatulata third variety, in the Cleveland shale' ' in his Painesville, Ohio, 
section, which he evidently considered as the characteristic species of 
the black shale fauna that he named B 3 . 2 

In addition to Lingula melie Hall in the Cleveland shale, Professor 
Whitfield also reported L. cuyahoga Hall, Discina [Orbiculoidea] new- 
berryi (Hall), and "a pointed Lingula } apparently undescribed." 3 

The Cleveland shale on this bank is directly succeeded by sandy 
deposits instead of the fine, blue shales noted in the Cleveland sections 
at the base of the Bedford formation. The lower sandstones, which 
are not very thick, contain a considerable amount of marcasite and 
alternate with arenaceous shales. On this bank 28 feet of the Bedford 
formation was measured from the top of the Cleveland shale to the 
highest outcrop on the bank below the office of Mr. C. H. Burgess. 
The major part of the rock is fine-grained sandstone, although in the 
lower part of the member it alternates with considerable shale. Just 
a short distance south of the office is the C. H. Burgess quarry, which 
is worked entirely for crushing since the sandstone is too much shattered 
to be used for either building or flagging. 

Some rods farther up Euclid Creek is a fall and at this locality on the 
eastern bank just above the fall the upper portion of the Cleveland shale 
and the lower part of the Bedford formation may be readily examined. 
The contact is finely shown and the base of the Bedford formation 
resting directly on the Cleveland black shale is a sandy, perhaps slightly 
calcareous, layer from 3 to 3 \ inches in thickness which in its upper 
part contains a considerable fauna composed principally of Pelecypod 
shells, but with a few specimens of Gastropods and Cephalopods. Al- 
though some search was made in the overlying rocks no fossils were 
found. In its position it is quite similar to that at the base of the 

^on. U. S. Geol. Survey, Vol. XVI, 1889, p. 128. 

2 Proc. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci., Vol. XXXIV, 1886, p. 226 and section II of the 
Chart of "Meridional sections of the upper Devonian deposits of New York, Penn- 
sylvania and Ohio." 

3 Loc. cit. 


Bedford shale in central Ohio. The following species were collected 
from this layer at this locality: 

1. Palaeoneilo bedfordensis Meek (a) 

2. Parallelodon hamiltoniae (Hall) (c) 

These specimens are apparently identical with the one repre- 
sented by fig. 7, pi. 51, Lamellibranchiata II, pt. I, Vol. 
V, Pal. N. Y., concerning which Professor Hall on p. 350 re- 
ported that "A form undistinguishable from this species 
occurs in the soft shales at Bedford, Cuyahoga County, 

3. Loxonema sp (rr) 

This is apparently the one listed as resembling L. delphicola 
Hall by Professor Herrick. An Ohio specimen was com- 
pared with the types of this species in the New York 
State Museum. In general appearance and size it agrees 
fairly well with the original of fig. 15, pi. 28, pt. 
II, Vol. V, Pal. N. Y., from the Hamilton of Pompey 
Hill, N. Y., and also with the original of fig. 2, pi. 14, 
from the Hamilton of Bellona, N. Y. Some of the 
radiating lines (striae) are preserved on the body whorl 
of the Ohio specimen which are of about the same 
strength as on the New York types. It is not clear, 
however, .that the Euclid specimen has the prominent 
sutural band of L. delphicola Hall, while it is more robust 
than most of the New York specimens of this species, so 
that it does not appear safe to list it as L. delphicola 
although it may be identical with that species. 

4. Bellerophon sp, _____ (r) 

Perhaps the same as the one identified by Professor Herrick 
as B. helena Hall; but his figure (Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. 
VII, pi. 20, fig. 11) does not closely resemble that species. 
Did not find any species among the New York types 
that agrees with these specimens. It is not B. helena Hall 
which has a median dorsal band while the Euclid speci- 
mens are without one. The lines (striae) on the Euclid 
specimens run directly across the whorl without any 
interruption, although they are of about the same strength 
as those of B. helena. 

5. (?) Pleurotomaria sp (r) 

Apparently specimens similar to the form identified by Pro- 
fessor Herrick as P. sulcomarginatd Con. (see Geol. Surv. 
Ohio, Vol. VII, pi. 20, fig. 14); but it is not that species. 
Euclid specimens were also compared with types of P. itys 
Hall and P. capillaria Con.; but they do not appear 
to belong to either of these species. The revolving and 
radiating lines (striae) on P. itys are beautifully cancel- 
lated by crossing each other, which is not shown on these 
specimens. The upper line of the body whorl of the 


Euclid specimens is nearer a right angle like Cyclonema 
hamiltonice Hall; but they have heavy revolving beaded 
lines (striae) like P. sulcomarginata Con. The slope on 
the upper part of the whorl of Pleurotomaria is more grad- 
ual than on that of these specimens. 

6. Microdon sp (rr) 

This specimen is probably similar to or identical with the form 
identified by Professor Herrick as M. bellistriatus Con. 
(Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. VII, pi. 20, fig. 9); but the lines 
(striae) appear finer than on that species. The specimen 
was compared with types of M. gregarius Hall, M. ten- 
uistriatus Hall, M . complanatus Hall, and M. bellistriatus 
Con. and it evidently does not belong to any one of these 
species. It appears similar to M. reservatus Hall from 
the Waverly of Licking County, Ohio. 

7. Orthoceras sp. (rr) 

8. (?) Orthissp. (rr) 

9. Orbiculoidea sp (rr) 

Very small specimen. 
10. (?) Goniatites sp (rr) 

Dr. Newberry noted that fossils were most abundant in the basal 
part of the Bedford shale as may be seen from the following quotation: 

"The fossils are most abundant in that portion which rests immedi- 
ately upon the black shale below, and here they are sometimes so 
numerous as to form a larger part of the mass. 

"The following are some of the fossils derived from this horizon: 
Syringothyris typa, Win.; Orthis Michelini, Lev.; Spiriferina solidi- 
rostris. White; Macrodon Hamiltonice, Hall; Hemipronites crenistria, 
Phil; Chonetes Logani, Hall; Lingula Cuyahoga, Hall; Rhynchonella Sag- 
erana, Win. 

"In this list there are several which have peculiar interest and sig- 
nificance, Syringothyris typa and Spiriferina solidirostris, for example, 
from the fact that they are characteristic of the Lower Carboniferous 
rocks of other States, while Orthis Michelini is common to the Car- 
boniferous all over our country and in Europe. m 

Four years later Dr. Newberry stated that "The Bedford shale 
contains in some places great numbers of fossils, among which may be 
mentioned Syringothyris typa, Spiriferina solidirostris, Orthis Michelini, 
Rhynchonella Sag er ana, Chonetes Logani, etc., all Lower Carboniferous 
species." 2 

Prof. C. L. Herrick studied to some extent the fossils of the Bed- 
ford shale and published a list of 17 species. 3 

Later Dr. Clinton R. Stauffer studied the fauna at the base 

l Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. II, 1874, pp. 91, 92. 
2 Ibid., Vol. Ill, p. 23. 
3 Am. Geologist, Vol. Ill, 1889, p. 97, pi. 4. 
Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. VII, pt. II, 1895, p. 507, pi. 20. 


of the Bedford shale as found on Rocky Fork, near Gahanna, in central 
Ohio. On May 13, 1908, he wrote as follows: "This much, however, 
seems certain; that it is a Mississippian fauna and that it is allied to 
similar faunas of the Mississippi basin, Dr. Weller's Glen Park fauna 
for instance. That it is related to the Hamilton cannot be denied; but 
it is one of those recurrent faunas which comes back much changed, 
indeed a new fauna. " 

The following is the list of species from this locality as identified 
by Dr. Stauffer: 

1. Productella cf. concentrica Hall 

2. Syringothyris sp. 

Probably the one Professor Schuchert called S. carteri (Hall) 

3. Orbiculoidea newberryi Hall 

4. Rhipidomella cf. missouriensis (Swallow) Hall and Clarke 

5. Nucleospira cf . minima Weller 

6. Schuchertella chemungensis (Con.) Girty 

7. Ambocoelia umbonata (Con.) Hall (?) 

8. Lingula meeki Herrick (?) 

9. Microdon cf . reservatus Hall 

10. Nucula cf . glenparkensis Weller 

11. Parallelodon hamiltonise Hall 

12. Palaeoneilo bedfordensis Meek 

13. Bellerophon jeffersonensis Weller * 

Immediately above the 3-inch fossiliferous layer at the base of the 
Bedford formation occurs a 6-inch layer of bluish-gray, argillaceous 
shale and above this layer on the eastern bank is 8 feet of argillaceous 
and arenaceous shale alternating with thin sandstones, the thickest of 
which is only about 6 inches, and the shale predominates. 

The western bank at the fall is higher than the eastern and the 
following section succeeding the Cleveland shale was measured on 
this bank. The lower part of the Bedford dips steeply away from the 
creek and although somewhat difficult of access it is thought that the 
measurement is approximately correct. Some of the layers of sand- 
stone show excellent examples of mud-flows and numerous ripple marks. 

Section of Western Bank of Euclid Creek at the Fall. 

Thickness. Total 

No. thickness. 

Ft. In. 1 Ft. In. 

5. Euclid lentil of Bedford formation. Top of 
bluff by side of railroad track. Princi- 
pally layers of sandstone which are not 
so thick as those below 13 10 41— __ 

4. Massive layer of bluish-gray, fine-grained 

sandstone 3 10 27 

While this bulletin is passing through the press the writer has read the MS. of 
a paper by Dr. Girty on "The Geologic Age of the Bedford Shale of Ohio/' which 
will appear in the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. More than forty 
species and varieties are listed in this fauna which Dr. Girty states has "a distinctly 
Devonian facies." 


Thickness. Total 

No. , thickness. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

3. Massive, bluish-gray sandstone in upper 

part of zone, but the lower layers are 

thinner bedded, varying from 8 to 10 

inches in thickness 8 10 23 2 

2. Argillaceous and arenaceous shales alternat- 
ing with thin, grayish sandstones 14 4 14 4 

1. Top oi.Cleveland shale, which now forms the 

The zone of shales and thin sandstones, No. 2 of the section, does 
not contain sandstones of sufficient thickness to be quarried and this 
has been excluded from the Euclid lentil. On this basis in the above 
section there is 26J feet which may be referred to the Euclid lentil. 

Near the northern end of the first Maxvill and Rolf quarry, not far 
south of this cliff, the top of the massive zone is overlain by 12i feet 
of thinner bedded, bluish-gray sandstone. In this cliff there is 13 feet 
10 inches of thinner bedded sandstone overlying the massive stratum, 
and although it will be shown later that farther south in the Maxvill 
and Rolf quarry the lower portion of these thinner sandstones becomes 
massive and the dip is southerly still it is thought that the top of this 
cliff reaches about to the top of the sandstone zone and, therefore, 
that the thickness of the Euclid lentil at its typical locality is not much 
more than 26J feet. Dr. Newberry in his "Section on Euclid Creek" 
gave 20 feet for No. 3 which was described as "blue, fine-grained sand- 
stone with oil and gas; quarried" 1 and evidently corresponds to the 
Euclid sandstones, which apparently favors the above delimitation of 
the Euclid lentil. Apparently he overlooked the 14i feet of shales 
and thin sandstones between the base of the quarry stone and the top 
of the Cleveland shale, since there is no reference to it. Above the 
sandstone zone was given blue Bedford shale; but without stating its 

The eastern wall of the northern and older part of the Maxvill 
and Rolf 'quarry, which is not far south of the above section, was partly 

Section of Eastern Wall of Maxvill and Rolf Quarry. 

Thickness. Total 

No. thickness. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

3. Bedford formation. Mainly bluish shale 

but with some layers of thin sandstone, 

the thickest perhaps 3 inches. This 

zone was not measured, but probably 

some 12 feet of shale is shown 12=t= __ 30i=»= __ 

'Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. I, p. 198. 


Thickness. Total 

No. thickness. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

2. Top of Euclid lentil. Thinner bedded, as 

compared with subjacent layers, bluish- 
gray, fine-grained sandstone. Some of 
the layers of sandstone in this zone are 
undulating with something of a concre- 
tionary structure 12 4 18 5 

1. Massive, bluish-gray stratum of fine-grained 

sandstone which is 6 feet 1 inch thick. 
Near base of this part of the quarry 
as now exposed 6 1 6 1 

Section of Southern Wall of the same Maxvill and Rolf Quarry. 

Thickness. Total 

No. thickness. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

7. Mainly bluish shale, but not measured. 

6. Top of Euclid lentil of Bedford formation. 
Bluish-gray not very thick-bedded sand- 
stone with some shale 3 8 24 

5. This zone is composed principally of shale, 

but there are some thin sandstones 3 5 20 5 

4. Heavy-bedded, massive, blue sandstone, 
which is above the 6-foot massive stra- 
tum described in the northern part of 
this quarry. This zone is quarried 6 9 17 

3. Massive stratum of bluish - gray, fine- 

grained sandstone, known as "blue- 
stone" which is 7 feet in thickness. This 
is quarried for building stone and similar 
uses and is readily sawed into blocks to 
be used for various purposes 7 10 3 

2. Blue shale ... ..11 3 3 

1. Blue sandstone which extends to the bottom 

of the quarry as now worked. A quarry- 
man stated that altogether they worked 
14 feet of solid stone at this end of the 
quarry _. 2 4 2 4 

: In Plate XLII, showing the upper part of this section, the top of the 
massive stone is evident and indicated by the lower line; the top of the 
Euclid lentil is shown by the upper line above which is the bluish shale. 
In the southern wall of this quarry overlying the massive 7-foot 
stratum is 13 feet 10 inches of rock before reaching the top of the Euclid 
lentil and on the eastern wall of the same quarry 12 feet 4 inches overlie 
the 6-foot massive stratum. The interesting fact to note in this con- 
nection is the rapid thickening in that short distance of the lower por- 
tion of the overlying sandstones, so that at the southern end of the 
quarry there is an additional 6 feet 9 inches of massive sandstone above 
the massive 6- or 7-foot stratum. It is also interesting to note that the 


. 13 feet 10 inches of rock from the top of the 7-foot stratum to the top 
of the Euclid lentil in the southern wall of this quarry agrees exactly 
in thickness with the upper part of the cliff which overlies the massive 
3-foot 10-inch stratum in the section of the western bank of the creek 
opposite the fall. 

The southern wall of the most southerly of the Maxvill and Rolf 
quarries, now abandoned, shows the top of the Euclid lentil not far 
above the water level and then the superjacent bluish-gray and reddish 
Bedford shale. 

Section of the South Wall of the Maxvill and Rolf Southern Quarry. 

Thick- thick- 
No. ness. ness. 

Feet. Feet. 

3. Bedford shale. Apparently some blue or gray shale in the 
upper part, but mainly reddish shale as exposed on the 
bank. Near the base mottled reddish and blue shale. 
There is clearly 20 feet of this shale shown on the wall 
of the quarry. Broken blocks of the Berea sandstone 
also appear, but judging from the leveled section to the 
ledge a short distance south of the top of the quarry 
wall, the base of the Berea grit must be about 10 feet 
higher, hence the thickness of this zone is given as 30 ± 
feet 30± 55± 

2. Bluish-gray shale principally; but containing occasional 

thin layers of sandstone 25J 25i 

1. Top of Euclid sandstone; bluish-gray sandstone which is 
separated from the overlying shales by a sharp litho- 
, logic break. 

Dr. Wilkinson leveled from the top of the Euclid sandstone up 
to the Berea ledge and obtained 56 feet. The base of the Berea, how- 
ever, is not clearly shown and perhaps this 56 feet included a little of 
the lower Berea grit. On the quarry bank by tape measure, there is 
clearly shown 45| feet of the bluish-gray and reddish Bedford shale. 
Dr. Newberry in his "Section of the Cliffs at East Cleveland/' which 
is not more than 2\ miles west of this locality, gave above the blue 
sandstone 15 feet of blue shale and 38J feet of red shale, making a total 
of 53| feet of shale intervening between the top of the "blue sandstone' ' 
(Euclid lentil) and the base of the Berea grit, 1 which is only 2| feet less 
than Dr. Wilkinson's leveled interval on Euclid Creek. It is evident 
that the thickness of the Bedford shale is not far from 55 feet in this 
region. Adding the 41 feet of the lower part of the formation to the 
thickness of this shale, it is found that the thickness of the Bedford for- 
mation on Euclid Creek lies between 85| and 96 feet, and probably 
nearer the greater than the lesser figure. Dr. Newberry in his "Section 

^eol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. I, p. 197. 


of the Cliffs at East Cleveland" gave the Bedford shale as composed of 
53 J feet of blue and red shale with 20 feet of subjacent blue sandstone 
when the top of the Cleveland shale was reached. 1 This made a total 
thickness of 73 J feet for the Bedford formation; but apparently Dr. 
Newberry overlooked the 14i feet of shales and thin sandstones be- 
low the quarry stone in this region and if the thickness of this zone be 
added it will give nearly 98 feet for the complete thickness of the Bed- 
ford formation, which is very near the writer's maximum estimate of 96 
feet for Euclid Creek. 

Above the Maxvill and Rolf quarries is something of a gorge where 
Euclid Creek has cut through the Berea grit although it is not nearly 
so deep as the one farther down the stream in the Chagrin and Cleve- 
land shales. Under the highway bridge* about one-eighth of a mile 
south of the Maxvill and Rolf quarries, is a fall and a little below are 
rather steep banks in the Berea grit. The lower half, in which small 
quarries have been opened on the bank of the creek, is the more massive. 
Above this there is much cross-bedding, with the exception of a few 
layers at the top of the formation which are fairly even-bedded. The 
structure of the formation on Euclid Creek is very similar to that of 
the Berea on Chippewa Creek in the vicinity of Brecksville, which 
will be described later. The top of the Berea, which is a coarse-grained 
sandstone with its upper surface very much pitted from the disinte- 
gration of nodules of iron pyrites or marcasite, forms the floor of Euclid 
Creek not many rods above the highway bridge. 

The layers a little lower show numerous ripple-marks. Dr. Wilkin- 
son leveled the interval from as near the bottom to the top of the Berea 
as it could be determined at this locality and made the thickness about 
35 feet. Dr. Newberry in the cliffs at East Cleveland, about 2\ miles 
to the west, gave the thickness of the exposed Berea grit as 30 feet 2 so 
that the above measurement is not far from correct. 

Before continuing with the description of the rocks shown on the 
upper part of Euclid Creek a section of the Malone Stone Co. quarry 
will be given for comparison with the sections of the Bedford formation 
just described on Euclid Creek or in the quarries adjacent to it. This 
quarry operated by the Malone Stone Co. was formerly known as the 
Euclid bluestone quarry and is situated about one^fourth mile west of 
the C. H. Burgess quarry which has already been described. 

qbid., p. 197. 
2 Ibid., p. 197. 

5— G. B. 15— Per. V 


Section of the M alone Stone Co. Quarry and Ridge above it. 

Thickness. Total 

No. thickness. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

19. Berea grit. Coarse-grained, gray sand- 
stone, which weathers to a buff or brown- 
ish-gray color and contains many rusty 
spots. The layers are more or less thin 
and much shattered by nearness to the 

surface 21 6 76 9 

18. Covered interval 15 __ 55 3 

17. Bluish to bluish-gray shales alternating with 
thin sandstones. Some of the shales 
weather on the surface to a brownish 
color; but are apparently gray on break- 
ing 14 __ 40 3 

16. Top of Euclid lentil of the Bedford forma- , 

Hon. Irregularly bedded, bluish-gray 

sandstone with more or less shale 2 2 26 3 

15. Layer similar to above j 1 7 24 1 

14. Another similar layer and in other parts of 
the quarry these three layers have con- 
cretionary structure and are worthless 

for quarry stone 1 2 22 6 

13. Main part of quarry begins with this layer 
which is used commercially, although it 

has somewhat irregular structure 2 4 21 4 

12. Layer with similar structure to the one 

above 1 -~ 19 

11. Compact, bluish-gray sandstone 1 8 18 

10. Bluish-gray sandstone, shale parting at the 

base , - 10 16 4 

9. Bluish-gray sandstone 18 15 6 

8. Similar layer 2 2 13 10 

7. Ditto . 5 11 8 

6. Blue argillaceous shale -_ 2 11 3 

5. Blue sandstone 9 11 1 

4. Layer similar to above in color and bottom 
of quarry as worked at time of study. 
There are not so many courses in all 
parts of the quarry as have been listed 
above in this section and the layers are 

thicker 1 9 10 4 

3. Blue stone; the thickness and description of 
this and the two lower layers were fur- 
nished by the quarryman 1 10 8 7 

2. Hard rock with shale parting at base, from 

5 to 6 feet in thickness 5 6 6 9 

1. Bluestone. (This layer is undoubtedly in 
the Euclid lentil, the base of which is not 
reached in this section) 13 13 

According to the quarryman they now obtain as quarry stone about 
15 feet from this quarry, which is fine-grained bluish-gray to gray sand- 


stone. The stone is sawed into flagging principally; but it is also used 
for building stone, a use that the quarryman states is increasing. Some 
of the layers show excellent examples of ripple-marks, mud-flows and 
worm trails. 

In the above section the top of the Euclid sandstone is reached 
with No. 16, and all of the subjacent part of the quarry with. a total 
thickness of 26J feet, including No. 16, belongs in this lentil. Appar- 
ently none of the shaly zone beneath the quarry stone, which is 14J 
feet thick on the bank of Euclid Creek, is included in the above section. 
If this be added to the 26J feet of the above section which belongs in 
the Euclid lentil it will give a thickness of 40| feet for the lower portion 
of the Bedford formation which is in close agreement with the 41 feet 
obtained on Euclid Creek. It is to be noted that in the Malone Stone 
Co. quarry the workable part of it begins only about 5 feet below the 
top of the Euclid lentil while in the southern part of the Maxvill and 
Rolf quarry it is 7 feet below and in the older part of the quarry on the 
eastern wall it was 12-J- feet before the massive stratum was reached. 

This sandstone is called by the quarrymen "Euclid bluestone", 
is so known in the trade and, as has already been shown, both Dr. 
Orton and Professor Cushing have used this name in describing it. 
This sandstone is admirably shown on Euclid Creek and in the neighbor- 
ing quarries in Euclid Township and for this reason the term Euclid 
lentil is adopted for it. In defining the lentil the author would make 
its base coincide with the base of the continuous sandstones and its 
top where the marked lithologic change occurs between the bluish 
fine-grained sandstones and the superjacent blue shales. There is a 
shale zone below of variable thickness. As has been shown above, 
the thickness of the Euclid lentil in its typical locality is about 26J 
feet, while the thickness of the entire Bedford formation on Euclid 
Creek is about 95 feet. Apparently there is a marked difference in 
the thickness of the shale succeeding the Euclid lentil and forming 
the upper part of the Bedford formation in the Maxvill and Rolf and 
Malone quarries. In the former it apparently varies from 45J to 56 
feet, while in the latter, counting all of the covered interval beneath the 
Berea grit as Bedford shale, there will be apparently only 29 feet of the 
shale. It is perhaps possible that the ledge of Berea grit has crept 
down the slope to some extent; but it appears to the writer that the 
Berea grit was deposited on an uneven surface due to former erosion 
and therefore that this upper shale portion of the Bedford formation 
varies considerably in thickness at different localities. 

The description of the exposures on Euclid Creek will now be continued. 
A short distance above where the top of the Berea grit makes its floor, on 
the western side of the creek, is a bank of black shale perhaps 8 feet high. 
This shale is exposed occasionally on the banks of the creek, although 
they are all low, until the east and west highway through South Euclid 


is reached, which is also the one followed by the cars of the Eastern 
Ohio Traction Co. for Gates Mill and Char don. Just south of this 
road is a bank of soft argillaceous shale, bluish-black to blackish in 
color, which weathers to a bluish-gray or rusty surface, that is 20 feet 
or more in height. The slope of the bank is smooth, more so than that 
of the Chagrin shale, since there are no thin, harder layers projecting 
from it. From the foot of this bank to the top of the Berea grit the 
barometer gave only 10 feet fall, which is pretty surely an underesti- 
mate since the barometer was rising and, on following down stream, 
would read less than the actual fall. The topographic map indicates 
a fall of at least 20 feet in this distance. However, the bank above 
the car line and the exposures below it to the top of the Berea grit give 
from 30 to 40 feet of this black or bluish-black soft shale with no indi- 
cations of a sandstone zone in it. It will be seen that this is rather un- 
usual when other exposures of the black shale immediately overlying 
the Berea grit are studied, for generally from about 5 to 15 feet above 
the top of the Berea grit in the Cleveland region is found a zone of sand- 
stone of varying thickness and massiveness. The stratigraphy of this 
shale overlying the Berea grit will not be carefully considered here; 
but later in connection with other sections in the Cuyahoga Valley it 
will be fully discussed. Suffice it to say that this shale belongs in the 
lower part of the formation which Newberry in 1870 named the Cuya- 
hoga shale 1 and described to some extent in his "Report on the Geology 
of Cuyahoga County," published in 1873. 2 In 1880 Dr. I. C. White de- 
scribed the formations of Mercer county, Pa., which adjoins Ohio on 
the east, and to a similar, soft blackish shale, which is stratigraphically 
higher than the Berea grit, he gave the name of Orangeville shale from 
exposures on the Pymatuning Creek at that village on the state line. 3 
Succeeding these shales occurs a mass of bluish-gray, fine-grained sand- 
stones, lithologically something like the Euclid sandstone, which he 
named the Sharpsville sandstone from outcrops near the town of that 
name in Mercer County, western Pennsylvania. 4 

It will be shown later that the lower part of Newberry's Cuyahoga 
shale is largely a blackish soft shale which corresponds closely both 
stratigraphically and lithologically with the Orangeville shale of Dr. 
I. C. White. The soft black or bluish-black shale described above on 
Euclid Creek is referred to the Orangeville. The creek was followed 
until it passed beyond the limits of the Euclid quadrangle. There are 
occasional banks of this same soft blackish shale and the last outcrops, 
beyond the limits of the Euclid quadrangle, show a bluish-gray shale, 
perhaps some is blackish, which is still referred to the Orangeville. 
There are, however, occasional thin layers, \ of an inch or so in thick- 

iGeol. Surv. Ohio, Kept. Prog., in 1869 (1870), pt. 1, p. 21. 
2 Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. I, pp. 185, 186. 
3 Second Geol. Surv. Pa., Q 3 , 1880, p. 63. 
4 Ibid., p. 61. 


ness, of sandstone or arenaceous shale with the bluish-gray color and 
texture of the Sharpsville sandstone. The shales themselves are also 
somewhat sandy when compared with the lower ones, showing that 
there is the first and gradual appearance of the lithologic conditions 
which characterize the Sharpsville sandstone. Up the hill 15 feet higher 
than the last outcrop of somewhat sandy shale just described, and near 
the general level of the surrounding country, are numerous loose blocks 
of buff to bluish-gray thin sandstones, from 1 to 2 inches in thickness. 
These in lithologic appearance closely resemble the lower sandstones 
of the terrane which succeeds the Orangeville shale in northern Ohio 
and which is correlated with the Sharpsville sandstone of western Penn- 
sylvania. These abundant loose pieces of sandstone show that formerly, 
at least, the Sharpsville sandstone formed the surface exposures of this 
higher ground in Warrensville Township. The barometer gave 55 feet 
from the highest outcrops of the slightly sandy shale down to the base 
of the 20-foot cliff on the creek just south of the electric line. The 
topographic map indicates that this highest outcrop of shale may be 
some 90 feet above the base of the 20-foot bank, but it is difficult to lo- 
cate the highest outcrop accurately, which would indicate that it is 
something like 110 feet higher than the top of the Berea grit and that 
there is about 125 feet of this shale before reaching the sandstones 
which are referred to the Sharpsville. The general direction of dip 
for this region is southerly, and as the shale was followed along Euclid 
Creek for over two miles in a southeasterly direction, this would make 
the above estimate of 125 feet too small for the real thickness of the shale. 
As has already been shown, Euclid Creek has cut a deep gorge from 
the highway bridge about one-eighth of a mile south of the Maxvill and 
Rolf quarries to the stone bridge at Euclid, which is bordered for the 
greater part of the distance by steep banks composed of the Berea, Bed- 
ford, Cleveland and Chagrin formations. It is one of the best streams for 
the study of these formations that is readily reached from Cleveland and 
well worth a visit from any one interested in the scenery or geology of this 
region. The thickness of the exposures of the several formations shown 
on this creek from the stone bridge at Euclid to the highest outcrops 
seen is given in the following diagrammatic section. A reference to 
the diagram will show that rocks with an aggregate thickness of nearly 
475 feet were studied on this creek which is certainly a section of no 
mean proportions for northern Ohio. 



General Section of Formations on Euclid Creek. 

Highest outcrops seen 

Orangeville formation (Barometer and topographic sheet) 

Berea grit 

Bedford shale 

Euclid lentil 

Shales and thin sandstones ^ 

Cleveland shale 

Chagrin formation (Barometer) 

Bed of creek at Euclid about 45 feet above Lake Erie 

Lake Erie 


125'+ ' 







58' + 


45 '± 

Bedford formation 
about 96 feet 

Older Formations Beneath Cleveland* — The formations which 
so far have been described are shown either in natural or artificial out- 
crops in Cleveland or its vicinity. A number of wells of considerable 
depth have been drilled in the city which have furnished some informa- 
tion regarding the still older formations which lie at some depth beneath 
the surface. 

One of the first wells to have its record carefully tabulated was 
that of the Cleveland Rolling Mill Company drilled at Newburg in 
1885. It was described by Dr. Orton at the meeting of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science at Ann Arbor in August 
of that f year. The record of this well as described by Dr. Orton may be 
represented diagrammatically as follows: 


Section of Newburg Well Compiled from Dr. Orton's Description, 
Depth. . 




Shales changing in 
with frequent 

Solid limestone, 
upper part 

Sandstone sharp ar 


Rock salt and thi 

Gypsum 1 and shale 


Rock salt 

Gypsum, 1 bluish 




Rock salt 



Rock salt 



Hard limestone w 

Bottom of well a 



color from light to dark < Erie 
alternations L Huron 



Corniferous limestone, at least its 


id clear. "May be Oriskany" 




q bands of shale 
Medina (?) 













Hudson River (?) 
















ith petroleum in small < limestone 
b time of report, but drilling had not 

Dr. Orton stated that he did not offer a final interpretation of the 
above record; but he thought the 40-foot sandstone reached at a depth 

Professor Cushinghas stated that each bed of rock salt is underlaid by anhydrite 
rather than gypsum, as given in Dr. Orton's desciption. 



of 1,660 feet might be the Oriskany. The rock salt from 2,000 feet 
downwards he stated "comes more nearly into range with the Medina, 
Hudson River and Utica groups than with the Salina, to which it would 
most likely be referred at first sight/ ' While the oil-bearing limestone 
struck at a depth of 2,656 feet 1 and which continued without interruption 
to the bottom of the well as then reported was identified as "the 
Trenton limestone, if we can rely upon the evidence of its petroliferous 
quality by which it is connected with the new wells of northwestern 
Ohio." 2 

Dr. Orton reconsidered the record of this well in 1888 and changed 
decidedly from his former views regarding the correlation oi the de- 
posits from the limestone downward. He stated that the well was 
drilled to a depth of a little more than 3,000 feet and the last drillings 
were apparently from a red limestone which was identified as Clinton. 
The 40-foot sandstone was compared with the Sylvania sandstone of 
Lucas County which Dr. Orton had shown does not occur at the Oriskany 
horizon, but "is buried under 150 or 200 feet of the Lower Helderberg 
limestone." 3 Dr. Orton also provisionally referred a sandstone found 
at a depth of 1,300 feet in a well drilled at the corner of Euclid and 
Case Avenues to the Sylvania. 4 

The portion of the Newburg well record below the bottom of the 
1,310 feet of Devonian shale was correlated in the following manner by 
Dr. Orton, although it does not appear that he made the thickness of 
the divisions correspond exactly with the record of the well. 


500 ' 



Upper Helderberg limestone 
Lower Helderberg limestone 
Salina group 
Niagara limestone 
Clinton limestone. 5 

The thick sandstone reached at 1,660 feet was also correlated with 
the Sylvania sandstone by Peter Neff in 1890, although he gave its 
horizon as "in the Niagara series." 6 He described four wells in the 

*In the description of the well section, Dr. Orton gave the depth as 2 ; 656 feet, 
but the total thickness of all the overlying intervals from the top of the hard lime- 
stone which he called Trenton to the mouth of the well, as given in his section, 
amounts to only 2,650 feet. It appears probably that 2,650 feet is the correct depth 
instead of 2,656 feet/ 

2 Proc. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci., Vol. 34, 1886, p. 221. 

3 Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. VI, p. 352. 

4 Ibid., p. 430. 

5 Ibid., p. 356. 

6 Bull. Geol. Soc. America, Vol. I, p. 32. 


vicinity of Cleveland, including the one at Newburg, in which the 
Sylvania sandstone was reached 

In the light of our present knowledge it appears that the correla- 
tion of the deposits in the Newburg well below the top of the limestones 
may be modified somewhat. The Upper Helderberg limestone is now 
called the Onondaga limestone by the New York Geological Survey. 
Between Cleveland and the Sandusky region there are no outcrops of 
the Devonian limestone, but at Sandusky there is about 110 feet 1 of 
the Columbus limestone which is regarded as the Ohio equivalent of 
the Onondaga limestone. Superjacent to the Columbus limestone, 
however, is the Delaware with a thickness of from 40 to 50 feet and it 
is not improbable that some of this limestone is represented in the upper 
part of the limestones reached in the Newburg well. To the northeast 
of Cleveland at Buffalo where the Onondaga limestone outcrops, it has, 
according to Professor Bishop, a thickness of 108 feet, 2 which is essentially 
the same as that assigned by Dr. Orton to the Upper Helderberg lime- 
stone in the Newburg well. The Sylvania sandstone in its typical 
region in Lucas County occurs some distance below the top of what was 
called the Lower Helderberg or Waterlime formation in the Ohio reports. 
In 1893 Dr. Lane of the Michigan Survey named similar deposits in 
that state the Monroe formation apparently from the county of that 
name which adjoins Lucas County on the north and this name has been 
adopted by the Ohio Survey. 3 The Lower Helderberg limestone occurs 
typically in the Helderberg Mountain's of eastern New York; but it has 
entirely disappeared before Buffalo is reached at the eastern end of 
Lake Erie. It is not probable that any rocks of the age of the Lower 
Helderberg limestones occur in Ohio and it is probable that the two 
divisions referred to this limestone and the Salina group in Dr. Orton's 
account of the Newburg well are both to be correlated with the Salina 
beds of New York. The writer has recently stated very briefly the 
evidence supporting this conclusion. 4 The limestone reached at a 
depth of 2,650 feet is probably the top of the Guelph of the Niagaran 
series as stated by Dr. Orton, which presumably corresponds in a general 
way with the Cedarville limestone of southwestern Ohio; or in case the 
Guelph is absent in northeastern Ohio then it probably represents the 
Lockport limestone of New York. 

x For a recent paper by Dr. Charles K. Swartz giving sections of the Devonian 
limestones in the vicinity of Sandusky together with their thickness, see The Johns 
Hopkins University Circular, N. S. 1907, No. 7, pp. 56-65. For a still later account 
see the book bv Dr. Clinton R. Stauffer, Bull. 10, Fourth Ser., Geol. Surv. Ohio, 
1909, pp. 124-132. 

"Fifteenth Ann. Rept. State Geol. [N. Y.], 1898, p. 390. In this report what is 
now called the Onondaga is given under the heading of "Corniferous and Onondaga 
Limestone," the ''bull-head' ' is the CobleskilJ and the subjacent Water-lime is the 
Bertie water-lime which is the upper member of the Salina beds. 

3 For a recent consideration of the term "Monroe formation" and its subdivi- 
sions, see the Bull. Geol. Soc. America, Vol. XIX, 1909, pp. 553-556. 

4 Geol. Surv. Ohio, Fourth Ser., Bull. 7, 1905, pp. 25-28. 



For the purpose of comparison with the above records an account of 
some of the later deep wells in Cleveland will be of interest. Mr. D. F. 
Wallace of the United Salt Company kindly allowed the writer to make a 
copy of the company's log of their well No. 4, drilled in 1893, the mouth 
of which is about 400 yards east of their plant by the Lake Shore Rail- 
road at the foot of Madison Avenue. According to the barometer the 
mouth of the well is about 55 feet above the level of Lake Erie. The com- 
pany's log of this well is as follows: 

United Salt Co. Well No. 4. 

Thick- Total 
No. Driller's description of strata. ness. depth 

Feet. Feet. 

1. Sand 15 15 

2. Quicksand 6 21 

3. Blue clay ___ 129 150 

4. Sand and clay 9 159 

5. Quicksand 76 235 

6. Fine gravel _ 6 241 

7. Gravel cemented with hard clay 26 267 

8. Soft slate 24 291 

9. Medium hard slate 15 306 

10. Soft slate _ 5 311 

11. Soft slate mixed with gravel 7 318 

12. Hard black slate 54 372 

13. Soft slate _ 12 384 

14. Light colored slate 20 404 

15. Black slate 20 424 

16. Soft slate 29 453 

17. Black slate 74 527 

18. Light colored slate 21 548 

19. Black sand rock 96 644 

-20. Red slate (Mr. Wallace thinks the color of this may 

have been brown) = 70 714 

21. Light colored slate 131 845 

22. Dark colored slate 145 990 

23. Lime rock 390 1380 

24. White sandstone 33 1413 

25. Lime rock 11 1424 

26. White sandstone 16 1440 

27. Lime rock 315 1755 

28. Lime rock and salt 10 1765 

29. Then follows five layers of rock salt alternating with 
to "lime rock" of driller. The total thickness of 

37. these five beds of salt is 170 feet 213 1978 

38. Slate 16 1994 

The total depth of this well as measured with a steel line is 2,006| 
feet. A condensed copy of this log, with the exception of the lower 
portion which is given in detail, has been published by Professor Bow- 
nocker. 1 The first Paleozoic rocks reached in this well belong in the 
Chagrin formation and it is interesting to note the alternation of light 
and dark colored shales throughout the lower 672 feet of the Devonian 
shales. The lowest 145 feet of the shale, however, is given as "dark 

»Am. Geologist, Vol. XXXV, pp. 372, 373. 



colored slate," which apparently indicates that the very light colored 
Olentangy shale, which lies between the Ohio shale and Delaware 
limestone in central Ohio, has either entirely changed its lithologic 
character or is wanting. The top of the Devonian limestone was reach- 
ed at a depth of 990 feet and the white sandstone, 33 feet thick, reached 
at a depth of 1,380 feet is probably the same as that correlated with the 
Sylvania sandstone in the wells previously reported. The thickness 
of the interval from the top of the Devonian limestone to the top of the 
sandstone is reported as follows from these wells: Newburg, 310 feet 
(Orton) ; Jewett farm, li miles south of Newburg well, 364 feet (Neff) ; 
Euclid well, about | mile from shore of Lake Erie and 13 miles north- 
east of Newburg well, 372 feet; and well No. 4 at foot of Madison Avenue, 
390 feet. An interesting thing in the log of the last well is that after 
passing through the 33 feet of sandstone and 11 feet of "lime rock" 
another stratum of white sandstone 16 feet in thickness was penetrated. 
For that member of the Monroe formation succeeding the Sylvania sand- 
stone and forming its upper part in northwestern Ohio, the writer has 
proposed the name Lucas limestone, 1 which may be advantageously 
used in describing the Cleveland well records. Later on account of 
the rock being a calcium magnesium carbonate it has been called the 
Lucas dolomite. 2 The well did hot reach the top of the Niagaran series 
and below the base of the Devonian limestone it may probably all be 
correlated with the Salina beds of New York. A condensed diagram- 
matic section of the well showing the general age of the formations 
penetrated by it would be about as follows : 

Condensed Record of Well No. 4- 





2006J ' 






Mouth of well 

Alluvial and 

drift deposits 

Chagrin and 

(?) Huron shales 

Devonian and 
Lucas limestones 

Sylvania sandstone 

Bottom of well 

Probably represents the 
Monroe formation includ- 
> ing Salina beds of New 

tfour. Geology, Vol. XI, 1903, pp. 521,540. 

2 Bull. Geol. Soc. America, Vol. XIX, 1907, p. 556 and also see pp. 541, 549. 



The log of well No. 5 of the United Salt Company, the mouth of 
which is located about 300 yards south of the office, was also copied . 
The condensed log of this well is as follows: 

Condensed Record of Well No. 5. 
Mouth of well 
Alluvial and 
drift deposits 
Chagrin and 
(?) Huron shales 
Devonian limestone 
Monroe formation including 
Salina beds 

Bottom of well 

The Sylvania sandstone was not noted in this log; but 490 feet be- 
low the top of the Devonian limestone a "soft sand," 23 feet in thick- 
ness, was recorded. This is probably the equivalent of a sandstone 
which has been noted in a number of wells at some distance below the 
Sylvania. As for example, Dr. Orton noted another sandstone 70 
feet below the top of the Sylvania in the well drilled at the corner of 
Euclid and Case avenues. 1 In the lower part of this well five strata 
of rock salt were also penetrated with a total thickness of 145 feet. * 

A well was drilled at the corner of Second and Central avenues, 
which is by the barometer from 75 to 80 feet higher than the railroad 
tracks at the Lake Shore Station. The record down to 1,230 feet is 
from the driller's log, but below that samples were saved at about 10 
feet apart which have been hastily examined by the writer. The 
samples were carefully washed and dried when they were saved so that 
they are not stained and they constitute an interesting and valuable 
record of the deeper third of this well. 

Well at Corner of Second and Central Avenues. 



Description of sample. 


First gravel 481 

Clay 7 

Rock 30 

White shale __. 182 

Black shale 330 

Black lime 50 








1 Geol. Surv. Ohio, Vol. VI, p. 430. 


Thick- Total 

No. Description of sample. ness. Depth, 

Feet. Feet. 

7. Brown lime. The above entries are from the drill- 

er's log, which is not very accurate regarding the 

lithology 150 1230 

8. First sample, saved at a depth of 1230 feet, which 

consists of light-gray chips with a few dark 
gray to blackish ones. The samples to a depth 
of 1340 feet consist mainly of light or dark gray 
to brownish chips 110 1340 

9. More than one-half the chips are decidedly brownish- 

gray, similar to surface exposures of the Monroe. 

The other chips are of light gray color 20 1360 

10. Light-gray chips predominate 40 1400 

11. Slightly darker colored, very compact limestone 5 1405 

12. Sample composed almost entirely of grains of white 

glassy, quartz sand. No effervescence in cold HC1 5 1410 

13. Finer grains of pure white quartz sand, with an occa- 

sional one that effervesces in cold HC1 20 1430 

14. Clear fine white grains of quartz, slightly stained 

by rust, and those from the lower 10 feet are 

slightly coarser 20 1450 

15. Clear white quartz sand. Some chips of very dark 

gray rock, but no effervescence in cold HO 10 1460 

16. Part of sample white quartz sand; but the greater 

part is composed of brownish-gray chips with 

slight effervescence in slightly heated HO 10 1470 

17. Sample composed of clear white quartz sand 10 1480 

18. Some white quartz sand; but more brownish-gray 

chips which effervesce slowly in warm HO 20 1500 

19. Mainly fine brownish-gray chips of limestone 10 1510 

20. Ditto, with strong effervescence in cold HO 40 1550 

21. Fine brownish-gray limestone, strong effervescence 

in cold HO 40 1590 

22. Light brownish-gray chips of compact limestone; 

strong effervescence in cold HO 50 1640 

23. Brownish-gray, compact limestone which efferves- 

ces more slowly in cold HO 30 1670 

24. Fine chips of brownish-gray, very compact lime- 

stone which effervesces somewhat slowly at first, 

but increases on standing 30 1700 

25. Dark brownish-gray and coarser chips which effer- 

vesce slowly in cold HO __•_ 70 1770 

26. Lighter gray in color but chips about the same as above, 

except that in the lower 20 feet they are finer. _ 30 1800 

27. Mixed dark and lighter gray chips with very slight 

effervescence in cold HO 20 1820 

28. Brownish-gray chips, very compact rock which 

scarcely effervesces in cold HO, but rather 

strongly on heating 2 1822 

29. Top of rock salt which alternates with "rock" of 

driller's record to a depth of 1952 feet. Four 
strata of salt are reported with a total thickness 
of 97 feet 130 1952 

30. Light-gray compact chips which effervesce on heat- 

ing the HO but only slightly in cold HO ._.„_ 8 1960 

Bottom of well. 



In general the above record agrees closely with that of the 
other wells reported in Cleveland. The top of the Devonian lime- 
stone was reached at a depth of 1,030 feet, which is 40 feet deeper than 
in well No. 4 of the United Salt Company, but its altitude is undoubtedly 
fully that amount higher. The top of the Sylvania sandstone was reach- 
ed at a depth of 1,405 feet, 375 feet below the top of the Devonian lime- 
stone. It will be remembered that this interval in the Newburg well 
is 310 feet, the Jewett farm well 364 feet, the Madison Avenue well 390 
feet and the Euclid well 372 feet, so that it corresponds well with 
the depth in the majority of these wells. The interesting feature of 
this well is the great thickness of this sandstone which for 55 feet is 
composed almost entirely of grains of glassy quartz sand. Below this 
is 10 feet composed partly of limestone followed by 10 feet of clear white 
quartz sand, below which is 20 feet containing some sand, but the greater 
percentage is brownish-gray limestone. This record shows, therefore, 
55 feet of clear sandstone below which is 40 feet that is composed in 
part of sand, but to a greater extent of limestone. In the Newburg well 
40 feet of sandstone was reported while the log of the Madison Avenue 
well gave 33 feet of white sandstone followed by 11 feet of limestone, 
below which was 16 feet of white sandstone. If all of the sandstone 
and sandy strata be grouped together in these wells it will give 40 feet 
for the Newburg, 60 feet for the Madison Avenue and 95 feet for the 
one at the corner of Second and Central avenues. The strata below 
the Sylvania sandstone in the last mentioned well belong in the Monroe 
formation and may be correlated with a part of the Salina beds of New 
York. A condensed diagrammatic record of this well follows : 

Condensed Record of Well at Corner of Second and Central Avenues. 
Mouth of well 
Alluvial and drift deposits 



1405 ; 







Chagrin and 
(?) Huron shales, 
Devonian and 
Lucas limestones 
Sylvania sandstone 

Bottom of well 

Probably represents the 
Monroe, formation 
including Salina beds 
of New York 


Skinner's Run Sections* — After this rather lengthy digression, 
for the purpose of describing the excellent outcrops on Doan Brook in 
Cleveland and Euclid Creek to the east, together with some account of 
the older formations beneath the city as revealed by various well records, 
the description of the formations as shown on the Cuyahoga River 
and its tributaries to the south of Cleveland will be resumed. Willow 
is a station on the Baltimore and Ohio railroad in the northeastern part 
of Independence Township. About one-half mile north of this station 
Skinner's Run enters the Cuyahoga River from the west after crossing 
the northern part of Independence Township. The head waters of the 
stream are near Walling Corners in the northeastern corner of Royal- 
ton Township and it then flows in a general northerly direction nearly 
across the eastern part of Parma Township until it turns easterly across 
Independence Township to the river. A considerable part of its course 
is bordered by fairly steep banks which afford good opportunities for 
studying the formations shown along the stream. The exposures of 
the higher formations along its upper course were shown to better 
advantage in the summer of 1910 along Broadview Avenue which was 
being graded and paved. This avenue runs nearly parallel with the 
stream from Walling Corners until crossing it in the northeastern cor- 
ner of Parma Township. 

The banks along the lowest part of the stream are alluvial; but 
outcrops of Chagrin shale are reached before following it very far above 
the road leading from Willow to Brooklyn. This lowest outcrop is 
some 5 feet lower than the railroad track at Willow and the rocks con- 
sist of bluish argillaceous shale with layers of arenaceous shale to thin 
sandstones. Some of the thin layers are rather dark gray shale and 
much of it weathers to an olive color. 

Forty-five feet higher (in general the elevations were determined 
by the barometer) there is a small but sharp anticlinal fold on the south- 
east bank of the run where the following section is shown: 

Thickness. Total 

No. thickness. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

4. Gray sandstone making a small fall in the 

stream __ 7£ 3 3§ 

3. Argillaceous shale 6 2 8 

2. Sandstone layer 2 2 2 

1. Arenaceous shale 2 2 

Thirty feet higher the foot of the first bank capped by Cleve- 
land shale was reached. This bank is on the southeastern side of the 
stream and a little above a tributary entering from that side. The 
section of this bank is as follows : 


Thick- thick- 
No. ness. ness. 

Feet. Feet. 

3. Cleveland shale. Upper part of bank composed of coarser 

layers with an estimated thickness of 10 feet 10 =±= 68 

2. Black, slaty shale with an estimated thickness of 30 feet or 

more '_ 30± 58 

1. Chagrin formation. Composed mainly of bluish, argilla- 
ceous shale with thin layers or lenses of rusty colored, 
somewhat calcareous material. Twenty-eight feet as 
leveled by Mr. Miller , 28 28 

These sections indicate that the upper 103 feet of the Chagrin for- 
mation, determined largely by the barometer, is shown on the banks 
along the lower course of this stream. 

Farther up the run the contact of the gray and black shale is shown 
in the bed of the stream. Still farther up the stream is a high cliff on 
the northwest side composed mainly of black shale, the lower part of 
which is very black and tough like typical Cleveland shale. Higher 
there are zones that are not so hard, in fact that are rather soft on 
the weathered surfaces and light colored, some of them perhaps as 
light colored as the shales of the Chagrin. These softer and lighter 
colored zones are lithologically similar to zones that appear in the black 
shale in the sections to the east of Cleveland. There are also layers 
of arenaceous shale of blue to bluish-gray color which lithologically re- 
semble certain ones of the Chagrin and might easily be taken for them. 
The softer bands of shale, which are lighter colored on the surface, on 
breaking are generally black, especially when deep enough in the -bank 
to be beyond the effects of thorough weathering. The softer shale is 
perhaps not so tough and gritty as the typical slaty Cleveland shale. 
It is generally believed that this lower black shale west of Cleveland 
represents a downward encroachment of the conditions of black shale 
deposition upon the upper portion of the Chagrin formation as it occurs 
in the immediate vicinity of Cleveland. It might be stated, however, 
that bands of softer shale weathering to a lighter color occur in the 
midst of these typical black shales. An example of such softer shale in 
a well weathered bank is to be seen in the lower bank of the Sunbury 
shale in the Lithopolis glen in central Ohio. 

The highest layer of thin bluish-gray sandstone noted in going up 
the run is 35 feet higher (barometer) than the base of the black shale. 
The bank above appears to be composed entirely of black shale until 
a concretionary sandstone zone is reached. This statement probably 
ought to be modified somewhat in reference to the apparent upward 
extent of black shale as shown farther up the stream where the 
rock was examined at close range. In the bed of the run a few rods be- 
low the railroad fill and opposite the cliff on the southern side are layers 
of bluish to bluish-gray shale, part of which are argillaceous and the re- 


mainder arenaceous, that occur in the upper part of this black shale 
zone. There are also somewhat concretionary, irregular layers which 
have very compact structure and are probably somewhat calcareous; 
while small concretions of this texture also occur at various places in 
these upper shales without being at any definite horizons. Also the 
lower sandstone zone to be described on the southern bank at this lo- 
cality does not appear so prominently farther down the run, so that 
the black shale appears to continue without much break to the more 
conspicuous concretionary sandstone higher on the bank. 

The section for this portion of the run is about as follows, all of 
which the writer would refer to the Cleveland shale: 

Thick- thick- 
No. ness. ness. 

Feet. Feet. 

2. Probable top of Cleveland shale. Zone composed almost 

entirely of black, slaty shale; but with some layers of 
blue to bluish-gray, argillaceous and arenaceous shale, 
particularly in upper portion 25| 60J 

1. Layer of thin, bluish-gray sandstone at top of zone. Below 

is black shale which contains bands of light colored, 
soft shale and thin layers of bluish-gray sandstone. 
Lowest part of zone consists of very black, tough shale 
which rests on the bluish, argillaceous shale of the 
Chagrin 35 35 

At the upper end of the cliff on the southern bank, which is only 
a short distance below the railroad fill, the following section occurs 
above the zone of nearly all black shale : 

Thickness. Total 

No. thickness. 

Ft. In. Feet. 

4. Bluish, fine-grained sandstone with more or 
less contorted or concretionary struc- 
ture ---- - 6 7=fc 23§- 

3. Black, fissile shale of usual character as 

shown on weathered bank. The lower 
- part of the zone is composed of blackish, 

arenaceous shale 14 6 16f 

2. Bluish-gray, thin-bedded, rather fine- 

grained sandstone, which in the lower f 

part contains considerable marcasite. 
Part of this sandstone in a comparatively 
short distance may change to an arena- 
ceous shale, and on the banks farther 
down the run it does not appear to be so 

well marked an horizon _ 2 4 2| 

1. Mainly black, rather slaty shale, but with 
an occasional bluish to bluish-gray layer 
near stream level. There is also an oc- 
casional concretionary lens of blue, fine- 
grained sandstone in the upper part of 
this zone as, for example, a few rods 
below where the above section was meas- 

6— G. B. 15— Per. V. 


Thickness. Total 

No. thickness. 

Ft. In. m. In. 

ured is one from If inches to 4 inches 
thick, which is 14J inches below the base 
of the lower sandstone and extends for a 
short distance along the bank. These 
shales are in the upper part of the zone 
of nearly clear black shale with a thick- 
ness of 25| feet. 

The upper sandstone, zone No. 4, of the above section, when studied at 
different parts of the cliff, has the appearance of more or less large con- 
cretionary masses which do not occur at precisely the same stratigraphic 
horizon. This is clearly shown by two measurements on the bank 
farther down stream than the one just given as well as by the section on 
the opposite side of the run, a short distance above the railroad fill. 
The cliff a few rods below the section just given furnished the following 

Thickness. Total 

No. thickness. 

Ft. In. Feet. 

3. Concretionary sandstone mass 9 10 26 J 

2. Mainly black, fissile shale; but with some 

small lenticular concretions at various 

horizons 14 2 16| 

1. Lower sandstone zone 2 4± 2\ 

A few rods farther down the stream on the same bank the section 
is as follows: 

Thick- thick- 
No. ness. ness; 

Feet. Feet. 

3. Concretionary sandstone mass __ 

2. Mainly black, fissile shale with some small lenticular con- 

cretions and farther down the bank oblique sandstone 

dykes (?) . - 24 _26J 

1. Lower sandstone zone 2^± 2\ 

The last two sections, which are only a few rods apart, show very 
clearly the difference in horizons at which the concretionary sandstone,